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The success of )
[Paul's ministrj. rather to forgive him, and comfort a door was opened unto me of the him, lest perlaps such a one should Lord, be swallowed up with overmuch 13 I had no rest in my spirit, be
cause I found not Titus my brother : 8 Wherefore I beseech you that but taking my leave of them, I went fe would confirm your love toward from thence into Macedonia. him.
14 Now thanks be unto God, which 9 For to this end also did I write, always causeth us to triumph in Christ, that I might know the proof of and maketh manifest the savour of his you, whether ye be obedient in all knowledge by us in every place." things.
15 For we are unto God a sweet 10 To whom ye forgive any thing, savour of Christ, in them that are saved, I forgive also; for if I forgive any and in them that perish: thing, to whom I forgave it, for your 16 To the one we are the savour of sakes forgave I it in the person of death unto death; and to the other Christ;
the savoir of life unto life. And who 11 Lest Satan should get an advan- is sufficient for these things? tage of us : for we are not ignorant of 17 For we are not as many, which is devices.
corrupt the word of God: but as of 12 Furthermore, when I came to sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of Proas to preach Christ's Gospel, and God speak we in Christ. (B)
from the church, now exhorts them to for(B) Ver. 1--17. The reasons that Puul give and comfort him, lest Satan should ud not come to Corinth-the case of the gain advantage over them, by driving bim Irson excommunicated—the triumph of to despair ; and, at the same time, lest the Saul's ministry. If we understand the false teachers should also take advantage, pening of this chapter, it is to this effect : by representing (as many have since done) hat he delayed coming to the Corinthians, the doctrines of St. Paul as having that st, from what he had heard of them, he fatal tendency. jould be compelled to treat them with The chapter closes with a hymn of verity, and thereby grieve them ; at the thanksgiving, and an allusion to a Roman me time, nothing would give him more triumph. According to Macknight, the y than to see the penitence of the of- apostle represents Christ as a victorious aders; and he had no doubt but the general, riding in a triumphal procession hole church would rejoice with him. He through the world, atteuded by his aposen adverts to the case of the person tles, prophets, evangelists, and other mijom, according to his direction in the nisters of the gospel, and followed by all st Epistle (chap. y. throughout), they the idolatrous nations as his captives. d excommunicated from the church for (Compare Rev. vi. 2; xix. 11,&c.) Among e complicated crimes of incest and adul- these, the preachers of the gospel diffused 'y; but who now seemed so deeply to the smell (savour of the knowledge of ve bewailed bis situation, that the same Christ (in a manner as fragrant flowers ostle, who before urged his exclusion and perfumes were liberally scattered in a
er. 19. For vorur sakes-ie. to restore peace
thinks the apostle alludes to the perfumes which
Ver. 17. Which corrupt.- Doddr. " adulterate." Marg. “ Deal deceitfully with the word of God.” Doddridge thinks it refers to those who deal in wines and other liquors, and often lower them with water. See Isa, i. 22.
The Spirit and]
2 CORINTHIANS. [the letter contrasted. CHAP. II.
5 Not that we are sufficient of our
selves to think any thing as of our Do we begin again to commend selves ; but our sufficiency is of God;
ourselves ? or need we, as some 6 Who also hath made us able others, epistles of commendation to ministers of the new testainent; not you, or letters of commendation from of the letter, but of the spirit : for the you?
letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. 2 Ye are our epistle written in our 7 But if the ministration of death, hearts, known and read of all men : written and engraven in stones, was
3 Forasmuch as ye are manifestly glorious, so that the children of Israel declared to be the epistle of Christ could not sted fastly behold the face of ministered by us, written not with ink, Moses for the glory of his countenance; but with the Spirit of the living God; which glory was to be done away: not in tables of stone, but in fleshy 8 How shall not the ministration of tables of the heart.
the spirit be rather glorious ? 4 And such trust have we through 9 For if the ministration of conChrist to God-ward :
demnation be glory, much more doth
EXPOSITION-Chap. II. Continued. Roman triumph]. This knowledge, to those “ When one that holds communion with the skiet, who
“ Has fills his urn where these pare waters rise, a vivifying smell (or savour), ending in
« And once more mingles with us meaner things, life to ihem ; but to unbelievers, it was as
“ 'Tis ev'n as if an angel shook kis wings; lindle frarrant or crateful as the odours of “ Immortal fragrance fills the circuit wide, the procession to those condemned to die “ That tells us whence his treasures are supplied." (as were many of the captives) in the close
Сотрег. of the procession : it was a smell (or sa. But to God himself faithful ministers vour) of death (to unbelievers), ending in " are a sweet savour of Christ (both) in death, if they continued in unbelief." them that are saved, and in them that pe Thus, in the success of the gospel, we rish."-" We serve a good Master (says as have triumphs of grace in those who are eloquent aud able preacher); he knows thereby converted, and triumphs of jus infinitely better than we do, that convertice, in those who obstinately reject it, to sion is bis own prerogative, and does not their own condemnation and ruin. In depend upon us. Duty only is ours; and both cases, however, the faithful servants even with regard to this, he allows us to of Christ are accepted and approved; be depend upon him for ability to discharge cause their labours, however weak without it; and in estimating our services, he addivine support, are sincere and upright, as mits into the account, not only all that we in the sight of God.
do, but all that we intend and wish to do, Ministers, it has been justly remarked, but in wbich we are hindered; and says, should diffuse the savour of Christ in their " It is well that it was in thine heart."example and their conversation, as well as (Jay's Ord. Serm. for the Rev, A. Tidman, in their public ministry.
NOTES. CHAP. NI. Ver. 1. Do weMackn. "Must we » Ver. 3. Forasmuch as. These sopplementary
begin again to commend ourselves 9-i. e. to pro- words, so far, are omitted by Doddridge, bu duce afresh the evidence of our apostleship. See reads, “ Ye are manifest as," &c Ist Epist. chap. is.
Ver. 4. To God-ward-ie towards God. Ver. 2. Ye are our epistle written in our hearts. Ver. 5. To think any thing as of ourselves.
* By supposing that in this passage the apostle Doddr. "to reckon upon any thing as from our calls the Corinthians, not Christ's letter of recom selves.” mendation in favour of him, but a copy of that let Ver. 6. Of the new testament, or covenant." ter, and that the letter itself vas written on the See Introduction to our New Testament 1.apostle's heart, but the copy of it on the hearts of Giveth life.-Marg. “ quickeneth.” the Corinthians, all the jarring of metaphors, in this Ver. 7. The ministration of death.-See Rome highly figurative passage, will be removed. Christ's vii. 10.- Written and engraven, &c.-See Exod. letter of recommendation in favour of the apostle xxxiv. 27-35, and Exposition. was his miraculous conversion, spiritual gifts," &c. Ver. 8. How shall not, &c.- Doddr. “ How much Macknight.
wore shall the ministration of the spirit be glorious."
The gospel more)
CHAP. III. Iglorious than the law. the ministration of righteousness ex- the old testament; which vail is done ceed in glory.
away in Christ. 10 For even that which was made 15 But even unto this day, when glorious had no glory in this respect, Moses is read, the vail is upon their by reason of the glory that excelleth. heart.
11 For if that which was done away 16 Nevertheless when it shall turn was glorious, much more that which to the Lord, the vail shall be taken remaineth is glorious.
away. : 12 Seeing then that we have such 17 Now the Lord is that Spirit: hope, we use great plainness of speech; and where the Spirit of the Lord is,
13 And not as Moses, which put a there is liberty. rail over his face, that the children of 18 But we all, with open face beIsrael could not stedfastly look to the holding as in a glass the glory of the end of that which is abolished: Lord, are changed into the same image
14 But their minds were blinded : from glory to glory, even as by the for until this day remaineth the same Spirit of the Lord. (C) rail untaken away in the reading of
and every translation has enough of the (C) Ver. 1-18. The Ministry of the Gos. gospel to save souls by it, and make a man iel commended in preference to the law. a Christian. I think this point of great The false teachers and sectarian leaders importance in our age, which has taken lad probably introduced themselves at Co- so many steps to heathenism and infidelity; intb by letters of recommendation, art. for this argument or evidence will defend ully obtained from some of the churches a Christian in the profession of the true
Judea ; but Paul bad better credentials. religion, though he may not have skill le appeals to their own hearts, in many of enough to defend his Bible. .... Why do bich he well knew bis vame was deeply you believe in Jesus ? sasks the unbeliever) uscribed : they had each an interest in If you have this answer ready at hand, I be affections of the other. He appeals have found the efficacy and power of the lso to their experience: whatever evi- gospel in my heart, this will be sufficient to ence they possessed of their own conver- answer every cavil.” (Watts's Sermons, on and sanctification, was to them a most Ser. 3.) orcible argument in his favour, since he This work of grace in the hearts of the ad been the honoured instrument of their Corinthians, the apostle considers as a ouversion. They were “the Epistle of letter of recommendation to them, far prebrist," and “ written by the Spirit of ferable to any epistle written with ink or od," to whom he gives all the glory. On engraved on stone. He is careful, howlis passage Dr.Watts beautifully remarks, ever, that nothing should be attributed to lat every true believer bas in himself such himself, but that all his success should be witness to the truth of the Christian re- referred to God, by whose grace alone both gion, as does not depend on “ the exact himself and his colleagues had been uth of letters and syllables, nor on the cri- made able and efficient ministers of the cal knowledge of the copies of the Bible, New Testament (or covenant), not of the OF OL this old manuscript, or the other Old, the letters of which were cut in tables ew translation. .... The substance of of stone, but of the Spirit; that is, the bristianity is so scattered through all the spiritual dispensation of the gospel, the ew Testament, that every manuscript truths of which are written upon the hearts
NOTES. Ver. 1). Done anay.-Doddridge, “ abolished ;" Ver. 16. When it--namely, the heart of the Jewish imely, the Mosaic law of types, &c.
nation. Mackn. Ver. 12. Great plainness.--Marg. "boldness.” Ver. 17. Now the Lord is that Spirit.-" The Ver. 13. Moses, which put a rail over his face. Lord Christ is that Spirit (ver. 6). He is the blessed re Exod. xxxiv. 33. That which is abolished Author and Institutor of that spiritual economy we namely, the Mosaic law.
are now under." Dr. J. Edwards, vol. iii. p. 434. Ver. 14. Their minds were blinded.-See Rom. Ver. 18. As in a glass-i. e. in a mirror. See
1 Cor. xiii. 12, Exposition and Note. By the Ver. 15. Unto this day.--This blindness unhap. Spirit of the Lord.-Marg, or " of the Spirit of the ly extends even to our day.
Lord," See on ver. 17.
Paul's comfort] 2 CORINTHIANS. [in his aflictions: CHAP. IV.
6 For God, who commanded the
light to shine out of darkness, bath THEREFORE seeing we have this shined in our hearts, to give the light
ministry, as we have received of the knowledge of the glory of God mercy, we faint not ;
in the face of Jesus Christ. 2 But have renounced the hidden 7 But we have this treasure in things of dishonesty, not walking in earthen vessels, that the excellency of craftiness, por handling the word of the power may be of God, and not God deceitfully; but by manifesta- of us. tion of the truth commending our 8 We are troubled on every side, selves to every man's conscience in the yet not distressed ; we are perplexed, sight of God.
but not in despair ; 3 But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid 9 Persecuted, but not forsaken ; to them that are lost :
cast down, but not destroyed; 4 In whom the god of this world 10 Always bearing about in the hath blinded the minds of them which body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that believe not, lest the light of the glo- the life also of Jesus might be made rious gospel of Christ, who is the manifest in our body. image of God, should shine unto 11 For we which live are alway them.
delivered unto death for Jesus' sake, 5 For we preach not ourselves, but that the life also of Jesus migh Christ Jesus the Lord ; and ourselves be made manifest in our mortal your servants for Jesus' sake.
EXPOSITION-Chap. III. Continued, of all true Christians. The letter of the this day his law is veiled by the unbelief d' divine law could, indeed, only give the his nation; nor shall that vail be taken knowledge of sin and its penalty-death; from their hearts till they shall turn to the but the latter was, on the contrary, adapted Lord Jesus as the true Messiah, who is to communicate life and spirit-It is the himself the soul aod spirit of the new dislaw of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus." pensation; by whom we are liberated from (Rom. viii, 2.)
the bondage of the law and the obscurity That ministration was, indeed, attended of the types. Indeed, as Moses, by looking with some glory, a glory with which the to the glory of the Shechinah, was himself countenance of the legislator (Moses) was clothed with glory, so we, beholding in emblematically surrounded; still, how the gospel, as in a resplendent mirror, the ever, it was the ministration of death, for glory of the Lord Jesus, are changed into it could not give life ; but, notwithstanding the same image, from one degree of grace that dispensation was not without glory, and glory to another, till, by his spirit, me how much more glorious must that be are completely transformed into our Ree which communicates eternal life! Moses deemer's glorious image. found it necessary to wear a vail, and to
NOTES. CHAP. IV. Ver. 2. Renounced.-Mackn. com God.Doddr." appear to be of God." manded away;" perhaps “ denounced” would be ver. 8. Troubled on every side, yet not distressre: the most exact rendering. Dishonesty.-Marg. We conceive, Pressed on every side, bat dar shame."
crushed,” would be more literal and expressive. Ver. 3. If our gospel be hid, it is hid.-Doddr., Hamm. and Mackn. think it refers to the wrestler Mackn., &c. "Il veiled, it is veiled.” Comparé in the public games, who sometimes so griped their chap. iii. 13-16.
adversaries, as to deprive them of the power of Ver. 4. The image of God.-See Heb. i. 3.
resistance. Perplexed, but not in despart.Ver. 6. Hath shined-Marg. “Is he who hath." Marg. “ Not altogether without help.”
Ver. 7. In earthen vessels-In us frail creatures, Ver. 9. Cast down, but not destroyed.- Another continually exposed to be crushed and broken. The allusion, perhaps, to wrestlers, who might original (ostrakinois) seems by its derivation to re. “tbrown down, when not killed," nor” disabi fer to the shells of fishes, some of which, while they Ver. 10. The dying-That is, marks of sotienne are extremely frail, inclose treasures of great value; apalagous to his. See chap. i. 5, 6; and compare as the shell of the porphyry, from which fish was these verses with 1 Epis. chap. iv. 11-18. cxtracted the famous Tyrian dye, May be of
And prospects of ]
[ future glory. 12 So then death worketh in us, 16 For which cause we faint not ; but life in you.
but though our outward man perish, 13 We having the same spirit of yet the inward man is renewed day by
lieved, and therefore have I spoken; 17 For our light affliction, which is we also believe, and therefore speak; but for a moment, worketh for us a far
14 Knowing that he whichi raised more exceeding and eternal weight of up the Lord Jesus shall raise up us glory; also by Jesus, and shall present us 18 While we look not at the things with you.
which are seen, but at the things which 15 For all things are for your sakes, are not seen : for the things which are that the abundantgrace might, through seen are temporal; but the things the thanksgiving of many, redound to which are not seen are eternal, (D) the glory of God.
Here observe-"1. That God and Satan (D) Ver. 1-18. The sincerity, trials, are placed in contrast : the latter darkens und triumphs of Paul and his brethren.-- the understanding by his influences, whence Having, in the preceding chapter, stated the Jews call him Samael, the god who the superior excellence of the gospel above blinds; but the true God, on the contrary, the law, St. Paul here states the encou illuminates the understandings of men by ragement which he and his brethren de the grace of his Holy Spirit. [He is light, rived therefrom in its promulgation. Hav and in him is no darkness.] 2. That this ing thereby obtained mercy themselves, work of illumination in the mind is comthey were anxious, at all risks, to preach pared to the first creation of light out of it for the salvation of others, and deter darkness,' as being wrought in the same mined to do it with the greatest simplicity sovereign, efficacious, and instantaneous and integrity. If, indeed, their gospel was manner."-(Hist. Def. 2nd edit. p. 186.) hidden beneath a vail, it should not be by When Satan is, however, called the any artifice of theirs. They would not leave « god of this world," we must not underit concealed under the vail of Mosaic types stand it as conferring upon him any title and ceremonies, to which the Judaizing of honour, any more than our Lord's callteachers were prone to return, nor would ing him " the prince of this world" (John they veil it with the false philosophy of the xii. 31) conferred on him a rightful domiGreeks or Asiatics; neither would they nion. As a prince he is an usurper, and adulterate or debase it by any dishonest as a deity an idol: he is a prince without arts, such as viotners of those times (as right, and a god without divinity. well as of our own) were known to prac When the apostle says, “We preach tise. If the gospel they preached was not ourselves," the declaration may be veiled, it was veiled only to those who fairly understood to imply that they sought were perishing through their own obsti- neither to gratify their vanity, nor promote nacy and unbelief : whose minds Satan, their secular interest, nor to raise a reli"the god of this world," hath blinded, gious party ; by all which motives, it is to "lest the light of the glorious gospel of be feared, the Judaizing teachers who opChrist should shine upou them,”
posed him were more or less influenced.
NOTES. Ver. 12. Death worketh in us, &c.-. e. we are marks, that the apostle here “ opposes things predying daily that you may live.''
sent to things future, a moment to eternity, lightVer. 13. As it is written, See Ps. cxvi. 10.
neys to weight, affliction to glory: nor is he satisVer. 14. Knowing that, &c.-That is, we regard fied with this, but he adds another word, and doubles not the sofferings of our bodies, however fatal, since it, saying, hyperbole upon hyperbole (so the Greek), we know that, if killed, our hodies shall be raised that is a greatness excessively exceeding.” again at the last day. See 1 Epist. xv. 19, &c.
Ibid. Weight of glory. This is an Hebrew idiom : Ver. 17. Light afliction-Matt. xi. 30, the same the same word wbich in that language epithet, light.” is applied by car Lord to the yoke weight, signities also glory. and burden which he lays on us. It may be labonr. Ver. 18. While we look.--" The word (skopein, -it may be suffering but both are light, extremely ngout both are light, extremely says Mackn.) properly signifies to look at a mark
says Mackp.) prop ", compared with the reward. A far more, &c. which we intend to hit"-to am-30 woud. Upon this passage the eloquent Chrysostom re