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Directions concerning) CHAP, XII.
carried away unto these dumb idols, CHAP. XII.
even as ye were led.
3 Wherefore I give you to underNOW concerning spiritual gifts, stand, that no man speaking by the
brethren, I would not have you Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed : ignorant.
and that no man can say that Jesus is 2 Ye know that ye were Gentiles, the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.
EXPOSITION. opposite conduct, dishonoured the men. vened cakes that had been providerl for the These improper customs, it should seem, Passover, and brake and distributed it to had been introduced by some of the false his disciples, as we find related by the teachers who had opposed Paul, and had Evangelists. (Matt. xxvi. 26-28; Luke endeavoured probably to bring into con- xxii. 19, 20.) Now in this way of celetempt the regulations he had established brating the Lord's Supper, believers show when present with them; but he appeals (or exhibit) the emblems of his sufferings to their reason against the indecorous cha- and death in a inost striking manner, as racter of their innovations, and their in- thus represented by an eminent divine of consistency with the practice of all the the present day :Christian churches,
“In eating of this bread, and drinking What the apostle says of divisions (or of this cup (says Dr. Belfrage), we show schisms) among them is repetition (see the manner of our Lord's death. The chap. i. 10, &c.); and into the nature of breaking of the bread represents the sufheresies we shall have farther occasion to ferings of bis body; the pouring out of the inquire. See Gal. v. 20.
wine, the sbedding of his blood. And while A more serious abuse than any of the we contemplate these, shall not penitenpreceding, appears to have taken place re- tial sorrow rend our hearts ? Shall not we lative to the Lord's Supper, which they pour out our hearts before him, in the lanseem, in some degree, to have assimilated guage of devotional feeling? .... In eatto the seasts in the idol-temples, mingling ing of this bread, and drinking of this cup, with the sacred elements the provisions for we profess our interest in the blessings of their own suppers, forming convivial par. Christ's death”-show our affectionate reties in the church; and while the poor membrance of his love and kindness, and Were unprovided for, the rich indulged our inviolable attachment to the doctrine themselves to great excess.
of the cross. (See Sacramental Addresses, Shocked at the idea, the apostle ex. No. 50.) presses himself with more than his usual B ut this is not a feast to be partaken of Severity. “What! (says he) have ye not with levity or indifference: “Let a man houses to eat and drink'in," that ye come examine himself” with what temper and to the Lord's table to take your meals; dispositiun he is prepared to receive it, and and instead of being united as the disciples if he discerns therein the emblems of our of Christ should be, ye fall into little par Lord's death, and feels a proper sense of ties with your favcurite leaders, and such his obligations to bis love - So let him of you aš bave provisions eat and drink eat.” But “ be that eateth and drinketh even to excess; while the poor, who are worthily," that is, as Dr. Doddridge guests equally welcome at the Lord's table explains it,“ in an irreverent, profane, With the rich, are neglected and despised. -and unworthy mapner," is guilty of [pro"This is not (the way] to eat the Lord's faping] the body and blood of Christ, and Supper:" and then be proceeds to repeat thereby eateth and drinketh judgment unto what he had before delivered to them; himself. For this cause many are weak namely, “ That the Lord Jesus, the same and sickly, and many sleep in religious pight in which he was betrayed, took indifference, if not in death. bread"--that is, took one of the unlea
NOTES. CHAP. XII. Ver. 2. These dumb idols. The that is hanged is accorsed of God" (Deut. xxi. 23), Images with which, in that idolatrous city, they which applies equally to those that were crucified, tre every where surrounded. Even as ye were so that "The hanged Christ" is applied to our Lord
By the popular superstition, and by the arti. Jesus Christ by the infidel Jews, as a title of re. fices of their priests.
proach, to the present day. Ver. 3. Accursed.-Gr. Anathema. Moses says, “ He
[body of Christ. 4 Now there are diversities of gifts, 13 For by one Spirit are we all but the same Spirit.
baptized into one body, whether we be 5 And there are differences of admi- Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond nistrations, but the same Lord.
or free; and have been all made to · 6 And there are diversities of ope- drink into one Spirit. rations, but it is the same God which 14 For the body is not one member, worketh all in all.
but many. 7 But the manifestation of the 15 If the font shall say, Because I Spirit is given to every man to profit am not the hand, I am not of the body; withal.
is it therefore not of the body ? 8 For to one is given by the Spirit 16 And if the ear shall say, Because the word of wisdom; to another the I am not the eye, I am not of the body; word of knowledge by the same Spirit; is it therefore not of the body?
9 To another faith by the same 17 If the whole body were an eye, Spirit; to another the gifts of healing where were the hearing? If the whole by the same Spirit;
were hearing, where were the smell10 To another the working of mira- ing? cles; to another prophecy; to another 18 But now hath God set the memdiscerning of spirits ; to another divers bers every one of them in the body, as kinds of tongues ; to another the inter- it hatlı pleased him. pretation of tongues :
19 And if they were all one mem11 But all these worketh that one ber, where were the body? and the self-same Spirit, dividing to 20 But now are they many memevery man severally as he will. bers, yet but one body.
12 For as the body is one, and hath 21 And the eye cannot say unto the many members, and all the members hand, I have no need of thee: nor of that one body, being many, are one again the head to the feet, I have no body: so also is Christ.
need of you.
NOTES-Chap. XII. Con. Ver. 5. Administrations. Marg.“ Ministries," sessed the talent of interpreting tongues who had not
Ver. 6. The same God.-Comparing this verse the power of speaking them. with the two preceding, we have an argument for Ver. 11. Severally as he nill.- Doddr. " Asbe the proper divinity of the Holy Spirit, here called thinketh fit;" Mackn. "As he pleaseth.” Frota both God and Lord.
this expression has been forcibly argued the distinct Ver. 8. To one is given .... the word of wisdom personality of the Holy Spirit ... the word of kriowirdge.- Mr. Preb. Townsend Ver. 12. So also is Christ-i. e. Christ mystical, has given in his Arranged New Testament (vol. ii. or his true church. pp. 190_198) a copious abstract of the very learned Ver. 13. Drink into one spirit-namely, th discussions of the first Lord Barrington (the friend rit of Christ, which also onimutes his church. of Watts and Doddridge), to which we shall make Ver. 15. If the foot shall say. This beautifal aposome references, without pledging ourselves to logne reminds us of the political apologue of Me adopt his explications, though nearly followed, not nenins Agrippa. At a time when the lower orders only by Mr. T., but also by Bishop Horsley and of the Roman people were rising in insurrection Dr. Hales. By the word of wisdom," he under.. against the Nobles, this celebrated Orator and Ge stands that knowledge peculiar to an apostle; and neral addressed to them this fable: -That once upon by the word of knowledge," the like attainment a time, when the different members of the human of the prophets. But with all due submission to body were not in that state of unity in which they these great names, we consider wisdom as an imme now are, they became discontented, because all the diate endowment from heaven; knowledge, as an fruits of their labour were bestowed upon the belly, acquired talent, no less the gift of God, thongh the which did nothing but lie at ease and enjoy them. result of experience and of study. Paul eminently The hands therefore refused to convey food to the possessed botlı.
mouth, the mouth to receive it, and the teeth to Ver. 9. To another fuith.-According to Mr. chew it. Acting on this principle, they reduced the Locke, a full persuasion of the truth of the corpulency of the belly; but, at the same time, the gospel.
whole body, with all its merabers, became enfeebled, Ver. 10. The working of miracies.-This, as dis and were reduced to the last stage of a decline. It tinguished from the gilt of healing, may intend the was then found that the idle belly as they called it) power of inflicting disease and death, as in the case contributed no less to the nourishment of the whole of Ananias and Sapphira, &c.--Discerning of spi- body, than the other members did to the support of rits-i, e, of detecting hypocrisy, or imposition, as
oboespons This ingenious fable convinced the peo
hincin.13. in the case just referred to. Divers kinds of ple that the Senators were as necessary to the body tongues; .... the interpretation of tongues.-From politic as were themselves. See Livy's Hist, Bk. IL this distinction of talent, it is evident that some poss chap, 3,
The doctrine of ]
CHAP. XII. [Christian sympathy. 22 Nay, much more those members member be honoured, all the members of the body, which seem to be more rejoice with it. feeble, are necessary :
27 Now ye are the body of Christ, 23 And those members of the body, and members in particular. which we think to be less honourable, 28 And Gud hath set some in the upon these we bestow more abundant Church, first apostles, secondarily prohonour; and our uncomely parts have phets, thirdly teachers, after that miramore abundant comeliness.
cles, then gifts of healings, helps, go24 For our comely parts have no vernments, diversities of tongues. need: but God hath tempered the body 29 Are all apostles? are all protogether, having given more abundant phets ? are all teachers are all workhonour to that part which lacked : ers of miracles?
25 That there sbould be no schism 30 Have all the gifts of healing ? in the body; but that the members do all speak with tongues ? do all intershould have the same care one for pret? inother.
31 But covet earnestly the best gifts: 26 And whether one member suffer, and yet shew I unto you a more excelall the members suffer with it; or one lent way. (N)
If even they should work miracles and cast (N) Ver. 1-31, The variety of spiritual out devils, they could no more act under rifts, and their design.-One great cause the influence of God's Spirit, than could of the dissensions and divisions in the the prophets of idolatry spoken of by Moses. Church of Corinth, certainly was the im- (Deut. xiii. 1-5.) On ihe other hand, he proper display of spiritual gifts among its that should call Jesus LORD, and should nembers, and their updue attachment seek to promote his honour and service, o the most showy and popular talents, might fairly be considered as speaking pstead of those which were the most use- under the influences of the Holy Spirit. ol to the church. It appears, also, that We are aware that learned and good bere were false pretensions to these gifts men have attempted to distinguish and o some instances, which fact induces the explain the various operations of the Divine ipostle to insert a caveat against their Spirit, and to appropriate them to the difleing misled by ambitious and vain-glorious ferent classes of Christian ministers ; but nen. I. They might be certain that no however ingenious may be the copjecnan, though he were an Hebrew of the ture (See Note on ver. 28), we doubt if it Hebrews, or even the High Priest himself, can be depended on : for various gifts, we ould speak by the Spirit of God, who apprehend, were conferred on the same leviled our Saviour for his crucifixion, as persons, and perhaps all of them on the bis well known the unbelieving Jews did. apostles.
NOTES. Ver. 23. We beston - Marg. i put on."-Our participate in the sufferings of the hand or foot. &c. Iacomely parts have more abundant comrliness So in a Christian church, the heads of it should
by means of ornamental dress. So in the mys- sympathize in the sufferings of the humblest mem. lead body of Christ, those members of least appa bers, eat consequence, and personal comeliness, are Ver. 28. First Apostles, &c.-Mr. Townsend has ten endowed with talents of the first order-they given a table, comparing this and the two following bave more abundant comeliness."
verses with verses 8 to 10, and assigning to each Ver. 25. That there should br no schisin-The same order of ministers his peculiar talent, as to apostles Ford is used chap. i. 10; xi. 18; and it appears wisdom, to prophets knowledge, &c. according to the tom the context in the former place, that the Co. system of Lord Barrington, Bp. Horsley, &c.; but othians split themselves into little parties under we confess that this system appears to us more ingeBe nanie, though without the sanction of their fa. nious than satisfactory. After that miracles, then Fourite preachers : So far, at least, as respects gifts, &c.-i. e. those who had the power of work, Paol, Apollos, and Cephas. These parties, though ing miracles, and bealing diseases. - Helps, govern. they met in one bouse, probably met in separate ments-May refer, as we conceive, to those who rooms, and held little or no communion with each assisted or superintended schools, or other charities other. See chap. xi. 20-22.
for the poor. Ver. 26. Whether one member suffer, &c.-This Ver. 31. But covel eurnestly.-Mackn. “ Ye earn. Is the doctrine of sympathy, arising literally from estly desire the best gifts; but I shew you," &c, So the nervous system, by which the head and the heart Doddr, in effect.
is the doctis system, by 545
1 CORINTHIANS. [excellence of love. CHAP. XIII.
- 7 Beareth all things, believeth all
things, hopeth all things, endureth all THOUGH I speak with the tongues things.
of men and of angels, and have 8 Charity never faileth: but whenot charity, I am become as sounding ther there be prophecies, they shall brass, or a tinkling cymbal.
fail ; whether there be tongues, they 2 And though I have the gift of shall cease; whether there be know. prophecy, and understand all mysteries, ledge, it shall vanish away. and all knowledge; and though I have 9 For we know in part, and me all faith, so that I could remove moun. prophesy in part. tains, and have not charity, I am 10 But when that which is perfect nothing.
is come, then that which is in part 3 And though I bestow all my goods shall be done away. to feed the poor, and though I give 11 When I was a child, I spake as my body to be burned, and have not a child, I understood as a child, I charity, it profiteth me nothing.
thought as a child : but when I became 4 Charity suffereth long, and is a man, I put away childish things. kind; charity envieth not; charity 12 For now we see through a glass, vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up; darkly; but then face to face: now!
5 Doth not behave itself unseemly, know in part; but then shall I know seeketh not her own, is not easily pro- even as also I am known. voked, thinketh no evil; .
13 And now abideth faith, hope, 6 Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but re- charity, these three ; but the greatest of joiceth in the truth;
these is charity. (O)
EXPOSITION. The apostle Paul then illustrates the use tive places. The Corinthians, however, enof these various gifts to the body of Christ couraged an ambition for the best or most mystical, or the Christian Church, the splendid gifts; but the apostle holds out 10 inembers of which he compares to the dif- them a far better way in true Christian ferent members of the human body, all of charity, or in love to God and man. which contribute, by their different functions, to the service and perfection of the
CHAP, XIII. whole : so that no Christiau ought to be (0) Ver. 1-13. The pre-eminence despised for the meanuess, nur idolized Christian love to all other gifts. - Dr. for the splendour, of his gifts. All the offi- Doddridge, Macknight, and other emisest cers of ihe church, and all its members, commentators, begin this chapter with the are useful and honourable in their respec- last verse of the preceding; and if, with
NOTES. . CHAP XIII. Ver. 1. And have not charity. Ver. 4. Vannteth not-Marg. " Is not rast." The original word (ayape), though sometimes ren. But we prefer the text. dered charity, is more frequently and accurately Ver. 6. In (Marg. « with ") the truth. rendered love, and no doubt our translators here so Ver. 7. Beareth - Doddr. Covereth " meant it; and so it is used in the writings of Mil. things.-More ready to conceal a fault than to es. ton. Dryden, Hooker, and Atterbury, as may be pose it. seen in Dr. Johnson. There is no doubt, however, Ver. 10. When that which is perfect is come-il. but that our translators derived the word immedi. when perfection shall succeed to imperfection, ately from the Vulgate, caritas; but its insertion namely, in a future world, here has unhappily led many persons to conclude Ver 11. I thought --Margin, « reasoned.'' So that alms-giving, or practical benevolence, is the Doddridge. only thing intended; though that is exactly contrary Ver 12. We see through a glass-Though glas to verse 3.
was probably made before this time, we have bo Ibid. As sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. proof of its being used for windows before the tal This probably refers to the different kinds of cymbal century, thin plates of born, &c. being used lasten used by the ancients, the large and small; the for and perhaps it was long before it was manufactural
er very sonorous, ne latter more like bells. See to be so transparent as at present and telescope Ps. cl. 5, and Note.
allowed to be a inuch more modern in reption.
middle of Ver. 2. And have not charity. This word should Ency. Brit.) Darkly-Marg. "In a riddie, have beco rendered love, throughout the chapter, enigma. See Ps. xlix. 4, and Note
I for edification.
but unto God : for no man understand,
eth him ; howbeit in the spirit he FOLLOW after charity, and desire speaketh mysteries.
spiritual gifts, but rather that ye 3 But he that prophesieth speaketh may prophesy.
unto men to edification, and exhor2 For he that speaketh in an un- tation, and comfort. known tongue speaketh not unto men, 4 He that speaketh in an unknown
EXPOSITION. our translators, we understand that as an reason to believe will be but as nothing exhortation to seek, by prayer to God, the compared with that of heaven. best miraculous gifts, we may fairly inser This the apostle illustrates by two comthat St. Paul intended, by that term, those parisons. All the knowledge and wisdom gifts which were best adapted for the edi- attainable in this world is but like the edu. fication of the church (See chap. xiv. 1): cation of a child at school, previous to " Yet (says he) I show you a more excel- bis application to the higher pursuits of lent way," and then proceeds, in the chap- science, literature, or public life ; nor does ter before us, to show them that way as the accomplished scholar look back with consisting in LOVE to God and to each greater contempt on his first juvenile stuother. So Doddridge remarks, the word dies, than we, in a future state, shall look "must be here taken in the noblest sense, back on all our present attainments. Nor for such a love to the whole church, and is this at all incredible : all Europe was the whole world, as arises from principles struck with admiration at the scientific of true piety, and ultimately centres in discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton ; yet in God."
what light did he consider them in the This love is commended, 1. For its in- decline of life? “I seem (said be) like a dispensable necessity : without it all other boy who has been playing on the seathings are nothing. The eloquence of an shore, and amusing himself with picking angel would be as unmeaning as the clang- up curious shells and pebbles.” But with ing cymbal. The highest miraculous gifts how much more contempt must such a are of no avail; and even the most liberal man look down on these things, when he charities, or the most ardent zeal of mar- had launched into the ocean of eternity. tyrdom, are alike unacceptable to God, Secondly, St. Paul compares all the disunless they spring from love to him. 2. coveries of the present state to looking Love is commended for its many amiable through a medium imperfectly transparent, qualities. It is intimately connected with which gives but a very obscure view of the all the Christian graces : patience, kind objects; or, rather, to viewing them in a ness, meekness; whatever is virtuous, and brazen mirror (for such were the mirrors whatever is of good report. Lastly, Love is of the ancients, Exod. xxxviii. 8), by which praised for its durability—wben all other they were imperfectly reflected. These gists, and even graces, fail, this shall be are, indeed, the only ways in which we eternal,
can now view divine truths : we see them What is said of the failure of the extra either directly, and then obscurely, through ordinary gifts bere mentioned, is, by Bp. a dense medium, as viewing the orb of Warburton, applied to their withdrawment day through a fog : or we see them, as it from the Christian Church, when it became were, by reflection, in enigmas. This may established in the world; and thus, indeed, be somewhat elucidated by a reference to the fact was but the whole tide of com Num. xii. 8, in which the God of Israel mentators is against him ; and the latter challenges Aaron and Miriam, “ If there verses seein to have an evident reference be a prophet among you (that is, if either to a future state. The passage is, there of you be endowed with prophetic powers), fure, generally understood to refer to the 1, the Lord, will make myself known to cessation, not only of the extraordinary him in a vision, and will speak unto hin powers given for the first propagation of in a dream." But, as to Moses, it is added, the Gospel ; but also of all the knowledge "With him I will speak mouth to mouth, and wisdom in the world, which we have
even apparently (or by open vision), and
pursue.” The original word allades to the action of Ver. 4. Edifeth hinself-i. e. himself only. hunters in the chace. Seek to promote love (which Macka.Comp. 1 Peter i. 10-12. is the true charity), eagerly, earnestly, perpetually,