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Christ presents the] CHAP. XV. [kingdom to his Father.

24 Then cometh the end, when he are baptized for the dead, if the dead shall have delivered up the kingdom to rise not at all ? why are they then bapGud, even the Father; when he shall tized for the dead ? have put down all rule and all authority 30 And why stand we in jeopardy and power.

every hour ? 25 For he must reign, till he hath 31 I protest by your rejoicing which put all enemies under his feet.

I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die 26 The last enemy that shall be de- daily. stroyed is death.

32 If after the manner of men I 27 For he hath put all things under have fought with beasts at Ephesus, his feet. But when he saith, All things what advantageth it me, if the dead are put under him, it is manifest that rise not? Let us eat and drink; for tohe is excepted, which did put all things morrow we die. under him.

33 Be not deceived : evil communi28 And when all things shall be cations corrupt good manners. subdued unto him, then shall the Son 34 Awake to righteousness, and sin also himself be subject unto him that not; for some have not the knowput all things under him, that God ledge of God: I speak this to your may be all in all.

shame. (S) 29 Else what shall they do which 35 F But some man will say, How

EXPOSITION. (S) Ver. 20-34. The doctrine of the We now come to contemplate the meresurrection farther considered, in relation diatorial kingdom of the Lord Jesus, its to Christ's mediatorial character and king- completion, and the surrender here spoken dom.-The conclusion from the preceding of: “Theu cometh the end," &c.-The reasoning is, not only that Christ is risen, end of which Paul speaks (says Mr. And. but also that he is risen as a public cha Fuller) does not mean the end of Christ's racter-risen as an earnest and security to kingdom, but of the world, and the things. his people, that they also shall be raised thereof. The delivering up the kingdom he is the first fruits of the great harvest to the Father will not put an end to it, but of the general resurrection of the just; eternally establish it in a new and more for it is to them, and to them only, we glorious form. Christ shall not cease to think, with Doduridge, St. Paul refers reign, though the mode of his administhroughout this chapter. It may be well tration be different. As a divine person, here to turn back to the Epistle to the he will always be one with the Father ; Romans, chap. v., in which we have seen and though his mediatorial kingdom shali Adam and Christ described as respectively cease, yet the effects of it will remain for the representatives of those connected with ever. There will never be a period in them : Adam as the head of all mankind, duration in which the redeemer of sinners proceeding from him by ordinary gene- will be thrown into the shade, or become ration; and Christ as the head of all his of less account than he now is; or in chosen and regenerated people. As in which " honour, and glory, and blessing," virtue of the former relation all mankind will cease to be ascribed to him by the were involved in sin and death through whole creation. Rev, v, 12--14. (Harm. of the first Adam, so, through their relation Scrip. p. 35.) to the second Adam (Christ), all believers Upou the same passage the learned Bp. become intitled to the high privilege of a Pearson remarks-" When all the enemies resurrection to eternal life.

of Christ shall be subdued, when all the

NOTES. Ver. 27. He is ercepted-i. e. God the Father. elliptical, and reads it, “Baptized for (the resurrec.

Ver. 29. Baptized for the dead.-Nearly twenty tion of the dead." different explications have been given of this text, Ver. 31. I tirotest by your rejoicing.-Mack night. the far greater part of which are not worth enume. "By the boasting (which I have) on account of rating. We have alluded to the two which we con Christ Jesus," &c. sider most probable. Doddr. (who follows Sir Rd. Ver. 32. If .... I have fought, &c.-Dr. Lardner Ellys) translates the text, “ Baptized in the room of understands this hypothetically"ISI had"-and the dead;" but Macknight considers the passage as not that he literally did so.

The resurrection] 1 CORINTHIANS. [compared to a harvest. are the dead raised up? and with what 37 And that which thou sowest, body do they come?

thou sowest not that body that shall 36 Thou fool, that which thou sow- be, but bare grain, it may chance of est is not quickened, except it die: wheat, or of some other grain :

EXPOSITION—Chap. XV. Continued. chosen of God shall be actually brought am I, and these are the children thou didst into his kingdom, when those which re- give me to redeem and save.' " Thine fused him to reign over them shall be they were, and thou gavedst them to me, slain ; that is, when the whole office of and none is lost save the son of perdition, the mediator shall be completed and ful- that the Scripture might be fulfilled." filled, then every branch of the execution Thus said the Saviour when he had finished shall cease. As, therefore, there shall no his work on earth. (See Johu xvii. throughlonger continue any act of the prophetical out.) And something like this may be his part to instruct us, por any act of the language when all bis mediatorial office is priestly part to intercede for us, so there fulfilled in heaven. Then "God sball be shall be no further act of this regal power all in all :"—that is, the universe shall be of the mediator necessary, to defend and governed as before the mediatorial system preserve us. The beatifical vision shall was introduced. No more sacrifice for sin succeed our information and instruction, being needed, no more intercession for a present fruition will prevent oblation and sinners will then be offered, nor will there intercession, and perfect security will need remain any enemies to be subdued. Peace no actual defence and protection. As, there and harmony will be restored to our creafore, the general notiou of a mediator tion, and God alone will reign (as Macceaseth when all are made one, because knight renders it) “ over all things, in all (a mediator is not a mediator of one' places" of his dominion. We are not to (Gal. iii. 20); so every part or branch of suppose, however, that their obligation to that mediatorship, as such, must also the Saviour will ever be obliterated from cease, because that unity is in all parts the hearts of the redeemed, or that he will complete. Then cometh the end,' &c. ever forget or neglect the purchase of his

“Now, though the mediatorship of blood. Christ be then resigned, because the end If this were not the case, says the aposthereof will then be performed ; though tle, “What shall they do who are baptized the regal office, as part of that mediator- for sin hope of] the resurrection of the ship, he also resigned with the whole ; dead? and to fill up the ranks in the yet we must not think that Christ shall Christian army which are broken hy death cease to be a king, or lose any of the power and martyrdom ?" Or why do we stand and honour which before he had. The continually exposed to the same dangers ? dominion which he hath (as mediator] was in jeopardy every hour, and daily living given him as a reward for what he suffered: in the expectation of being called to die? and certainly the reward shall not cease If, speaking after the manner of men, I when the work is done. He hath pro- have fought with beasts at Ephesus, "when mised to make us kings and priests, which I was assaulted by the savage fury of Dehowever we expect in heaven, believing metrius and his mob" (Acts xix. 21)-or we shall reign with him for ever, and if I even had encountered wild beasts in therefore for ever must believe him king," the theatre-whether I had escaped, or (On the Apostles' Creed, Art. vi.)

been destroyed, what reward would there By the resignation of the kingdom to remain for me, if the dead rise not? the Father, we do not understand the In concluding this part of his subject, giving up rank, authority, or power; but the apostle seems to intimate that the rather a submitting of all bis mediatorial Corinthians had suffered, both in principle government to the Father's public appro- and practice, from their connexion with bation, and presenting the subjects of his Epicurean philosophers and their disci, les ; kingdom before the throne. So St. Paul this he insinuates in quoting a saying from (Heb. ii. 13) represents Messiah as saying, a Greek poet, which had probably become . Behold I, and the children which God a proverbial saying with them, as the hath given me;" as if he had said, 'Here translation has long been with us-"Evil

NOTES-Chap. XV. Con. Ver. 36. Thon fool.-Doddr. “Thoughtless crea of the seed rots, and becomes food to the surviving ture," Except it die.Mackn. " rot." Doddr, germ. “ (appear to) die." The fact is, that the outer cout

The first and]
CHAP. XV.

[second Adan. 38 But Gud giveth it a body as it natural body, and there is a spiritual hath pleased him, and to every seed body. his own body.

45 And so it is written, The first 39 All flesh is not the same flesh: man Adam was made a living soul; but there is one kind of flesh of men, the last Adam was made a quickening another flesh of beasts, another of spirit. fishes, and another of birds.

46 Howbeit that was not first which 40 There are also celestial bodies, is spiritual, but that which is natuand bodies terrestrial : but the glory ral; and afterward that which is of the celestial is one, and the glory spiritual. of the terrestrial is another.

47 The first man is of the earth, 41 There is one glory of the sun, earthy : the second man is the Lord and another glory of the moon, and from heaven. another glory of the stars : for one 48 As is the earthy, such are they star differeth from another star in also that are earthy: and as is the glory.

heavenly, such are they also that are 42 So also is the resurrection of the heavenly dead. It is sown in corruption ; it is 49 And as we have borne the image raised in incorruption :

of the earthy, we shall also bear the 43 It is sown in dishonour; it is image of the heavenly. raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; 50 Now this I say, brethren, that it is raised in power :

flesh and blood cannot inherit the 44 It is sown a natural body; it is kingdom of God; neither doth corrupraised a spiritual body. There is a tion inherit incorruption. (T)

EXPOSITION. communications corrupt good manners :" (T) Ver. 35--50. The resurrection of by wbich he evidently means, that asso- the dead. The apostle now comes to exciating with persons of infidel principles plain, so far as the mysterious subject can and corrupt inorals, has a great tendency be rendered intelligible to onr present fato corrupt the mind and manners. The culties, the nature of this resurrection; apostle, therefore, attempts to rouse them and this he does by analogy, comparing from their delusion--that is, such of them the death and resurrection of our bodies ás had been drawn into such connexions : to the process of vegetation in the produc“Awake to righteousness, and sin not!" tion of corn. It is true the subject might "O, God! awake our souls to righteousness,

have been illustrated from other analogies, "And on our hearts eternal things impress !" particularly from the natural history of

NOTES.

Ver. 38. His own body.-Mackn. “ its proper body.” (Gr. idion) i... " the body proper to its own kind.” So Doddr Not the body which it bad before : so this will not prove the identity of the re. surrection body; but ooly, as Mackn. expresses it,

The raised body of the saints will resemble their body which was laid in the grove, so far as their new state will admit." In one respect we know that they will materially differ. See Luke xx. 35. It is the general opinion, however, and is largely argned by Mr. Drew, in his ingenious Essay “ On the Resurrection of the Body," chap. vi., that there is a principle of identity (some germ or stamen) which will be preserved till the resurrection; though what this is, it seems utterly in vain to conjecture.

Ver. 41. One star differeth from another star in glory.-This, it is probable, is literally true : wa know of no two bodies in nature perfectly alike, nor any two bodies which bave uniformly the same mo. tion. This applies particularly to the heavenly bodies, and if we are to consider this (as many do) as referring metaphorically to the saints, it may be

equally true that spiritual bodies have the same di. versity, though all glorious, Though the earth is now supposed to have 800 millions of inhabitants, or more, it is probable that " the human face divine,” in every instance, varies in some of its features,

Ver. 44. A spiritual body-s a body refined from all the corruption and defilernet attached to matter in the present state.

Ver 47. The Lord from heaven, --The word LORD is wanting in some ancient MSS., and Tertullian says, was inserted by Marcion ; yet both Doddridge and Macknight retain it. The Vulgate reads, “The second man from heaven is beavenly." Dr. Pye Smith remarks, that in the ancient book Zohar Messiah is called “ The Adam on high," and so tinguished from the first man, who is caller " Adam below.Mess. vol. 1. 185.

Ver. 50. Flesh and blood-i, e, in its prer rapt state; or, as in the next member of 1 tance, corruption, "Our bodies, after 1 raised from the dead (says Mr. Fuller), maj and blood, and yet not what tbey now Are on Rewards, p. 46.

The mystery of] 1 CORINTHIANS.

[the last day. 51 | Behold, I shew you a mystery; of an eye, at the last trump: for the We shall not all sleep, but we shall all trumpet shall sound, and the dead be changed,

shall be raised incorruptible, and we 62 In a moment, in the twinkling shall be changed.

EXPOSITION-Chap. XV. Continued. insects; and the changes which human body, but from the residence of the same nature undergues might have been well intellect, and the consciousness of the inillustrated from the changes which pass dividual world. But as God, in the propaon certain insects, from the caterpillar to gation of his creatures, gives to every the chrysalis, and from the chrysalis tokiod its proper flesh (whether beast, or the fly; whereby the creature which before bird, or fish), and to every vegetable its crawled upon the earth, by means of proper form, &c., so will he associate to passing through a state insensibility, be- every human mind its proper body, though, comes the inhabitant of another region, whether composed of any or how many of and flies in the midst of heaven. So man the same particles, it may not be possible goes to sleep a worm, and wakes an augel. for us to ascertain.

The analogy herc used, seems to have “The single grain of wheat which is been borrowed from a suggestion of our sown (says Mr. Fuller), does not reLord himself (Joha xii. 24), that " except produce itself, but produces another like a grain of wheat fall into the ground and itself; for to every seed is given its own die," it cannot bring forth fruit. There is body that is, a body of its own nature or one grand distinction, however, between kind. So also is the resurrection of the the two cases : the grain of corn that vege. dead. If the body do not retain the sametates brings forth many, even “thiriy, ness of identity, it will produce the samesixty, or an hundred fold;" but, in man, ness of nature or kind. God giveth it a the individual which dies is alone restored body as it pleaseth him, and to every seed to life. We do not think it necessary, or its own body.” (Fuller's Essay on Reeven appropriate, to enter into any philo- wards, p. 44.) sophical inquiries, in this place, as to the But the introduction of celestial bodies nature of that death to which every grain in this place-sun, moon, and stars, with of corn is subject in the earth. Whether birds, beasts, and fishes, seems to us myse it be absolute, or apparent ouly, like the terious and perplexing, unlesi, indeed, it chrysalis of the caterpillar, it is sufficient be designed to intimate that the glorified to illustrate the subject. The change of bodies of the redeemed, at the resurrecstate in man, from death to immortal life, tion, will as much exceed their present can hardly be more wonderful than that forms as the celestial orbs exceed those of the worin to the butterfly, or than that terrestrial bodies. So the prophet Daoiel of an inert single grain of wheat to the tells us (ch. xii. 3), that "then the wise wavy stalk and the golden ear. “But God shall shine as the brightness of the firmagiveth .... to every seed his own body.” ment; and they that turn many to righ

The identity of every body, and particu teousness as the stars for ever and ever." larly of the human body, is a subject of In this life, indeed, we all bear the great and insuperable difficulty with us. image of the first Adam, “ of the earth, It is supposed to reside in some secret earthy;" and at death this is sowo a "natugerm, known to the Creator. In the living ral body:" but in the last day it shall be body, indeed, we find no difficulty in prov raised a spiritual body, like that of "the ing its identity ; but it is chiefly from its second Adam, the Lord from beaves. connexion with the same mind that we The former was made "a living soul;" ascertain the fact. For if we consider the the latter Adam is "a quickening (a lifechanges which a human body undergoes giving) spirit.” And as we have borne during the course of three or four score the image of the earthy, so must we years, in size and in form, through the “bear the image of the heavenly;" or, as progress of age, the operations of nature, the same apostle elsewhere expresses itand the accidents of disease, it would seem “The Lord Jesus shall change our vile in many cases impossible to identify the bodies, to be transformed like unto bis

NOTES-Chap. XV. Con. Ver. 5). We shall all be changed-i. e. We be- sound of this trumpet is generally illustrated by a lievers-Mackn. Nothing like this is sail of the reference to the thunders of Sinai, which seeta to wicked. Compare Phil. iii. 2).

have been attended with volcanic phenomena. See Ver. 52. The trumpet shall sound. The awful Heb. xii, 19. Bishop Berkeley, who beard an

The Christian's]
CHAP. XV.

[ final triumph. 53 For this corruptible must put on 56 The sting of death is sin; and incorruption, and this mortal must put the strength of sin is the law. op immortality.

57 But thanks be to God, which 54 So when this corruptible shall giveth us the victory through our Lord have put on incorruption, and this Jesus Christ. mortal shall have put ou immortality, 58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, then shall be brought to pass the say- be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always ing that is written, Death is swallowed abounding in the work of the Lord, up in victory.

forasmuch as ye know that your labour 55 O death, where is thy stiog? is not in vain in the Lord. (U) O grave, where is thy victory?

EXPOSITION. glorious body, according to the working dead--that is, the dead saints, for they whereby he is able to subdue all things alone are referred to in this first resurrecunto bimself.” (Phil, iii. 21.)

tion. Poets and painters have amused Could we accurately ascertain the nature themselves in sketching this awful scene, of Christ's present body, we might also and have represented the awaking dead as easily ascertain what ours will be. The crawling from beneath their tombs : but apostle indeed says, that “flesh and blood the eveut defies every attempt of human cannot inherit the kingdom of heaven," - imagination in a moment in the twinkyet our Lord himself speaks of his raised ling of an eye-the dead saints are raised, body as composed of “flesh and bones," and and the living changed. It can be comas bearing the marks of his crucifixion. pared only to that Almighty fiat, Let (Luke xxiv. 39—13.) In the same passage light be, and light was.” (Gen. i. 3.) we find, also, that Jesus did EAT with And with what ease is all this effected, them, even auimal food, namely, “ a piece as relates to the happy subjects of this of a broiled fish and of an honey-comb;" change-it is only a change of dress ! which seems clearly to imply that his re. The old garment of mortality and corrupsurrection body contained all the organz tion shall be thrown off, and immortality necessary to receiving food. We stop put on: and then is fulfilled the saying of here, however, being desirous not to push Isaiah (ch. xxv. 8), “Death is swallowed our inquiries beyond the letter of the text, up in victory;" that is, not only conquered, on subjects wherein we are so liable to err. but destroyed. And then the sacred writer When the glorious events here predicted borrows from another prophet (Hosea xiii. shall be accomplished, we shall, doubtless, 14) this triumphant sony,-- death! find reason to exclaim, with the Queen of where is thy sting? O grave! where is Sheba, that the half had not been told us. thy victory?" Death is thus described by

Milton as a bideous, shapeless monster, (U) Ver. 51–38. The effect of the last

............" Black as night, trumpet, and the Christian's final triumph. Fierce as ten furies, terrible as hell, - Behold! I shew you a mystery,” says He shook a dreadful dart; what seem'd his head, the apostle. A mystery is a secret-but

'The likeness of a kingly crown had on, that secret may be, at least partially, re But the sacred writers compare the vealed; and here a scene opens to us, full mouster to a dragou, whose stiug is sin, of “terrible majesty.” The “trumpet of aud its wound always fatal; but, through the archangel" shakes both earth and the death of our Lord Jesus, that sting is beaven, and the voice of God awakens the drawn, and the poison is extracted.

NOTES.

eroption of Vesuvius at twelve miles distance, com. pares it to the raging together of a tempest and a troubled sen, mixed with the roaring of thunder and of artillery: and some of the volcanic eruptions of South America are said to have been heard from 130 to 600 miles. See Dick's Christ. Philos. 21 elit. p.48.

Ver. 54. Death is swallowed up in rictory-or, * for ever." Whitby and Macknight. Comparo Terse 26. But the same word is rendered victory in ver, 55 and 57.

Ver. 35. O Grare. Gr. Hades, or the invisible world. See our Note on Py. xvi. 10. The Jews speak of the angel of death as having the keys of Hades; and St. Paul describes Satan under a similar character" Him that hath the power of death, that is, the devil.” Heb. ii. 14.

Ver. 56. The sting of death is sin-For it is sin that army death with all its terrors--and the strength of sin is the law-because it is by the law that we have the knowledge, and feel ihe consequr of sin.

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