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and announces himself ] CHAP. V. [as Judge of the world. lasting life, and shall not come into is the Son of man. condemnation; but is passed from 28 Marvel not at this : for the huur death unto life.
is coming, in the which all that are in 25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, the graves shall hear his voice, The hour is coming, and now is, when 29 And shall come forth; they that the dead shall hear the voice of the have done good, unto the resurrection Son of Gud: and they that hear shall of life ; and they that have done evil,
unto the resurrection of damnation. 26 For as the Father hath life in 30 I can of mine own self do nohimself; so hath he given to the Son thing: as I hear, I judge: and my to have life in himself;
judgment is just; because I seek not 27 And hath given him authority mine own will, but the will of the Fato execute judgment also, because he ther which hath sent me. (O)
EXPOSITION. short of the miseries of an eternal state. take to think that the sabbath can be This discovery of Jesus, however, exposed sanctified by sloth and idleness. To heal him to the malice of bis enemies, who the sick, to relieve the poor, and to instruct even now sought his death, and would the ignorant, were the employments of the gladly have procured it, either by legal or Son of God, and are duties incumbent, not illegal means. They hated the light, be- only on all his ministers, but also on all cause their minds were full of darkness. his followers, as they have ability and op
portunity. But Jesus called God “his (0) Ver. 17-30. Jesus maintains the Father," with a familiarity which implied divinity of his character.-The charge is a peculiar relation to him as his own now turned from the poor patient who had Father. (See Note on ver. 17.) This they been cured, to the good Physician who had thought blasphemous, and it would have Wrought the cure. The Jews sought to been so, had he been a mere man, as they slay him because he had done these things : supposed. -Dot only for his direction to his patient Dr. Waterland justly remarks, that had to carry his bed, but because he had their inference been unjust, he would have Wrought this and other cures upon the had only to deny it; whereas, in the folhabbath day. This seeins to have been the lowing verses, he not only admits but jusway in which they endeavoured to get rid of tifies it, and claims honour equal to the the evideuce in favour of his divine charac- Father. ter and mission, by accusing him as a sab- Jn attempting to expound our Lord's bath breaker. Jesus now enters on his doctrinal discourses relative to the divine defence," My Father worketh hitherto, Being, we feel a peculiar awe, lest we and I work." It is true that the Almighty should step beyond the boundary of Reverested from his work of creation on the lation, which we believe has been the true sabbath day, and left us both precept and cause of all the theological errors with Crumple to do the same : but has the Deity which the church bas been afflicted : in Ceased from works of benevolence to men ? truth, we would rather stop short than step Are not his infinite energies perpetually beyond. We have already suggested our exerted on our behalf ? " My Father opinion that St. John, in the first chapter, Worketh bitlierto, and I work, and what has an allusion to Solomon's beautiful are my works but an imitation of bis infi- allegory in the 8th chapter of Proverbs, nite benevolence? He causes bis sun to where Wisdom is represented as the firstshine, and his rains to descend, both upon born of God the Father, brought up under the evil and the good; I exert the like bis immediate care, and, as a darling child, benevolence in healing the sick, and in- witnessing the mysterious process of the structing the ignorant." It is a grand mis- creation. When he prepared the heavens
NOTES. Ver. 26. Given to the Son to have life.-" Those have all we received,” &c. See chap. i. 4, 16. So who admit the doctrine of eternal generation, con- Dr. Guire, sider the Father as the fountain of Deity, and all the Ver. 27. Because he is the Son of man.- Camp. divine attributes of the Son, as consequently derived " A Son of man,” the Greek here omitting the usual Ituo him ; but we doubt if this passage bave that article. The first version implies, because he was meaning. We consider it as referring to the Logos, " the Messiah," the second, because he was a man : in his mediatorial character. In bim was Jile, aud but the difference is not great. See Dad, VII, 9-14. Ibe life was the ligbt of men, and out of his fullness Phil, ii. 5-11.
John the Baptist]
S. JOHN. [bare witness to Christ, 31 | If I bear witness of myself, my light: and ye were willing for a season witness is not true.
to rejoice in his light. 32 There is another that beareth wit- 36 But I have greater witness than ness of me; and I know that the wit- that of John: for the works which the ness which he witnesseth of me is true. Father hath given me to finish, the
33 Ye sent unto John, and he bare same works that I do, bear witness of witness unto the truth.
me, that the Father hath sent me. 34 But I receive not testimony from 37 And the Father himself, which man : but these things I say, that ye hath sent me, hath borne witness of might be saved,
me. Ye have neither heard his voice 35 He was a burning and a shining at any time, nor seen his shape.
EXPOSITION—Chap. V. Coutinued. -when he appointed the foundations of the houour the Son, even as they honour the earth.-Then (says Wisdom) I was by him, Father." as one brought up with him," and wit- The nibblings of criticism are here utnessed all his works. (Prov, viii. 22-31.) terly in vain, and only show a particular tenThus our apostle, speaking of the divine derness in some persons, lest they should Logos, says, “ The Son can do nothing of offend the Father by rendering too much himself, but what he seeth the Father do: honour to the Sou. But nothing like this for what things soever he doeth, these doetb is to be found in the inspired writers: they the Son likewise." Did the Father create represent the Lord Jesus as he whom the all things in the beginning ? No less true Father “delights to honour"-whom he is it of the Word, or Son of God : “ All hath clothed in his own robes of light and things were made by him, and without him glory-whom he hath placed upon his own was not any thing made that was made." throne, and hath stationed his own angels (Chap, i. 3.)
to attend him; and, finally, be bath so" For the Father loveth the Son, and lemnly declared, before earth and heaven, sheweth him all things that himself doeth that " he that honoureth not the Son, ho(as already instanced in creation); and be noureth not the Fatber wbich hath sent will shew him greater things than these, him.” (Compare Matt. xvi. 27; xxiv. that ye may marvel." Then our Lord goes 30, 31.) on to state' his participation in the most When our Saviour declares that “ the mysterious works of the resurrection and bour is coming, and now is, when the dead future judgment : « For as the Father shall hear his voice," he is generally (and raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them, we think justly understood to speak with even so the Son quickeneth whom he will." a double reference; first, to the quickening And as to the last judgment, “ the Father power of divine grace attending his minisjudgeth po man; but hath committed all try on earth, and rendering it successful judgment to the Son." And wherefore is among men dead in trespasses apd sius all this? Is it to show that the Son is in- (Ephes. ii. 1); and secondly, to the resurferior to the Father ? Most assuredly not rection of certain individuals from the It is, that notwithstanding, and, indeed, grave, as the widow's son, Lazarus, &c. ; because, the Son hath “humbled himself and he tells them they need not wonder at and become of no reputation"-because he this, as the time would hereafter come, “became obedient to death, even the death when “ ALL the dead” should hear his of the cross, “ therefore bath God (the voice, and obey it. Father) exalted him, and given him a Nor let it be supposed, that any of name above every name" (Phil. ii. 7-9), us are uninterested in this great event; for, “ that all (men and angels loo) should at the last day, all that are in their graves
NOTES-Chap. V. Con. Ver. 31. Vy witness is not true.-Wesley, “ Not Ver. 37. Ye have neither heard, &c.-The dil valid.” A man may bear a true witness concerning ferent reading we have given above, depends merely himself, but because it is his own, therefore is it in. on the insertion of two marks of interrogation; and admissible in evidence. See cb. viii, 13-18; also their insertion seems to have been first suggested Parkhurst in Alethes, iii.
by Mr. Turner, of Wakefield, in Dr. Priestley's HarVer.31. I receive not.--The Greek verb (lambano) mony: it is adopted and ably defended by Dr. Campis often used for taking in the hand, as bread or bell, and since by Dr. Boothroyd.--Nor seen his tishes. Camp. renders it exegetically, "I need no shape.-The Gr. cidos, evidently signifies any ohject human testimony."
of sigbt, even wben no definite image has been visiVer. 35. He was a burning and a shining light. ble; so it is used by the lxx. Exod. xxiv. 17; Num. Comp. Matt. v. 14-16.
ix. 16, 16 ; xii. . Comp. Deut. iv. 1%.
The duty of)
CHAP. V. [searching the Scriptures. 38 And ye have not his word abiding 44 How can ye believe, which rein you: for whom he hath sent, bim ceive hunour une of another, and seek ye believe not.
not the honjur that cometh from God 39 Search the Scriptures; for in only? them ye think ye have eternal life: 45 Do not think that I will accuse and they are they which testify of me. you to the Father : there is one that
40 And ye will not come to me, that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye might bave life.
ye trust. 41 I receive not honour from men. 46 For had ye believed Moses, ye 42 But I know you, that ye have not would have believed me: for he wrote the love of God in you.
of me. 43 I am cume in my Father's name, 47 But if ye believe not his and ye receive me not: if another shall writings, how shall ye believe my come in his own name, him ye will words ? (P) receive.
EXPOSITION. shall come forth; they that, being ani- evidence. (see Note on ver. 31.) “But there mated by a lively faith, bave “ done good is another who beareth witness,” referring (works,) to the resurrection of life" eter to God his Father, “ and I know (adds he) nal; and “ they that have done evil, unto that his witness is true," and valid, and inthe resurrection of condemnation.”
disputable---referring to the witness borne (P) Ver. 31–47. Jesus appeals to his from heaven at his baptism, “ This is heavenly Father, to John the Baptist, to my beloved Son."-"Ye sent messengers kis oun miracles, and to the Scriptures, in uuto John the Baptist, and he bare witness evidence of his divine mission.-Our Lord unto the truth.” “ But I receive not," or having before told the Jews, “The Son can rather take not, “ witness from men.” I do nothing of himself," now repeats it in look to higher authority. “The works the first person, “I can of mine own self which the Father hath given me to finish" do nothing;” but the two propositions do -the miracles I perform, the doctrines I not refer exactly to the same point. In the deliver, and the sufferings I am about to former he is speaking of his miracles, all endure-all “ bear witness of me"-all which were wrought in harmony with the testify the divinity of my character and divine operations of the Father. Here he mission. speaks of passing judgment at the last day: But the following verse demands a more “As I hear (says he) I judge;' that is, I particular attention. “The Father himjudge from evidence: “ and my judgment self hath borne witness of me: ye have is just, because I seek not mine own will, neither heard his voice at any time, por seen but the will of the Father which bath sent his shape," or appearance ; that is, the me." Nothing so much biases the mind glory of his person. It is true, that Deity in judgment as having some interest in the is invisible, and it is only in a figurative cause, or a will of our own to be consulted. sense that men can be said to hear his The will of Christ is wholly absorbed in voice ; yet we so frequently read of Moses that of his heavenly Father. So he prayed, and other prophets seeing the divine glory, when in the scene of his deepest mental and hearing the voice of God, that we are agonies, “ Father, not my will, but thine strongly inclined to read the passage inbe done
terrogatively, as is done by several modern In evidence of his mission, Jesus appeals critics and divines, as follows : “ Have ye first to his heavenly Father : “ If I only neither beard his voice at any time, nor bear witness of myself," says our Lord, seen his appearance and have ye not his "my witness is not valid" not admissible in word abiding in (or among) you, that ye
NOTES. Ver. 39. Search the Scriptures. The words may to a lion scouring the plain, to trace the footsteps of be read either imperatively or indicatively: our trans- a man who had robbed his den. See Leigh's Crit, Alors prefer the former: both Doddr. and Camp. Sac. be latter. But some read this also interrogatively, Ver. 43. If another should come in his own name, "Do ye search," &e. The term search is noted by -Some think this refers particularly to Barchoche
€ erities as remarkably emphatic and expressive. bas, a noted impostor in the succeeding age; but. Some take it as an allusion to miners in search of as Doddr, observes, there were many other false the precious metals: otbers think it refers to hunters Messiahs, senting their game; but Homer uses it in reference
Jesus feedeth more than] S. JOHN.
[ five thousand.
in the place. So the men sat down, | CHAP. VI..
in number about five thousand. AFTER these things Jesus went 11 And Jesus took the loaves ; and u over the sea of Galilee, which is when he had given thanks, he distrithe sea of Tiberias.
buted to the disciples, and the disci2 And a great multitude followed him, ples to them that were set down; and because they saw his miracles which he likewise of the fishes as much as they did on them that were diseased. would.
3. And Jesus went up into a moun- 12 When they were filled, he said tain, and there he sat with his disci- untu his disciples, Gather up the fragples.
ments that remain, that nothing be lost. 4 And the Passover, a feast of the 13 Therefore they gathered them Jews, was nigh.
together, and filled twelve baskets with 5 When Jesus then lifted up his the fragments of the five barley loaves, eyes, and saw a great company come which remained over and above unto unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence them that had eaten. shall we buy bread, that these may 1 4 Then those men, when they had eat?
seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, 6 And this he said to prove him: This is of a truth that prophet that for he himself knew what he would do. should come into the world.
7 Philip answered him, Two hun- 15 When Jesus therefore perceived dred pennyworth of bread is not suffi- that they would come and take him by cient for them, that every one of them force, to make him a king, he demay take a little.
parted again into a mountain himself 8 One of his disciples, Andrew, Si- alone. mon Peter's brother, saith unto him, 16 And when even was now come,
9 There is a lad here, which hath his disciples went down unto the sea, five barley lwaves, and two small fishes: · 17 And entered into a ship, and but what are they among so many? went over the sea toward Capernaum.
10 And Jesus said, Make the men And it was now dark, and Jesus was sit down. Now there was much grass not come to them.
EXPOSITION-Chap. V. Continued. believe not on him whom he hath sent?” catively or imperatively, they contain a The former question is understood to refer most important duty-the searching of the to the divine appearance which bore wit. Scriptures, which should certainly be diliness to the Saviour at his baptism, as gently attended to, by all who consider above-mentioned, when the Father testi- them as containing eternal life. But the fied from heaven, “ This is my beloved searching here is more than barely reading Son." The latter question relates to the them--more than idly criticising thein : the sacred oracles entrusted with them, of Jews did both these, but they did not seek which our Lord speaks distinctly in the fol. for eternal life in thein, or they would have lowing verse: "Search the Scriptures," led ihem to Jesus for that eternal life ; for or, as some read the text indicatively, “ Ye they spake of bim--and to “him gave all (do) search the Scriptures, for in them ye the prophets witness." think ye have eterual life, and they are
" We read the heavenly word, they which testify of me." (See Note on
We take the offer'd grace; verse 37.)
Obey the statutes of the Lord,
Walts. But whether these words be taken indi
And trust bis promises."
NOTES. CHAP. VI. Ver. 15. To make him a kiny Dod. land but, 1. They wished to avoid any of the peodridge suggests, that his ability of feeding multitudes ple following them. 2. They were sailors, and had by miracle might suggest to them, how casy it might got their boat, and therefore preferred going by be for bim to maintain an army!
water ; but a storm arising, instead of Bethssida, Ver. 17. Went orer the sea ioward Capernaum. they were driven farther, even to Capernaum. The Mark saye, "to the other side," as we read it; but
term other side, seems equally applicable to the Camp. renders it," and pass over toward Bethsaida." other end. Doddr. understands it, of the other side Now these places were all on the same side of the a creek, near Bethsaida. lake with Tiberias, and might all be travelled by
[on the water. - 18 And the sea arose by reason of a 20 But he saith unto them, It is I; great wind that blew.
be not afraid. 19 So when they had rowed about 21 Then they willingly received him fire and twenty or thirty furlongs, they into the ship: and immediately the see Jesus walking on the sea, and draw. ship was at the land whither they ing nigh unto the ship: and they were went. (Q) afraid.
EXPOSITION. | CHAP. VI.
sign, in order to spend some time in pri(0) Ver. 1-21. Jesus feedeth five thousand by miracle ; then withdraws from them, both night and morning, in the lonely and walks on the sea to his disciples.--Both solitude of a mountain. When evening these miracles having been already brought came on, the disciples, by his previous dibefore our readers, we shall here chieflyrection, took shipping to cross the sea or confine ourselves to incidents, or circum- lake of Galilee, toward Capernaum, while stances, not before mentioned. The mi- the people, finding themselves deserted racle of feeding 5000 men, beside women by Jesus not returning, as they probably and children, with a few loaves and fishes, expected, naturally dispersed themselves is recorded ly all the Evangelists : our re- to their several homes. marks have been confined to the narrative 2. We now find the disciples embarked of Matthew (cb. xiv. 14--21). We shall upon the sea, the night dark and stormy, subjoin two or three more.
and, what was worse than all, their MasI. We observe, that this being just be- ter was not with them. After rowing hard fore Passover time (ver. 4), alınost the for hetween 20 and 30 furlongs, they at last whole population of the country was now see an object upon the water, at which they gathering together (particularly of the are startled, and, in their agitation, conmales), and that a great part of them were clude it must be a ghost or spirit, which at a distance from home, aud had no oc- adds not a little to their terror. Their fears, cupation here, but to attend the feast; hear- 'wever, as often ours do, prove unfounded. ing, therefore, tbat a new prophet was arisen, It was their Master, whose care and symwho had wrought great miracles, they na- pathy had brought him to their aid, and imturally thronged to see and hear him; mediately as he stepped into the vessel, the and his miracles appeared so extraordinary, storm subsided, and they reached the land, and bis discourses so much superior to On tbis miracle, which is also related by those of their Rahbies, that they were un. Matthew, immediately after the preceding, willing to separate or leave bim, notwith we have there offered a few observations, standing the inconveniences of hunger and and shall bere add only a recollection of fatigue, Jesus, however, who felt for the principal circumstances from the Meevery one's sufferings but his owu, deter- ditations of the pious Bishop Taylor : mined at once botb to satisfy their necessi « He that left his Father's kingdom to ties, and to demonstrate his own miracu take upon him the miseries and infelicities lous powers. He did so ; and to make the of this world, fled from the offers of a kingdemonstration more complete, as well as dom, and their tumultuary election, as to exclude all waste, the fragments were from an enemy; and, therefore, sending gathered up, and filled twelve baskets, bis disciples to the ship before towards which showed that the surplus only, far ex. Bethsaida, he ran into the mount
mountaius to ceeded the food originally set before them. hide bimself, till the multitude should The people were hereby fully convinced scatter to their several habitations; he, in that he niust be the Great Prophet, so long the mean time, taking the opportunity of and so often predicted from the time of that retirement for the advantage of his Moses to that of Malachi; and, therefore, prayers. But when the apostles were far without consulting him, intended to take engaged in the deep, a great tempest arose, him by force," and proclaim him Mes- with which they were pressed to the last siah the King.'Our Lord Jesus, however, extremity of danger .... labouring in sadwhose kingdom was of a very different kind ness and hopelessness till the fourth watch from that which they contemplated, know- of the night, when, in the midst of their ing their design, withdrew from them, pro- fears and labour, Jesus came walking on bably while they were maturing their de- the sea, and appeared to them, wbich