Encyclopedia of Japanese Descendants in the Americas: An Illustrated History of the Nikkei

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The Encyclopedia is the first comprehensive guide to the history of Japanese immigrants in the western hemisphere over the last two centuries. It is the story of the Nikkei (people of Japanese descent and their descendants) from early immigration to the present as they settled in the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and the United States. Each chapter provides four primary areas of information: An historical overview, a bibliographic essay, an annotated bibliography, and supplementary materials including demographic data, and rare historical photographs. Contributing authors address common themes of work and recreation, family and community life. Noted scholars Gary Okihiro and Eiichiro Azuma provide key introductory essays on the historical context of Japanese migration from 1868 to the present. The Encyclopedia originated as a collaboration between the International Nikkei Research Project and a multinational team of fourteen institutions, with scholars from ten different countries. It is an impressive reference work for understanding the historical events, special circumstances, and individual and collective choices that shaped many Nikkei communities and the diversity of their experiences in the Americas. It is a valuable resource and fascinating, multi-faceted portrait of Japanese immigrants for many audiences: researchers of Japanese immigration, Ethnic Studies and Asian studies, as well as all people of Japanese and Asian descent. The Foreword is by United States Senator Daniel K. Inouye. The Encyclopedia is published in cooperation with the Japanese American National Museum and sponsored by the Nippon Foundation.

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Introduction and Overview of Professional Archaeology
1
12 Brief History of ExtraAcademic and Professional Archaeology
5
121 Initial Federal Involvement in Cultural Resources
7
122 WPA Archaeology and Its Influence on Modern Professional Archaeology
9
1221 Government Regulation versus Academic Independence
10
1222 Quality of Work under Deadline Conditions
11
Chosen Research Problem versus Circumstantial Research Problem
12
1224 Analysis and Publication
13
623 Site and Region Documentation
163
624 Contacts Public Relations
165
625 Labor Estimates
168
626 Staffing Needs
171
6262 Hiring or Assigning Field Personnel
172
Housing Per Diem Transport
173
628 Equipment and Supply Needs
175
629 Setting Up
176

123 PostWar and Formulation of Professional Archaeology
14
1232 Legislation Expansion of Government and Academic Growth
15
1233 Bifurcation
16
13 Current Structure of Archaeology in the United States
21
132 Archaeology outside of the University
24
Laws Regulations and Protocols
27
Section 106 Process
29
221 Section 106
30
2222 Significance and 36 CFR 60
33
2223 The Parties in the Section 106 Process
36
The Process
38
2225 Reexamination and Comment Detail on the Section 106 Process
41
223 Additional Factors and Agency Regulations
46
23 Additional Regulations and Requirements
48
232 Other Legislation Regulations and Guidelines
50
2322 Regulations
52
2323 Guidelines
53
25 Municipal and County Regulations
54
Proposals and Contracts
55
32 Government Contracts
58
322 Where Government Needs are Published
60
323 Responding to a Request for Proposals
64
3231 Contents of a Bid Package
66
3234 Technical Proposal
68
3235 Competitive Budget Estimates
70
324 Structuring and Negotiating the BestandFinal
74
33 PrivateSector Contracts
77
332 Locating PrivateSector Clients
78
333 Assembling a Bid Package
79
3331 Contents of a Bid Package
80
3332 Qualifications Statement
81
3333 Project Design and Working with the Regulatory Agencies
82
3334 Competitive Budget Estimates
84
334 Structuring and Negotiating the BestandFinal
85
Preparing the Project Background
87
42 Project History
88
422 History of the Project Area
91
4221 Interviews
92
4222 State Site Files Search
97
4223 SHPOTHPO StateTribal Historic Preservation Officer
99
43 Environmental Background and Soil Survey
104
44 Historic Background Narrative
106
45 Prehistoric Background Narrative
108
The Phase I Process Identification of Possible Historic Properties
111
52 Project Structure and Prefield Preparation
112
521 Site and Region Documentation
113
522 Contacts Public Relations
114
523 Labor Estimates
117
524 Staffing Needs
120
Housing Per Diem Transport
121
526 Equipment and Supply Needs
123
5271 Project Maps
124
53 Field
131
5312 LandUse History and the Soil Profile
136
532 Field Methods
139
5322 Setting Up Shovel Testing in the Field
141
5323 Doing Shovel Testing
143
54 PostField
153
542 Addressing Basic Phase I Issues
155
543 General Structure of Report
156
The Phase II Process Testing and Evaluation
159
62 Project Structure and Prefield Preparation
161
622 Research and Sampling Strategies
162
63 Field
177
632 Field Methods
179
6323 Execution of Field Work
181
633 Field Notes and Records
187
64 PostField
196
642 Addressing the Basic Phase II Issues
198
643 General Structure of Report
200
The Phase III Process Mitigation through Data Recovery
201
72 Data Recovery Plan
203
721 Project History and Background
204
722 Environmental Background
205
723 History of Site Investigations
206
724 Place of Site in Overall HistoryPrehistory
207
725 Research Issues and Re Significance
208
73 Project Structure and Prefield Preparation
211
732 Local Contacts Public Relations
212
733 Labor Estimates
214
734 Staffing Needs
217
7341 NonField Support Personnel
221
7342 Hiring or Assigning Field Personnel
223
74 Field
224
7411 Reconciliation with Maps of Previous Investigations
225
742 Excavation Management
233
7422 Notebooks and Record Keeping
237
743 Closing Field Operations
240
75 PostField
241
751 Collections Processing
242
76 Closing the Project
243
Laboratory Structure Processing Analysis
245
82 Basic Laboratory Structure
246
821 Physical Plant and Equipment Needs
247
822 Configuration
254
824 Management and Administrative Issues
256
8242 Corporate Administrative Issues
257
8322 Cataloguing
259
8323 Labeling and Preparation for Curation
260
8324 Data Bases and Related Management
262
833 Matrix Samples
263
84 Levels of Analysis
265
Data Manipulation
270
851 Ownership Curation Jurisdiction
271
852 Managerial Responsibilities and Miscellaneous Matters
272
Report Preparation and Production
273
92 Tasks Contents and Report Structure
277
9212 Analysis
279
922 Contents and Report Structure
282
93 Production and Assembly of the Draft Report
289
94 The Review Process
290
941 Section 106 Review
291
942 NonSection 106 Review
294
Core Federal Regulations and Standards
1
Prosection of Historic Properties
11
Secretary of the Interiors Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation
24
Basic Training
37
B112 Social Science
39
B113 ExtraDisciplinary
40
B12 Field Training
41
B13 Laboratory Training
42
B21 Library
43
References Cited
45
Index
57
About the Authors
75
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關於作者 (2002)

\Akemi Kikumura-Yano is an anthropologist and director of the International Nikkei Research Project. She is Vice President for Programs and Director of Research at the Japanese American National Museum and is the author of several books, including: Through Harsh Winters: The Life of a Japanese Immigrant Woman; and Promises Kept: The Life of a Japanese Immigrant Man.

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