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lieveth And these. In my nami speak
Christ appears to]
[his disciples. he goeth before you into Galilee : there ed not them which had seen him after shall ye see him, as he said unto you. he was risen. 8 And they went out quickly, and fled
15 And he said unto them, Go ye from the sepulchre ; for they trembled and were amazed : neither said they any into all the world, and preach the Gosthing to any man; for they were afraid. pel to every creature.
16 He that believeth and is bap9. Now when Jesus was risen tized shall be saved ; but he that beearly the first day of the week, he ap- lieveth not shall be damned. peared first to Mary Magdalene, out 17 And these signs shall follow of whom he had cast seven devils. them that believe ; In my name shall
10 And she went and told them they cast out devils; they shall speak that had been with him, as they with new tongues ; mourned and wept.
18 They shall take up serpents ; 11 And they, when they had heard and if they drink any deadly thing, it that he was alive, and had been seen shall not hurt them; they shall lay of her, believed not.
hands on the sick, and they shall re12 After that he appeared in ano. cover. ther form unto two of them, as they 19 So then after the Lord had spowalked, and went into the country ken unto them, he was received up
13 And they went and told it unto into heaven, and sat on the right hand the residue: neither believed they of God.
20 And they went forth, and 14 Afterward he appeared unto the preached everywhere, the Lord eleven as they sat at meat, and upworking with them, and confirming braided them with their unbelief and the word with signs following. Ahardness of heart, because they believ- men. (G)
preach the gospel to every creature;"_i.e. (G) Ver. 9-20. Jesus, upon his resur- of the human race. rectum, appears to certain women; and af- The Rev. Dr. Morrison, our learned and terwards to his Apostles, whom he commis indefatigable Missionary in China, before
to preach the gospel throughout the quoted, (p. 130,) seriously laments, that in torld.- Jesus appeared first to Mary Mag none of the churches of this country, estaSalene, on whom he bad wrought a miracle blished or dissentient, “ is there, in their a singular mercy, and to some other pious constitution or collective capacity, any
males, who immediately communicated provision made, either of men or of means, the joyful news to his Apostles and dis to obey the exalted Saviour's command.” ciples, to all of whom, at first, it appear After the first three centuries, the object ed incredible. Before his ascension, how died away from the recollection of Chriserer, Jesus appeared to all the apostles, tians, and it seems to have been generally had to more than 500 brethren. His last deferred to the age of the Millennium, Trearance is introduced here rather when the gift of tongues, it was supposed, uruptly, and must be connected with must necessarily be imparted " for the atthew's introduction, (Chap. xxviii, conversion of the world.” Within the last
18,) which has already been consider thirty years, however, the subject has been 1. Our farther remarks will be directed revived, miraculous powers have been la the commission here given to the apos found not absolutely necessary to fulfil es, and to the great topics therewith con our Lord's command, and more has been
done in the missionary cause, than for 13 The commission itself is here somewhat or 14 centuries before. If the propagation More generally expressed, than in St. of the Scriptures, the establishment of
EW: “Go ye into all the world, and schools, and missionary labours, continue
NOTES. were all in his come Es sol. iv.p.2.copy. See Horne's Introd. Ath Ver. 15, 16. Gore
Ver. 15, 16. Go ye, &c. - Compare Matt. xxviii.
19, 20. Part of whom he had cast seven devils.-See Ver. 18. They shall take up serpents, &o. See
Acts xxviii, 3-5
EXPOSITION-Chap. XVI. Continued. to increase as they have done for the last salvation ; but as baptism is that duty by 10 or 15 years, we may at least hope that which a person assumes the Christian proour children may live to see the dawn of fession, I apprehend the apostle (rather the millennial age.
evangelist) placed it here as the pledge of Another excellent Missionary, the late our whole obedience: and if this idea be Mr. Ward of Serampore, remarks, that correct, it will then be-he that believes “ Much stress is laid on faith, in the New and obeys shall be saved ;-an explanation Testament..... Faith is credence to a re- which makes the passage harmonize with port made. It is the nature of the tidings the whole body of Christian truth." helieved, which produces saving effects on (Ward's Reflections, p. 158, 9.) the heart and character. A man can With the propagation of this gospel to scarcely believe what the Scripture says of all vations, is connected the power of sin and its consequences, of judgment, working miracles, at that time absolutely and the everlasting punishment of the necessary to its universal propagation. wicked, without being deeply affected.... This power had reference to the casting The declaration that Christ gives pardon out demons-the gift of tongues--the to the condemned, liberty to the captives, healing of the sick and invulnerability rest to the weary, and life to the dead, to danger. These powers were bestowed must produce a powerful effect on the be in all their plenitude on the day of Penteliever, and tend to draw him to Christ for cost; and of the latter we have a striking à share in these blessings. The news of instance in the apostle Panl at Melita. the gospel then, it is plain, has a reference See Acts xxviii. 1-6.) to a prior state of danger, or want, or . Whether these powers shall ever be remisery: and as holding forth mercy to newed we pretend nut to determine; but the criminal, deliverance to the captives, on one point we are most clear; namely, and salvation to the lost, it is called good that the propagation of the gospel ought news (or gospel). This report, that there is not to be delayed for them. The facilities mercy for all the guilty who will truly seek of travelling, and of acquiring languages; it, is to be believed. He who feels himself the fame of European skill, and the proguilty, and believes the report, will neces- tection of the British power ;-have beer sarily come and put in his claim for the increased to a degree little short of mira blessing: and in proportion to the strength culous ; and nothing is wanting but the of his faith, he will be the subject of peace, outpouring of divine grace from above, ti joy, and gratitude.
give the gospel abundant success among " Baptism is here placed by the side of the rudest savages and the basest idola faith, as though it were also essential to tors.
THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
INTRODUCTION. " CONCERNING this Evangelist (says Mr. Horne), we have but little certain inforpation; from what is recorded in the Scriptures, as well as from the circumstances related by the early Christian writers, the following particulars have been obtained.
" According to Eusebius, Luke was a native of Antioch, by profession a physician, and for the most part a companion of the Apostle Paul. The report first announced by Nicephorus Callisti, a writer of the fourteenth century, that he was a painter, is now justly exploded, as being destitute of foundation, and countenanced by no ancient
riters. From his attending Paul in his travels, and also from the testimony of some of the early fathers, Basnag,e Fah icius, and Dr. Lardner have been led to conclude that this Eraszelist was a Jew; and Origen, Epiphanius, and others, have supposed that he was one of the seventy disciples : but this is contradicted by Luke's own declaration that he Ta not an eye-witness of our Saviour's actions.* Michaelis is of opinion that he was a Gentile, on the authority of Paul's expressions in Col. iv, 10, 11. 14. The most probable conjecture is that of Bolten, adopted by Kuinöel; viz, that Luke was descended from Gentile parents, and in his youth had embraced Judaism, from which he was converted to Christianity. The Hebraic Greek style of writing, observable in his writings, and especially the accurate knowledge of the Jewish religion, rites, ceremonies, and usages, every where discernible both in his Gospel, and in the Acts of the Apostles, sufficiently Evince that their author was a Jew; while his intimate knowledge of the Greek language, displayed in the preface to his Gospel, which is composed in elegant Greek, and his Greek pame (Loukas) evidently show that he was descended from Gentile parents. This conjecture is farther supported by a passage in the Acts, and by another in the Epistle to the Colossians. In the former (Acts xxi. 27), it is related that the Asiatic Jews stirred up the people, becausé Paul had introduced Gentiles into the temple ; and ju the following verse it is added, that they had before seen with him in the city, Trophimus an Ephesian, whom they supposed that Paul bad brought into the temple. No mention is bere made of Luke, though he was with the Apostle. Compare Acts xxi. 15, 17, where Lake speaks of himself among the companions of Paul. Hence we infer, that he was reckoned among the Jews, one of whom he might be accounted, if he had become a proselyte from Gentilism to the Jewish religion. In the Epistle to the Colossians (iv. 11, 14), after Paul had written the salutations of Aristarchus, Marcus, and of Jesus, surnamed Justus, he adds, who are of the circumcision. These only, be continues, are my fellow-workers (meaning of the circumcision) unto the kingdom of God. Then in the 14th verse he adds, Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, salute you.' As the Apostle in this passage opposes them to the Christians who had been converted from Judaism, it is evident that Luke was descended from Gentile parents,
We conceive this to be somewhat doubtful. Many think that his proem only implies that he was not * eye-witness from the beginning;" that is, not an Apostle , so Lardner.
S. LUKE. " The first time that this Evangelist is mentioned in the New Testament, is in his own history of the Acts of the Apostles. We there find him (chap. xvi. 10, 11) with Paul at Troas : thence he attended him to Jerusalem ; continued with him in his troubles in Judea; and sailed in the same ship with him, when he was sent a prisoner from Cæsarea to Rome, where he stayed with him during his two years' confinement. As none of the ancient fathers have mentioned his suffering martyrdom, it is probable that he died a natural death.” (Critical Introd, vol. iv. pt. 2. ch. ii. §. 4.)
Of the authenticity of this Gospel, there is no reasonable doubt, it being quoted by four of the apostolical fathers; by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Tertullian, Origen, and“ a host of later writers.” But some attempts have been made of late years to impugu the authority of the first two chapters, as containing an account of the miraculous conception; and it has been said that Marcion, the heretic, rejected them on that account, as be did also the third and part of the fourth. But if we listen to such objections, there are but few chapters of the New Testament that have not been objected to by some heretic or other. Many of the most eminent modern critics, as Griesbach, Marsh, and others, are of opinion that he rejected the whole, and not St. Luke's only, but all the other three, using only a compilation of his own. This objection is therefore not worthy of any serious attention.
It has, indeed, been intimated to us, that in the introduction to our first volume (p.iv.) we have spoken too strongly of the inspiration of the Evangelists, particularly Mark and Luke, neither of whom were Apostles, nor perhaps numbered among the seventy, nor even eye-witnesses of the facts which they relate. If they were not inspired, we frankly confess that we think they deserve but little credit. For what credit can we give to the relation of facts and discourses upon the authority of persons unknown, unless the relator be endowed with such extraordinary powers as may enable him to distinguish certainly between truth and error; that is, unless he be inspired ?
Farther, as many private individuals had already drawn up narratives of these events, what occasion was there for Luke to write upon the subject, unless he had the means of being either more full or more correct? Or how should the faith of Theophilus be rendered certain by the narrative of one who wrote merely on the evidence of others, without being inspired, and that too in the age of inspiration ?
Various other considerations are mentioned in Dr. Doddridge's " Dissertation on the Inspiration of the New Testament," appended to his E.cposition, which argue the necessity of admitting that Luke wrote by inspiration. He particularly quotes Origen, who reckons the four gospels in the order in which we have them, and places them in the number of those writings “ which were received as divine by all the churches ol God, and were the elements of the church's faith.” He also declares that if a man would not confess himself to be an infidel, he must admit the inspiration of the Scrip tures ; among which, we have seen, he includes the Gospels. So that it is difficult to allow any man to be a Christian who rejects the inspiration of the four commooly re ceived Gospels ; and we believe there are few who do this, that do not equally reject that inspiration of the New Testament in general.
The date of this Gospel is uncertain. Dr. H. Owen places it in A. D. 53; others a late as 63 or 64, which is the opinion of Dr. Lardner, who cites on the same side Mi Jer. Jones, Estius, Mill, Dodwell, and Basnage. (Sup. to Cred. vol. i. p. 79.) It is gene rally supposed to have been written chiefly for the use of Gentile converts to Christianity
Az angel appears]
he executed the Priest's office before CHAP. I.
God in the order of his course,
9 According to the custom of the FORASMUCH as many have taken Priest's office, his lot was to burn in
in hand to set forth in order a de- cense when he went into the temple of claration of those things which are the Lord. most surely believed among us,
10 And the whole multitude of the 2 Eren as they delivered them unto people were praying without at the s, which from the beginning were time of incense. eyewitnesses, and ministers of the 11 And there appeared unto him Word;
an angel of the Lord standing on the 3 It seemed good to me also, hav- right side of the altar of incense. ing had perfect understanding of all 12 And when Zacharias saw him, things from the very first, to write he was troubled, and fear fell upon unto thee in order, most excellent him. Theophilus,
13 But the angel said unto him, 4 That thou mightest know the cer- fear not, Zacharias : for thy prayer is tainty of those things, wherein thou heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall Last been instructed
bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his 5 THERE was in the days of name John.
Herod, the king of Judea, a 14 And thou shalt have joy and certain Priest named Zacharias, of the gladness; and many shall rejoice at course of Abia: and his wife was of his birth. the daughters of Aaron, and her name 15 For he shall be great in the tas Elisabeth.
sight of the Lord, and shall drink 6 And they were both righteous neither wine nor strong drink; and he before God, walking in all the com- shall be filled with the Holy Ghost,
andments and ordinances of the even from his mother's womb. Lord blameless.
16 And many of the children of 7 And they had no child, because Israel shall he turn to the Lord their that Elisabeth was barren, and they God. both were now well stricken in years. 17 And he shall go before him in
8 And it came to pass, that while the spirit and power of Elias, to turn
NOTES. CHAP. L Ver. 1. To set forth in order-Doddr. tion; which Mark indeed mentions, but Luke only
To compose the history;" Camp. " a narrative;" describes. From the very first.- Some render the 80 Boothroyd. Of those things that are most Gr.(anothen) “ from above," and found thereon an Erry behieved - Doddr. “ Have been confirmed an argument for Luke's inspiration, but as the among us with the fullest evidence;"_Camp. and term is equivocal, we think, with Doddridge, it is Brothr. “ Which have been accomplished ;”-Park too weak authority to support an inference so imkast, “ Fully proved,” or “ confirmed with the portant. fullest evidence."
Ibid. Most excellent Theophilus.-Some consider Ver. 2. Ministers of the word - Gr. “The Logos," this an epithet denoting the cbaracter of the person which term St. John, in the preface to his Gospel, named; others as an honorary title, in which sense applies personally to Christ; but as the same term is it is applied to Felix and Festus, when governors. ts all the Evangelists applied to the Gospel, either See Acts xxiii, 26; xxiv. 3; xxvi. 25. See Camp. preached or written, we think it would be wrong here Ver. 5. Herod, the king of Judeo-that is, “Herod to restrict its meaning.
the Great."- Zacharias, of the course of Abia.Ver. 3. Haring had perfect understanding This was one of the 24 courses into which David diTer. and Camp. Having accurately (or exactly) vided the priests, and that of which Abia, or Abijah traced all things from the first, or from their origin. was the head. Comp. I Chron xxiii. 6; xxiv. 10. - It seemed 9ood to me also....to write unto thee Ver. 15. Eren from his mother's womb.-See ver.41.
order-Camp. " A particular account;" Doddr. Ver.17. To turn the hearts, &C.- This is a quotaAn orderly account." From this expression, some tion from Mal. iv. 6, which see. The only doubt tete nderstood that St. Luke meant to pay parti remaining in the text seems to be, whether the pascular attention to the order in which the several sage should be rendered as in our translation, which &Tests occurred; this, however, does not appear to implies reconciliation and harmony among the peoSave been the case in every instance; but he cer. ple, or, as Doddr. renders it, to “ convert the hearts tainly gives a longer series of events, beginning from of the fathers with the children," which implies the " the very int," the vision of Zacharias, and con preparation of the people for Messiah. As these Listing bis narrative to the ascension of our Saviour senses are not inconsistent, the question is not iminto heater, which neither Matthew nor John men. portant.