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The gospel more]
[glorious than the law. the ministration of righteousness ex- the old testament; which vail is done ceed in glory
away in Christ. 10 For even that which was made 15 But even unto this day, when glorious had no glory in this respect, Moses is read, the vail is upon their by reason of the glory that excelleth. heart.
11 For if that which was done away 16 Nevertheless when it shall turn was glorious, much more that which to the Lord, the vail shall be taken remaineth is glorious.
away. 12 Seeing then that we have such 17 Now the Lord is that Spirit: hope, we use great plainness of speech: and where the Spirit of the Lord is,
13 And not as Moses, which put a there is liberty. rail over his face, that the children of 18 But we all, with open face beIsrael could not stedfastly look to the holding as in a glass the glory of the end of that which is abolished: Lord, are changed into the same image
14 But their minds were blinded: from glory to glory, even as by the for until this day remaineth the same Spirit of the Lord. (C) rail untaken away in the reading of
and every translation has enough of the (C) Ver. 1–18. The
Ministry of the Gosgospel to save souls by it, aud make a man vel commended in preference to the law.- a Christian. I think this point of great The false teachers and sectarian leaders importance in our age, which has taken ad probably introduced themselves at Co- so many steps to heathenism and infidelity; inth by letters of recommendation, art- for this argument or evidence will defend ully obtained from some of the churches a Christian in the profession of the true Judea; but Paul bad better credentials. religion, though he may not have skill le appeals to their own hearts, in many of enough to defend his Bible..... Why do ibich he well knew his vame was deeply you believe in Jesus ? [asks the unbeliever] iscribed : they had each an interest in If you have this answer ready at hand, I de affections of the other. He appeals have found the efficacy and power of the Iso to their experience : whatever evie gospel in my heart, this will be sufficient to ence they possessed of their own conver- answer every cavil.” (Watts's Sermons, og and sanctification, was to them a most Ser. 3.) reible argument in his favour, since he This work of grace in the hearts of the ad been the honoured instrument of their Corinthians, the apostle considers as a puversion. They were “ the Epistle of letter of recommendation to them, far prebrist," and " written by the Spirit of ferable to any epistle written with ink or od,” to whom he gives all the glory. On engraved on stone. He is careful, howtis passage Dr.Watts beautifully remarks, ever, that nothing should be attributed to at every true believer bas in himself such himself, but that all his success should be witness to the truth of tbe Christian re- referred to God, by whose grace alone both gion, as does not depend on “ the exact himself and his colleagues had been uth of letters and syllables, nor on the cri- made able and efficient ministers of the cal knowledge of the copies of the Bible, New Testament (or covenant), not of the or on this old manuscript, or the other Old, the letters of which were cut in tables ew translation. ... The substance of of stone, but of the Spirit; that is, the bristianity is so scattered through all the spiritual dispensation of the gospel, the ew Testament, that every nanuscript truths of which are written upon the hearts
NOTES. Ver. 1). Done anay.- Doddridge, “ abolished;" Ver. 16. When it--namely, the heart of the Jewish imely, the Mosaic law of types, &c.
nation. Mackn. Ver. 12. Creat plainness.--Marg. “ boldness." Ver. 17. Now the Lord is that Spirit.-" The Ver. 13. Moses, which put a rail over his face:- Lord Christ is that Spirit (ver. 6). He is the blessed re Exod. xxxiv. 33. That which is abolished Author and Institutor of that spiritual economy we namely, the Mosaic law.
are now under.” Dr. J. Edwards, vol. iii. p. 434. Ver. 14. Their minds were blinded.-See Rom. Ver. 18. As in a glass-i. e. in a mirror. See 1.8
I Cor. xiii. 12, Exposition and Note.-By the Ver. 15. Unto this day. This blindness unhap. Spirit of the Lord.-Marg, or “ of the Spirit of the ly extends eren to our day.
Lord," See on ver. 17.
2 CORINTHIANS. [in his afflictions: CHAP. IV.
6 For God, who commanded the
light to shine out of darkness, hath THEREFORE seeing we have this shined in our hearts, to give the light
ministry, as we have received of the knowledge of the glory of God mercy, we faint not ;
in the face of Jesus Christ. 2 But have renounced the hidden 7 But we have this treasure in things of dishonesty, not walking in earthen vessels, that the excellency of craftiness, por handling the word of the power may be of God, and not God deceitfully; but by manifesta- of us. tion of the truth commending our- 8 We are troubled on every side, selves to every man's conscience in the yet not distressed ; we are perplexed, sight of God.
but not in despair; 3 But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid 9 Persecuted, but not forsaken ; to them that are lost :
cast down, but not destroyed ; 4 In whom the god of this world 10 Always bearing about in the hath blinded the minds of them which body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that believe not, lest the light of the glo- the life also of Jesus might be made rious gospel of Christ, who is the manifest in our body. image of God, should shine unto 11 For we which live are alway them.
delivered unto death for Jesus' sake, 5 For we preach not ourselves, but that the life also of Jesus migh: Christ Jesus the Lord ; and ourselves be made manifest in our mortal your servants for Jesus' sake.
EXPOSITION-Chap. III. Continued, of all true Christians. The letter of the this day his law is veiled by the unbelief d' divine law could, indeed, only give the his nation; nor shall that vail be takea knowledge of sin and its penalty-death; from their hearts till they shall turn to the but the latter was, on the contrary, adapted Lord Jesus as the true Messiah, who is to communicate life and spirit. It is the himself the soul aod spirit of the new dislaw of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus," pensation; by whom we are liberated from (Rom. viii, 2.)
the bondage of the law and the obscurity That ministration was, indeed, attended of the types. Indeed, as Moses, by looking with some glory, a glory with which the to the glory of the Shechinah, was himself countenance of the legislator (Moses) was clothed with glory, so we, beholding in emblematically surrounded; still, how the gospel, as in a resplendent mirror, the ever, it was the ministration of death, for glory of the Lord Jesus, are changed inta it could not give life ; but, notwithstanding the same image, from one degree of grace that dispensation was not without glory, and glory to another, till, by his spirit, we how much more glorious must that be are completely transformed into our Re: which communicates eternal life! Moses deemer's glorious image. found it necessary to wear a vail, and to
NOTES. CHAP. IV. Ver. 2. Renounced. ---Mackn, “com- God.-Doddr, " appear to be of God." manded away;" perhaps “ denounced” would be Ver. 8. Troubled on every side, yet not distresire! the most exact rendering.- -Dishonesty.-Marg. -We conceive," Pressed on every side, bat Daf "shame."
crushed,” would be more literal and expressive. Ver. 3. If our gospel be hid, it is hid.-Doddr., Hamm. and Mackn. think it refers to the wrestlers Mackn., &c. "Il veiled, it is veiled.” Compare in the public games, who sometimes so griped their chap. iii. 13–16.
adversaries, as to deprive them of the power of Ver. 4. The image of God.- See Heb. i. 3. resistance.Perplexed, but not in despair.. Ver. 6. Hath shined-Marg. "Is he who hath." Marg." Not altogether without help.?"
Ver, 7. In earthen vessels-In us frail creatures, Ver. 9. Cast down, but not destroyed.-Another continually exposed to be crushed and broken. The allusion, perhaps, to wrestlers, who might original (ostrakinois) seems by its derivation to re- “thrown down, when not killed," nor disabled." fer to the shells of fishes, some of which, while they Ver. 10. The dying-That is, iarks of sufferings are extremely srail, inclose treasures of great value; apalagous to his. See chap. 1.3, 6; and compare as the shell of the porphyry, from which tish was these verses with 1 Epis. chap. iv. 11-13. cxtracted the famous Tyrian dye.---May be of
And prospects of ]
future glory. 12 So then death worketh in us, 16 For which cause we faint not i but life in you.
but though our outward man perish, 13 We having the same spirit of yet the inward man is renewed day by faith, according as it is written, I be- day. lieved, and therefore have I spoken ; 17 For our light affliction, which is we also believe, and therefore speak; but for a moment, worketh for us a far
14 Knowing that he whichi raised more exceeding and eternal weight of up the Lord Jesus shall raise up us glory; also by Jesus, and shall present us 18 While we look not at the things
which are seen, but at the things which 15 For all things are for your sakes, are not seen : for the things which are that the abundant grace might, through seen are temporal; but the things the thanksgiving of many, redound to which are not seen are eternal, (D) the glory of God.
Here observe". That God and Satan (D) Ver. 1-18. The sincerity, trials, are placed in contrast : the latter darkens and triumphs of Paul and his brethren.-- theunderstanding by his influences,whence Having, in the preceding chapter, stated the Jews call him Samael, the god who the superior excellence of the gospel above blinds; but the true God, on the contrary, the law, St. Paul here states the encou- illuminates the understandings of men by ragement which he and his brethren de- the grace of his Holy Spirit. (He is light, rived therefrom in its promulgation. Hav- and in him is no darkness.] 2. That this ing thereby obtained mercy themselves, work of illumination in the mind is comthey were anxious, at all risks, to preach pared to the first creation of light out of it for the salvation of others, and deter- darkness, as being wrought in the same mined to do it with the greatest simplicity sovereigo, efficacious, and instantaneous and integrity. If, indeed, their gospel was manner."-(Hist. Def. 2nd edit. p. 186.) hidden beneath a vail, it should not be by When Satan is, however, called the any artifice of theirs. They would not leave “god of this world," we must not underit concealed under the vail of Mosaic types stand it as conferring upon him any title aud ceremonies, to which the Judaizing of honour, any more than our Lord's callteachers were prove to return, nor would ing him “the prince of this world" (John they veil it with the false philosophy of the xii. 31) conferred on him a rightful domiGreeks or Asiatics; neither would they nion. As a prince he is an usurper, and adulterate or debase it by any dishonest as a deity an idol: he is a prince without arts, such as viotners of those times (as right, and a god without divinity. well as of our own) were known to prac- When the apostle says, “We preach tise. If the gospel they preached was not ourselves,” the declaration may be veiled, it was veiled only to those who fairly understood to imply that they sought were perishing through their own obsti- neither to gratify their vanity, nor promote nacy and unbelief; whose minds Satan, their secular interest, nor to raise a reli"the god of this world," bath blinded, gious party; by all which motives, it is to "lest the light of the glorious gospel of be feared, the Judaizing teachers who opChrist should shine upou them,"
posed him were more or less influenced,
NOTES Ver. 12. Death worketh in us, &c.-j. e.
marks, that the apostle here “ opposes things predying daily that you may live.'
sent to things future, a moment to eternity, lightVer. 13. As it is written.-See Ps. cxvi. 10. ness to weigbt, affliction to glory: nor is he satisVer. 14. Knowing that, &c.- That is, we regard fied with this, but he adds another word, and doubles not the sufferings of our bodies, however fatal, since it, saying, hyperbole upon hyperbole (so the Greek), we know that, if killed, our hodies shall be raised that is, " a greatness excessively exceeding.”. again at the last day. See 1 Epist. xv. 19, &c.
Ibid. Weight of glory.--This is an Hebrew idiom : Ver. 17. Light afliction.-Matt. xi. 30), the same the same word wbich in that language signifies epithet, " light,” is applied by cur Lord to the yoke weight, signifies also glory. and burden which he lays on us. It may be labonr
Ver. 18. While we look. --" The word (skopein, -it may be suffering-bat both are lighi, extremely 80, compared with the reward.A far more, &c.
says Mackp.) properly signifies to look at a inark Upon this passage the eloquent Chrysostom re
which we intend to hit”-lo aim--so Doddr,
(judgment. the selfsame thing is God, who also CHAP. V.
hath given unto us the earnest of the
Spirit. FOR we know that if our earthly 6 Therefore we are always cong
house of this tabernacle were dis- dent, knowing that, whilst we are at solved, we have a building of God, an home in the body, we are absent from house not made with hands, eternal in the Lord : the heavens.
7 (For we walk by faith, not by 2 For in this we groan, earnestly sight:) desiring to be clothed upon with our 8 We are confident, I say, and house which is from heaven :
willing rather to be absent from the 3 If so be that being clothed we body, and to be present with the shall not be found naked.
Lord. 4 For we that are in this taber- 9 Wherefore we labour, that, whenacle do groan, being burdened : not ther present or absent, we may be acfor that we would be unclothed, but cepted of him. clothed upon, that mortality might be 10 For we must all appear before swallowed up of life.
the judgment seat of Christ ; that 5 Now he that hath wrought us for every one may receive the things done
EXPOSITION—Chap. IV. Continued. The apostles preached not to advance their and instruments of eternal life and sal. fame, their interest, or their authority; vation.' but as the faithful servants of Christ, solely The apostle then states what it was that to promote the glory of their Master and supported him and his colleagues under all the salvation of mankind. For our parts their trials-it was looking from things (as if he had said), we are but frail and temporal to things eternal ; and weighing carthen vessels, of little value and of less against their present momentary afilic. strength; yet, worthless as we are, to us tions, a vast, accumulating, and eternal is committed the invaluable treasure of weight of glory. the gospel; and we, therefore, in the midst (though continually exposed to
...... “From dreams on earth ve move, death) of dangers and of enemies, are And wake through death to endless life above." preserved that we may be to you the means
NOTES. CHAP. V. Ver. 1. If our earthly house of this with shame (1 Pet. v. 5; Ps. XXXV. 26), mach as tabernacle.-The Hebrew term for house"(Beth) we talk of a habit of virtue and of vice : and Dat is of very extensive use. It seems used for a tent, only so, but they speak of being clotied with Gen. xxvii, 15; compare Heb. xi.9. Mr. Harmer righteousness," or“ with trembling" (Job xxix. 14; says, " The Persians call a richly ornamented tent Ezek. xxvi. 16); and (perhaps the boldest metaphar a house of gold.” Mackn. renders this verse, of all) the neck of the war-horse is deseribed As " When our house, which is a tent, is destroyed." being clotbed with thunder.” (Job xxxix. 19. So the Greek particle (can) is used for when, John See ao interesting Note in Townsend's New Tesi. xii. 32 ; 1 John iii. 2. We also prefer“ destroyed ” Arr, vol. ii. p. 347. to" dissolved," because the word strictly means to Ver. 5. The selfsame thing.-Mackn." This very take or throw down, or pull to pieces, which is pe
- The earnest of the Spirit-See chap. culiarly applicable to a " tent."
i. 22. Ver. 2. For in this (tabernacle or tent) we Ver. 6. Whilst we are at home in the body, groan eurnestly ; desiring to be rlothed.-'To be are absent-Mackn.“ from home”-frow tkr Lord; i clothed with a house," seems a barsh figure to us, i, e. while at our enrihly, we are necessarily fras but is quite in the Jewish taste; the Book Zohar, our heavenly home. on Exod. xxiv. 18, says, Moses was “clothed with Ver. 8. Absent froin the body, and to be present the cloud ; " so we read in the book of Revelations, with the Lord.-Mackn. From home out of the of an angel "clothed with a cloud," and of a body; and to be at home with the Lord." woman « clothed with the sun." (Rev. x. ); Ver 9. We labour.-Marg. “Endeavour." Macka. xii. 1.) The word "house,” is also used for any “ Strive earnestly." Doddr.« Make it the height of part of dress: a veil is the house of the face;" a our ambition." Whether present or aastat. glore, the house of the fingers.” The sacred -Mackn. Whether at home or from home" writers also apply the term clothed, as we do habit; We may be accepled of him.-Macku. " acceptable so they speak of being clothed with humility, or to him."
[induce repentance. in his body, according to that he hath 11 Knowing therefore the terror done, whether it be good or bad. (E) of the Lord, we persuade men ; but
ferred from our Lord's promise to the peni(E) Ver. 1-10. T'he desire of immor- tent thief, when on the cross; on which turn tality, the expectation of a future judg- also to our Expos. of Lukexxiii. 39–43; as ment, and the practical influence of these also from the dying words of Stephen, Acts doctrines.-In the opening of this chapter vii. 29. 4. That the consideration of this inthe apostle draws a beautiful comparison termediate state was a great support to Paul between the feeble body which we here himself, is abundantly evident from his inbabit, and which be compares to a teut desiring to “ depart and be with Christ," -which is a temporary erection easily re- which would he very unaccountable if he moved ; and the permanent habitation, did not hope to meet with him till the the everlasting mansions which our Saviour resurrection, which it is evident from his is gone to prepare for all his people. This own writings he did not expect for many tent of human flesh is (as we may say? far years, if not any centuries, to come. See from weather-proof; it is liable to cracks, 2 Thess. ii. 1-12. This doctrine receives and rents, or (to drop the metaphor) it is farther confirmation from chap. xii. 1-4; exposed to a variety of mortal ills, as well Phil. i. 20—23; 1 Peter i. 8, 9; Rev. ii. 7, as to the attacks of cruel enemies. We, vi. 9. And there are many passages in therefore, “groan, being burthened,” not the devotioual parts of the Old Testament, merely from a desire to rid ourselves of already noticed, which plainly indicate a " this mortal coil," but from a desire to like desire to be absent from the body and enter into that immortal residence which present with the Lord," as Psalm lxxxiv. is provided for us in another world-where- 11, &c. into Christ, our fure-runner, is for us en- The practical influence of this doctrine, tered.
in exciting to diligence and activity, is a We here pause a few moments to remark strong presumption of its truth, which may upon the evidence which this chapter af- be farther strengthened by considering fords of an intermediate state between the benumbing consequences of the condeath and judgment. Dr. Sam. Clarke, in trary hypothesis. Try the effect of telling a judicious discourse from this text re- a wicked man that he shall be puuished at marks—"1. That we must all shortly be the end of a thousand years or more, and absent, or separate from the body. 2. That will it not harden him in sin? This is this state is not a state of absolute inseu- not the way in which the apostles preached sibility; but, 3. to good men, a state of the “terror of the Lord,” in order to pergreat happiness, a being present with the suade men to repentance. (ver. 11.) Lord. 4. The consideration of this inter- To that end the apostles urged the most mediate happiness is a great comfort and important doctrine of a future judgment; support against the fear of death, we are and, instead of placing at a great and unconfident, and willing rather to be absent certain distance that awful period, hring from the body, &c. 3. This intermediate it near : “ The day of the Lord is at hand" state, though a state of happiness, is by no -"The judge standeth before the door." ineans equal to that happiness which good (Rom. xiii. 3; James v. 9; Heb, ix. 27.) men shall be possessed of after the resur- And this they might do with the greatest rection.” (See Rohioson's Claude, vol. ii. propriety, since the day of death is thus p. 397, Note 1.)
near, which we have reason to believe fixes Of these propositions we shall here offer the happiness or misery of every indivisome confirmatory proofs. 1. That there dual of mankind, by a scrutiny equally is an intermediate state is clear ; for,when decisive, though not equally public, with we are "absent from the body," we are the last judgment. Whether the passage present with the Lord;" and, 2. that it is now before us (ver. 10) refers to the former not a state of mere insensibility is most or latter event, we présume not to decide. evident, from the parable of the
rich man The one will fix the other : for the deci. and Lazarus, on wbich see our Expos. of sions of the Supreme Judge admit neither Luke xvi. 19–31. 3. That it is a state of of revision nor appeal. happiness
to good men may be safely in.
NOTES. Ver. 10. Judgment seat. – Doddr. and Mackn. Ver. 11. The terror of the Lord-that is, lus ter. " Trbunal,'' Sce Matt. xxv. 31–46.
rible judgments against sin, See Heb, &. 31.