The Lord's]

CHAP. XXVI. [supper instituted. will keep the Passover at thy house 23 And he answered and said, He Fith my disciples.

that dippeth his hand with me in the 19 And the disciples did as Jesus dish, the same shall betray me. had appointed them; and they made 24 The Son of man goeth as it is ready the Passover.

written of bim: but woe unto that 20 Now when the even was come, man by whom the Son of man is behe sat down with the twelve.

trayed! It had been good for that 21 And as they did eat, he said, man if he had not been born. Verily I say unto you, that one of 25 Then Judas, wbich betrayed you shall betray me.

him, answered and said, Master, is it 22 And they were exceeding sorrow. I? He said unto him, Thou hast said. fal, and began every one of them to 26 And as they were eating, Jesus say unto him, Lord, is it I ?

took bread, and blessed it, and brake

EXPOSITION. cepted the title from his apostles; and preme Power, and actually contributing to Judas must have been much disappointed, fulfil prophecy, as was certainly the case. when Jesus repeatedly refused the prof (See Zech. xi. 12, and Note.) fered royalty from the people in Galilee, But another motive probably rankled after the miracle of feeding the 5000, and in his heart: his Master had openly reagain after his public procession to Jeru. proved him before his fellow apostles, and salem." So far we agree with this learned not only justified, but applauded the wowriter, in bis New Analysis of Chronology man whom he severely censured. Satan,

Fol. Ü. F.877): but wben he goes on to always ready to encourage the evil passions seppuse tbat Judas meant to deliver his of mankind, might now suggest how hapMaster up to the Sanhedrim, “ in order to pily an opportunity was before bim to recompel aim to avow himself openly as the venge the supposed insult he had so recently Messiah before them, and to work such received. Revenge is one of the master miracles as woald convince, and induce passions of a rebellious heart, and forms thea to elect bien in due forin, and enable part of Milton's adınirable portrait of the him to reward his followers,"-We must fallen fiend hiinself :withhold our credence, since we see uo ground for such a surmise ; nor, indeed,

.............. Th' unconquerable will, can we admit any of the poor apologies

And study of revenge, in inortal hate,

And courage never to submit or yield." that some benevolent writers have attempt.

(Par. Lost, bk. i. p. 106.) ed to form in his behalf.

Judas was certainly covetous; and for a Satan thus feeling himself, we canuot coretous man to be bonest and faithful to doubt but that on taking possession of the his trust, seems impossible: yet the pal traitor's heart, it would be his first object try suru for which he betrayed his Lord, to make it the image of his owo. From beiag ouly thirty sbekels (ur, as we reckon this awful fact may we be taught to check, it, within 31. 93.), could hardly operate as and if possible to pray down, the first a temptation to take the life of an ordinary risings of this diabolical passion, against maa.' It is possible the traitor may have which our Lord himself has so strongly expected more; but the wretches with guarded us in his sermon on the mouut, whom he bad to treat, seeing him eager to (Matt. v, 45.) make the bargain, were not likely to treat When Judas had received the wages of kim with generosity: neither of the parties, iniquity, he souglit an opportunity to effect we may safely conclude, knew that they the crime, and he soon found it.“ Watch were acting under the coutrol of the su. harm, catch harm," is an old and true

NOTES, Tex. 30. He sat down-or lay down, as the word only of their fingers and hands, even in eating pot.

posture of the Jews, at the pass. tage, or what we call spoonmest; when their food is Que table especially, was not properly sitting, but of the latter kind, they break their bread or cakes recliainz. or lying along on couches, on their left into little bits, and din their hand.

into little bits, and dip their hands and their inorsels side. This pocuse was reckoned so necessary, that together therein." Shaw's Travels, p. 232. It is said the poorest man in Israel might not eat Ver. 24. It had been good, &e. - M. Saurin obdhe lies along.” One of the Jewishi writers says, serves, there is but one individual whose damna

We are boosd to eat lying along, as kings and tion is mentioned in the Scriptures as certain, Beat men cal,” because it is a token of liberty." namely, Judas, that sin which carried him to his a in loc.

own place, was avarice. Claude, vol. ii. p.71. Ver. 2. Beansreered and said-i.e. privately. See

Ver. 25. Thou hast said. - This was the most 12. tit. 376. Hethet dippetk his hand nith me in solamn way of expressing an affirmative. Towns. The disk. To this day, the Moors in Barbary, the Arabs, end's New Test. Arr., vol. i. p 51, N. 2936 te Mabopelans of India, in eating, make use Ver. 26. As they were ealing, Jesus took hread etter knives, forks, nor ofen of spoons; but as none but unleavened loaves, or rather cakes, NOTES-Chap. XXVI. Con. could now be eaten, it is most certain that no other Ver. 28. Of the New Testament - Doddr, and conld be used in this ordinance; yet few or no pro Camp. " Covezant." See Introd. to this volume testant churches consider this a circumstance of im. p. i. Also Mark xiy. 24. Expos. portance, though some are very particular in break Ver. 29. I will not henceforth drink, &c.-that is ing instead of cutting it; a circumstance more na I will celebrate with you no more passovers, &c. til tural and easy in cakes, or biscuits (such as the we meet in heaven. See Rev. xix. 9. On thi Jews still use), than in loaves like ours.

The Lord's]


[supper instituted. it, and gave it to the disciples, and 29 But I say unto you, I will not said, Take, eat; this is my body. drink henceforth of this fruit of the

27 And he took the cup, and gave vine, until that day when I drink it thanks, and gave it to them, saying, new with you in my Father's kingdoin. Drink ye all of it;

30 And when they had sung an 28 For this is my blood of the new hymn, they went out into the mount of testament, which is shed for many for Olives. (K) the remission of sins.

31 | Then saith Jesus unto them, All

EXPOSITION_Chap. XXVI. Continued. proverb: for when people are seeking pointment, Exod. xii. 1-28. We shall opportunities for mischief, the tempter here contine our attention to the Christian will always be ready to assist them. It is institution founded on it; and as that celea singular proof of the depravity of the brated the deliverance of Israel from human heart, that those who regard neither Egypt, so was it considered by the pious the engagements of honour nor of duty, Hebrews as an anticipation of their future can yet be faithful to their engagements to deliverance by Messiah. commit assassination or murder, even The Christian institution pressed so with the terrors of the law before their closely upon the Jewish, as to appear its eyes.

sequel or conclusion; being (as is re

marked by Dr. David Hunter) “solem(K) Ver. 17-30. Jesus keeps the pass. nized, not only in the evening of the same over, and institutes his supper. - Before we day, in the same chamber, and at the enter on this very interesting subject, it same table, but with the same bread and may be proper to confess that there are wine, with which it was usual to conclude several difficulties in the way of a critical the ceremony of the passover. The relaarrangement of the time and circumstan- tion between the two, in these respects, ces. Sir Isaac Newton and Mr. Ferguson served as a line of direction in tracing agree to fix the passover full moon, and other points of resemblance. For instance, the day of our Lord's crucifixion, on the 3d the passover was the memorial of a deliver of April, A. D. 33. But it is obvious that if ance. By the present institution, the disour Lord, as the antitype of the paschal ciples were directed to regard in the same lamb, suffered at the precise time that light the death of their Master. Their nolamb should be offered, he must have tions of deliverance by his death were taken his passover on the preceding even- erroneous and indigested. For this reason, ing; and yet, as the Jews began their days in the body of the institution, he corrects in the evening, still it may be admitted them. Yet the fixing the general idea of that (according to that reckoning) he suf a deliverance by the death of their Master, fered on the same Jewish day (Friday), was doing not a little for the composing though according to the Roman method their minds, and inspiring them with com(wbich was the same as ours), he kept the

he kept the fort....... passover on the Thursday evening previous “ The attention of Jesus to the comfort to his death ; whereas it appears the Jews of his disciples in the prospect of his death, did not keep theirs till after the crucifixion is strongly expressed by the soleinn action (John xviii. 28.) On the passover itself we itself. In all ages of the world, and in offered a few remarks at the time of its ap- every nation, eating and drinking together

fruit (Doddr. and Camp. “ produce") of the rin Ver. 26. He blessed it. The pronoun (il) is here it is not (karpos) the usual term for fruit, which i supplied thrice (as in many other places, Matt. xiv. here used : grapes are the fruit--wine the produce. 19: Mark vi. 41. &c. &c.), but whether it be under. Ver. 30. They sung an hymn-Marg. " A psalm. stood that Christ blessed the food, or blessed his Fa. The Greek is literally, “ they hymned.” Campbel ther for it, the sense will be the same. Our food can reads, “ And after the psalın they went out," & only be blessed to us by God's blessing attending it. The Jewish way of reciting their psalms an The margin of our English Bibles says, " Many hymns, was in a kind of chaont. See lntrod, to th Greek copies read, 'Gave thanks.'So Campbell. Book of Psalms, p. 3. The hymn here intended, wa

Ibid. This is my body. - For the doctrine of the most probably what the Jews call the great Halle church of Rome on this subject, and for a most mas as mentioned in the Exposition. terly refutation of it, we beg leave to refer to the Ver. 31. All ye shall be offended-literally, scan 4th or Mr. Fletcher's “ Lectures on the Rom. Cath. dalized. Peter, for instance, was both ashamed an Religion," before cited.

afraid to be thought a disciple of Jesus, thought

Peter's cowardice]

[foretold. ye shall be offended because of me this because of thee, yet will I never be Dight: for it is written, I will site offended. the shepherd, and the sheep of the 34 Jesus said unto him, Verily I flock shall be scattered abroad. say unto thee, That this night, before

32 But after I am risen again, I the cock crow, thou shalt deny nie will go before you into Galilee. thrice.

33 Peter answered and said unto 35 Peter said unto him, Though I him, Though all men shall be offended should die with thee, yet will l not

EXPOSITION. has been one of the ordinary expressions of bols of bis sufferings with the same comfriendship. In forming associations, men posure which he displayed in enduring bad been also in the habit of sacrificing them; .... and concluded this solemnity anibals, sometimes human victims; when with a hymn of praise, which, though an they did eat together of the flesh, and usual part of the passover service, enters drink of the blood, accompanying the into the other with great propriety; it reaction with curses on themselves, if they flects an agreeable light on the institution departed from their engagements. The itself; it expresses the dignity of its Author, Jews were allowed, nay, were commanded whose soul no fears, no certainties, could by divine authority, to partake of the sacri disquiet; especially if it be also remeinfices ofered to the Deity, in testimony of bered, that after singing the hymn, he imtheir interest in bis protection, and as a mediately entered on the scene of his sufpledge of their fidelity..... Wben (there- ferings." (Observations on the Hist. of fore) we see Jesus taking the bread and Jesus Christ, by the Rev. D. Hunter, D.D. wide, and offering them to his disciples, of St. Andrews, vol. ii. p. 186-193.) as the symbols of his body and blood, can We must not omit to remark, that on we conceive it possible for him to have this occasion Jesus gave the first intimagiven a stronger or more tender declara. tion that one of the twelve apostles should tion of that union between them, the bonds betray him; on which occasion, Grotius of which were indissolvable? What pur- well observes the three steps of the dispose could this institution serve, if his covery. First the traitor is described as death sbould prove the grave of their one of the twelve, then, that he was one hopes? Or in what sense could they be who sat near him, and dipped his hand in partakers of a body wbich was to moulder the same dish; and lastly, to the beloved into dast? The institution was intended John, he pointed out the individual : “ He to be the pledge of his love, and the che- to whom I shall give a sop"-and he gave rishing of their hopes, when they should it to Judas. When he said, “ One of the behold bim stretched out on the cross, or twelve," each made the enquiry,“ Master, copsigoed to the tomb. ......

is it I ?” Judas was the last to put the This institution was a preparatory exbi question, when he received an answer in bition of his own sufferings. He engages the affirmative. Those who are the last to in it with a soul, not only superior to all suspect their own hypocrisy, are generally uocasiness, but full of joy, from looking the first to prove it. forward to the effects of his sufferings..... Drs. Lightfoot and Gill, who of all comHe sits down with the twelve, having a mentators were the most deeply read in cruel death before him. He had often the customs and manners of the Jews, told them of the event; but they would have minutely detailed their forms in celebot believe it to be possible. In breaking brating the passover; but as these savour the bread, and in pouring out the wine, he much of Pharisaical superstition, we much es it most convincingly before their eyes. doubt whether our Lord conformed to them, All this indicates an undisturbed state of except it may be in the hymn chaunted on mind. He offers to the disciples the sym- this occasion, which was called the Great disciples.

NOTES. al talked so boastingly.

It is not unlikely, that term twice only means " repeatedly.” Bata Betonely proverb, that's great talkers do the least," greater difficulty is, that the Jewish authorities did Bight originate from this instance of Peter's cow not allow poultry to be kept in their city: it might, ACP As it is for itten, &c.-See Zech. xiii. 2.

however, be done, and it should be recollected, that Lusos. and Xotes.

the Romans had now a military guard there, which Ver. 14. Before the cock crom (Mark xiv.30, cron

was not under Jewish control. On comparing the teice) -Whitbs has produced sufficient authorities Evangelists, it appears to us that our Lord's meanto prase that there was a double crowing of the ing was, that Peter shonld den v bis Master thrice Esek-at midnight and at day-break; the latter an- between the present hour and that of the cock crowseered according to him, to the fourth watch of the ing: i.e. about the break of day. Dighi, though obers say the third. Perhaps the

Our Lord's agony] S. MATTHEW.

[in the garden deny thee. Likewise also said all the ciples, and findeth them asleep, ani

saith unto Peter, What, could ye na 36 Then cometh Jesus with them watch with me one hour ? unto a place called Gethsemane, and 41 Watch and pray, that ye ente saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, not into temptation : the spirit indee while I go and pray yonder.

is willing, but the flesh is weak. 37 And he took with him Peter, 42 He went away again the secon and the two sons of Zebedee, and be time, and prayed, saying, O my Fa gan to be sorrowful, and very heavy. ther, if this cup may not pass awa

38 Then saith he unto them, My from me except I drink it, thy will soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto done. death : tarry ye here, and watch with 43 And he came and found the me.

asleep again : for their eyes we 39 And he went a little farther, and heavy. fell on his face, and prayed, saying, 44 And he left them, and we O my Father, if it be possible, let this away again, and prayed the third tim cup pass from me: nevertheless not as saying the same words. I will, but as thou wilt.

45 Then cometh he to his disciple 40 And he cometh unto the dis- and saith unto them, Sleep on noi

EXPOSITION-Chap. XXVI. Continued. Hallel, and comprized from the 113th to greater part of the Christian church-th the 118th Psalms, inclusive. As to the is, the laity. They may have consecrat words of the institution, " This is my wafers, as a substitute for bread; but t body," and “ this is my blood,” it is well consecrated wine is only for the clerg! known that the Church of Rome fuunds It is remarkable, however, that our L. thereon the doctrine of transubstantiation, uses a term of universality respecting thi believing that every particle of the bread " Drink ye all of it." Mark adds, "10 and wine was literally converted into the all drank of it" (chap. xiv, 23); whi flesh and blood of the Son of God; which is term is not used in reference to the brea just as reasonable as to suppose Christ was as if the inspired writer bad foreseen al literally a way, a door, or a vine. Figura- wished to guard against a misapplicati tive language was so popular in the east, of our Lord's words. that it is scarcely possible the Jews could Jesus predicted, not only that one of 1 make such a gross mistake; yet if the ex disciples should betray him, but also th plication must be literal, it must be the another should deny him, and that! cup, and not the wine, that was converted peatedly, within a few hours, and in t into the blood of Christ: for so the Evan most awful manner. But the event at gelists Luke and John express it : “ This responded exactly with the predictid cup is the New Testament (or covenant) in Peter, the zealous, the courageous Pet my blood!" It is somewhat singular, that thrice denied his Master, and at last wi those who are so exact and positive as to oaths and curses! What a lesson de the conversion of the elements, should this teach us! “He that trusteth his of deny the benefit of one of them to the far heart, is a fuol.” (Prov. xxviii. 26.)

NOTES-Chap. XXVI. Con. Ver. 36. Gethsemane-a private and retired garden man, is “the portion of his cup." Ps. xxiii at the foot of mount Olivet, whither Jestis often re- xi. 9. tired for prayer, and where (as the name implies) an Ver. 40. One hour.-The Greek term, besides oil press Then, or formerly, had been used.

more limited meaning, is often used metaphorici Ver. 38. My sont is creeding sorrowful, &c. as with us, for any short time, or period. So ver Doddr. “Surrounded with sorrow;" Camp. (con Ver. 43. Their eyes were heary - Doddr.“ weig necting this with the preceding verse), “Being op, down.” pressed with grief, he said to them, My sonl is over. Ver. 44. The same words-or, “ words (or mat whelmed with a deadly anguishi." This is explained to the same eflect." Doddr. to mean, a grief of mind sufficient to kill the body; Ver. 45 Into the hands of sinners.--Though "a sorrow that worketh (or produceth) death." word includes sinners generally, it often refers See I Cor. vii, 10. Likewise Bp. Pearson on the ticularly to notorious and to Gentile sinners, Creed, Art. iv. Note on Matt. xxvi.

ji. 15), and will therefore here include the tra Ver. 39. Let this cup pass from me.--In passing and his company of Jews, as well as the Romans through the Psalms and prophetic Scriptures, we whose hands he was subsequently delivered. have had repeated occasion to illustrate this poetical Ver. 49. Hail-a usual salutation. The Gr. Si form of speech. Whatever partion, whether of joy

ever portion, wherner of joy fies"Joy to thee." The Saxon hail means "OCS or sorrow, peace or punishment, God assigns to Master--Gr. Rabbi.

He is betrayed)

[with a kiss. and take your rest: behold, the hour them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I

at hand, and the Son of man is be- shall kiss, that same is he: hold him traged into the hands of sinners.

45 Rise, let us be going : behold, 49 And forth with he came to Jesus, Le B at hand that doth betray me. (L) and said, Hail, master; and kissed

47 And while he yet spake, lo, him. Judas, one of the twelve, came, and 50 And Jesus said unto him, Friend, with him a great multitude with swords wherefore art thou come? Then came and states, from the chief priests and they, and laid hands on Jesus, and

took him. Now he that betrayed him gave 51 And, behold, one of them which

elders of the people.

2 Gette

Ver. 31–46. The agonies of Jesus cup! But, 2. That he felt the absolute
Tesadne, and his earnest prayer. necessity of his own obedience unto death
Limites bare reiparked the very strong for these ends; and therefore, though his
language of the original in these verses ; flesh recoiled (as it were) from the im-

bes bave speculated on the cause pending stroke, his heart cheerfully suband more of these sufferings of our Re mitted : “Father, nevertheless not as I will,

Tu!: yet those who best know but as thou wilt!" 3. When he says, 38941-aferings are, know but little, “Father, all things are possible unto 200 e20 cerceive but faintly, what our Sa thee,” shall we say, There is no other posFoar safered " in the days of his flesh, sible way in which God could have par

Ber be offered up prayers and supplica doned sinners? We dare not say this; tous, with strong crying and tears" to but we think the result warrants us in beled his beavenly Father. (Heb. v. 7.) lieving, that this plan was the most bonour

Let us, with Bp. Hall, treat the subject able to God, and beneficial to us. Surely more devotionally. "Wbat was it, what God would have “ spared his only begotmould it be, 0 Saviour, that lay thus beavy ten Son," if our Redemption could with

by divide soul; was it the fear of equal propriety have been purchased by death? Was it the forefelt pain, shame,

"Tas it the forefelt pain, shame, an inferior price. On such subjects, bowz terment of thine ensuing crucifixion ever, it becomes us rather to adore than **** How many thousands of thy blessed speculate. And while we humbly accept artins bave welcomed no less' (bodily) God's best gift to man, in the person of his starts with smiles and gratulations, and Son, let us also “ honour tbe Son as we mare made a sport of those exquisite cruel. honour the Father." Ties which their very tyrants thought un “ This was compassion like a God, seferable! Whence had they their strength,

That when the Saviour knew bat from thee? If their weakness were

The price of pardon was his blood, as todaunted and prevalent, what was

His pity ne'er withdrew.(Watts.) sy power? No, no : it was the sin of man We must not, however, leave this inteond; it was the heavy burden of thy Fa- resting topic without remarking the cirther's wrath for our sin, that thus pressed cumstances of our Lord's disciples at this thy soul, and wrung from thee these bitter most awful and affictive period. While expressions. "What cap it avail, O Saviour, the Saviour was agonized in prayer for to tell thy grief to men? Who can ease thee, them and us, instead of watching and but He of whom thou saidst, My Father is praying with him, they all fell asleepgreater than I ? Lo! to him thou tur est : asleep for sorrow; for well we know that

Fatber, if it be possible, let this cup pass oppressive sorrow will sometimes stupify from me!"

the faculties, and overwhelm with sleep. Bat what means this prayer? Could But wbere is Peter', who so lately vaunted not desus tell whether bis petition were his attachment to his Master? « Sleepest possible? Or could he pray for an impos- thou, Simon! Couldest thou not watch sibility? Neither of these circumstances one hour?” Alas! Simon turns himself, must be supposed : but the extraordinary and falls again, and again, to sleep. But language here used inay serve to teach us, still the merciful Saviour apologizes for 1. That our Lord deeply felt the extreme them ; « The spirit indeed is willing, but mature of the sufferings he was about to the flesh is weak.” The only reproof is a Eadure for our salvation : it is as if he had gentle irony. At length the enemy apsad, O that there were some other way in proaches, “ Sleep on now, and take your which God could be glorified and sinners rest!" But even this he sudde

. suddenly recalls, 1, without my drinking of this fatal 1 Let us rise, and go to meet is

1 2

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