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errors are more difficult to be corrected. To pronounce with a proper degree of slowness, and with full and clear articulation, is necessary to be studied ny all who wish to become good readers; and it cannot be too much recom mended to them. Such a pronunciation gives weight and dignity to the sub ject. It is a great assistance to the voice, by the pauses and rests which 19 allows the reader more easily to make; and it enables the reader to swell all his sounds, both with more force and more harmony
Propriety of Pronunciulion. AFTER the fundamental attentions to the pitch and management of th oice, to distinct articulation, and to a proper degree of slowness of speech what the young reader must, in the next place, study, is propriety of pronun ciation; or, giving to every word which he utiers, that sound which the bes usage of the language appropriates to it; in opposition to broad, vulgar, o provincial pronunciation. This is requisite both for reading intelligibly, ana for reading with correctness and ease. Instructions concerning this article may bc best given by the living teacher. But there is one observation, which it may not be improper here to make. In the English language, every word which consists of more syllables lhan one, has one accented syllable.-Tha accent rests sometimes on the vowel, sometimes on the consonant.
The genius of the language requires the voice to mark that syllable by a stronger percussion, and to pass more slightly over the rest. Now, after we bare learned the proper seats of these accents, it is an important rule, to give every word just the same accent in reading, as in cominon discourse. Many per sons err in this respect. When they read to others, and with solemnity, they pronounce the syllables in a different manner from what they do at other times. They dwell upon them, and protract them; they multiply accents on the same words, from a mistaken nolion, that it gives gravity and importance to their
ubject, and adds to the energy of their delivery. Whereas this is one of the greatest faults that can be committed in pronunciation; it makes what is called a pompous or mouling manner; and gives an artificial, affected air to reading, which detracts greatly both from its agreeableness and its impression.
Siseridan and Walker have published dictionaries, for ascertaining the true and best pronunciation of the words of our language. By attentively cone multing them, particularly - Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary,” the young reader will be inuch assisted, in his endeavours to attain a correct pronunc.a tion of the words belonging to the English language.
E:nphasis. BY emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller sound of coice, by which we distinguish some word or words, on which we design to lay particular stress, and to show how they affect the rest of the sentence. Sometimes the empha tic words must be distinguished by a particular tone of voice, as well as by a particular stress. On the right management of the emphasis depends the life of pronunciation. If no emphasis be placed on any words, not only is disa course rendered heavy and lifeless, but the meaning left often ambiguous. 11 the emphasis be placed wrong, we pervert and confound the nieaning wholly:
Emphasis may be divided into the superior and the inferior emphasis. The superior emphasis determines the meaning of a sentence, with reference to something said before, presupposed by the author as general knowledge, or removes an ambiguity, where a passage may have more senses than one. The inferior emphasis enforces, graces, and enlivens, but does not fix, the meaning of any passage. The words to which this lutter emphasis is given, are in general, such as seem the most important in the sentence, or on other accounts, to snerit this disunction. The following passage will serve lo ex cmplify the superior emphasis :
* Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit
" Sing, heavenly Aluse!" Suppusmg that originally other beings Les.des men, had disobcyed the misoads of the shinighty, and that the circuriista: .ce wcre well known to
us, there would fall an emphasis upon the word man's in the first line; and hence, it would read thus :
“Of man's first disobedience, and the frut,” &c. But if it were a notorious truth, that mankind had transgressed in a pecu liar manner more than once, the emphasis would fall on first; and the line be read,
“Of man's first disobedience,” &c. Again, admitting death (as was really the case) to have been an unlard of and dreadful punishment, brought upon man in consequence of his trans xression; on that supposition the third line would be read,
Brought death into the world,” &c. But if we were to suppose, that mankind knew there was such an evil ar death in other regions, though the place they inhabited had been free froin in ill their transgression, the line would run thus :
Brought death into the world," &c. The superior emphasis finds place in the following short sentence, which admits of four distinct meanings, each of which is ascertained by the empha sis only,
.“ Do you ride to town to-day?" The following examples illustrate the nature and use of the inferior em phasis ;
“Many persons mistake the love, for the practice of virtue.”
" Shall I reward his services with falsehood ? Shall I forget him who can not forget me ?"
“ If his principles are false, no apology from himself can make them right. ir founded in Trith, no censure from others can make them wrong.
Though deer, yet clear; though gentle, yet not dull;
Strung, without rage; without o'erflowing, fiul.” A friend exaggerates a man's virtues; an enemy, his crimes.” " The wise man is happy, when he gains his own approbation ; the fool. vhen he gains that of others."
The superior emphasis, in reading as in speaking, must be determined en .irely by the sense of the passage, and always made alike; but as to the inse rior ein phasis, taste alone seems to have the right of fixing its situation and quantity.
Among the number of persons, who have had proper opportunities of learning to read, in the best manner it is now taught, very few could be selected, . ۱۷: in a given instance, would use the inferior emphasis alike, either as tó place or quantity. Some persons, indeed, use scarcely any degree of it: and Others do not scruple to carry it far beyond any thing to be found in common discourse; and even sometimes throw it upon words so very trifling in them6clves, that it is evidently done with no other view, than to give a greater variety to the modulation.* Notwithstanding this diversity of practice, there are certainly proper boundaries, within which this emphasis must be restrainEd, in order to make it meet the approbation of sourid judgment and correct sle. Ti will doubtless have different degrees of exertion, according to the greater or less degree of importance of the words upon which it operates; and there way be very properly some variety in the use of it: but its applica. tion is act arbitrary, depending on the caprice of readers.
As emphasis often falls on words in different parts of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued, with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify botn the
** By modulation is meant, that pleasing varicty of roice, willen 39 perceiro ed in uttering a sentence, and which in its nature, is perfectly distinct from emphasis, and the tones of emotion and passion. The young reader slauld be careful to render his modulation correct and easy; and, for this purpose, wwuid fursa it upon the model of the most judicious and accurale speaker
parts of this position: " If you seek to make one rich, study not "o increase
his stores, but to diminish his desires." “The Mexican figures, or pic
ture-writing, represent things, not words; they exhibit images to the eye, “not illeas to the understanding."
Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphalical: as, “Yc hills and dales, yc rivers, woods, and plains !", or as that pathetic expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel, “Why will e die!"
Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great 'regulaior of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed, in words separavely pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are arranged in sentences; ile lorig being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of thi word with regard to meaning. Emphasis also, in particular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This is demonstrable from the following examples: "He shall increase, but I shall decrease." “ There is a difference between giving and forgiving." “ In this species of composition, plausibility is inuch inore essential than probability." ' In these examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on syilables to which it does not commonly belong.
In order to acquire the proper management of the emphasis, the great rule to be given is, that the reader study to atlain a just conception of the force and spirit of the sentunents which he is lo pronounce. For to lay the em phasis with exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and 9:1ere lion. It is far from being an inconsiderable attainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true and just laste; and must arise from feeling delicately ourselves, and from judging accurately of what is fittest-to strike the feelings of vihers.
'There is one error against which it is particularly proper to caution the learner; nanely, that of multiplying emphatical words too muci, and using the emphasis indiscriminately. It is only by a prudent reserve and distinction in the use of them, that ivc can give them any weight. If they recur too often; if a reader attempts to render every thing he expresses, of ligh importance, by a multitude of strong emphasis, we suon learn to pay litile regard to them. To crowd every sentence with emphatical words, is like crowding all the pages of a book with Italic characters: which, as to the effect, is just the same as to use no such distinctions at all.
Tones. TONES are different both from emphasis and pauses; consisting in the notes or variations of sound which we employ, in the expression of our sen. iments. Empliasis affects particular words and phrases, with a degree of tone, or inflexion of voice; but tones, peculiarly so called, affect sentences, paragraphs, and some times the whole of a discourse.
To siiow the use and necessity of lones, we need on!y observe, that the mind. in communicating its ideas, is in a constant state of activity, cmotion, or agitation, froin the different effects which those ideas produce in the speaker. Now the end of such communication being not merely to lay open the ideas, but also ihe different feelings which they excite in him who uiters them, there must be other signs than words, to manisest those feelings; as words uttered in a nionotonous manner can represent only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from all activity and emotion. As the communication of these internal feelings was of much more consequence in our social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas, the Author of our veing did not, as in that conveyance, leave the invention of the language of emotion to man; but impressed it himself upon our nature, in the same manner as he has dune with regard to the rest of the animal world; all of which express their various feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the superior rank that we hold, are in a high degree more comprehensive; as there is not an act of the mind, an exertior of the fancy, or an emotion of the heart, which has not its peculiar tone, or note of the voice, by which it is to be expressed ; and which is suiled rixactly to the degree of internal feeling. It is chicfly in the proper use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty, and harmony of delivery consist,
The limits of this introduction do not admit of examples, to illustrate the variety of tones belonging to the different passions and emotions. We shall
, however, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of Da e bør Soul undi jonatiane armi wisich will, in some degree, elucidate ivhaused
pot in the streets of Askelon ; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice ; lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph. Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings; for there the shield of the mighty was vilely, cast away; the shield of Saul, as though he had not been anointcd with oil.” The first of these divisions, expressés sorrow and lamentation ; therefore the vote is low. The next contains a spirited command, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic address to the mountains where his friends had been slain, must be expresscd in a note quite differeat from the two former; not so low as the first, nor so high as the second, but in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.
The correct anil natural language of the emotions is not an difficult to be attained as inost readers seem to imagine. If we enter into the spirit of the allthor's sentiments, as well as is in the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliver the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people, who speak English withont a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in earnest discourse. And the reason that they have not the saine use of them in reading aloud the sentiments of others, may be traced to the very defective and erroneous method in which the art of reading is taught; whereby all the various, natural, expressive tones of speech are suppressed ; and a few artificial,' urmeaning reading notes, are substituted for them.
But when we recommend to readers, an attentio : tone and language of emotions, we must be understood to do it with proper limitation. Mojera. tion is necessary in this point, as it is in other things. For when the reading becomes strictly imitative, it a sumes a theatrical manner, and must be liighly improper, as well as give offence to the hearers ; because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty which are indispensable on such occasions. The speaker who delivers his own emotions, must be su posed to be more vivid and animated tiran would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.
We shall conclude this section with the following rule for the tones that indicate the pilssions and emotions : “In reading, let all your tones of expression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in some degree, more faintly characterized. Let those tones wich signify any disagreeable passion of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions : and on all occasions preserve yourselves froin being so far affected with the subject, as to be unable to proceed through it, with that easy and masterly manner, which has its good effects in this. a well as in evrry other
Pauses. PAUSES, or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total cessation of the voice, during a preceptiblc, ảnd, in inany cases, a measurable space of time. Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker and tise hearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in dclive. r"; and that he may, by these temporary rests, relieve the organs of speech which otherwise would bc snon tired by continueu action; to the hearer, that The ear, also, may be relieved from the fatigue which it wouid otherwise endure 'rom a continuity of sound ; and that the understanding may have sufficient ime to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several members.
There are two kinds of pauses; first, emphatical pauses : and next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical pause is generally made after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Sometimes, before such a thing is said, we usher it in with a pause of this nature. Sach pauses have the same effect as a strong emphasis ; and are subject to the same rules ; especially to the caution of not repeating them too frequently: For as they excite uncommon attention, and of course raise cxpectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully an. swerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointinent and disgust.
But the niost frequent and the principai use of pauses, is to inark the dirisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breuth; ed the proper anıl delicate adjuatracot of such pauscs, is one of t.eustnice
and difficult articles of delivery. ' In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that they ougnt to be pro nounced with the same breath, and without the least separation. Many a sentence is miserably mangled, and the force of the emphasis totally lost, by divisions being made in the wrong place.. To avoid thuis, every one, while he is reading, should be very careful to provide a full supply or breathi for what he is to ulter, It is a great mistake to imagine, that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the voice is allowed lo fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and, by this management, une may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest scutence, without improper interruptions.
Pauses in reduing inust generally be formed upon t!e manger in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation; and not upon the stiffarli. Gcial manner, which is acquired from reading book's according to the cominen pur.ctuation. It will by no means be sufficient to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauscs which ought to be made in reading. mechanical attention to these resting places, las perhaps been one cause of monolony, by leading the reader to a similar ione at every stop, and a uniforın cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is . to assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction; and is is only as a secondary object, that they regulate its pronunciation. On this henii, the following direction may be of use: “Thoug! in reading, great aitention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense; and their correspondent times occasiolially lengthened beyond what is usual in common speech.
To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be made in the right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pauses is intiinated, much more than by ihe length of them, which can seldom bc exactly measured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper; sometimes a degree of cadence in the voice is required; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which dcnote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate our selves by attending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when engaged in real and earnest discourse with others. The following scnlerce excmplifics the susper.ding and the closing pauses: “Hope, th:e baken of life, southes us under every misfortune.” The first and second pauses are accom: panied by an inflection of voice, that gives the hearer an expectation of something further to cumplete the sense: The infection attending the nird pause signifies that the sense completed.
The preceding example an illustration of the suspending panse, in its simple state: the followilig instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice : “If content cannot reinove the disquietudes of mankin à, it will at least alleviate them."
The suspending pause is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice; as will be seen in this example : “Mi derate exercise', and habitual temperance', strengthen the consitution."*
As the suspending pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the fall. ing inflection, it is the same with regard to the closing pause: it admits of bolli, The falling inflection generally accompanies it; but it is not unfrequently con. nected with the rising infection. Interrogative sentences, for instance, are often terminated in this inanner: as, Am I ungrateful'?” “Is he in earnest'?":
But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, it is eommonly terminated by the falling inflection. as, “What has he gained by his folly f" “Who will assist liim'?” “Where is the messenger 2018 “Whea did he arrivel?"
When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected by the con fimction or, the first takes the rising, the second the fallingsinflection: 4 * Does his conduct support discipline', or destroy it' ?"
The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with emphasis.
Tserising inflection is denoted by the acute; the falling, by the grave accent