When this Pickthank had told his tale, the judge directed his speech to the prisoner at the bar, saying, Thou renegade, heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee?

Faith. May I speak a few words in my own defence? Judge. Sirrah, sirrah, thou deservest to live no longer, but to be slain immediately upon the place; yet that all men may see our gentleness towards thee, let us hear what thou, vile renegade, hast to say?

Faith. I say then, in answer to what Mr. Envy hath spoken, I never said aught but this, that what rule, or laws, or custom, or people, were flat against the word of God, are diametrically opposite to christianity. If I have said amiss in this, convince me of my error, and I am ready here before you to make my recantation.

As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his charge against me, I said only this, that in the worship of God there is required a divine faith; but there can be no divine faith without a divine revelation of the will of God. Therefore, whatever is thrust into the worship of God that is not agreeable to divine revelation, cannot be done but by an human faith, which faith will not be profitable to eternal life.

As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say (avoiding terms, as that I am said to rail, and the like), that the prince of this town, with all the rabblement, his attendants, by this gentleman named, are more fit for being in hell than in this town and country; and so the Lord have mercy upon me.

Then the judge called to the jury (who all this while stood by to hear and observe), Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man about whom so great an uproar hath been made in this town; you have also heard what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed against him; also you have heard his reply and confession; it lieth now in your breasts to hang him, or save his life; but yet I think meet to instruct you in our law.

There was an act made in the days of Pharaoh the great, servant to our prince, that lest those of a contrary religion should multiply and grow too strong for him,

their males should be thrown into the river.'-There was also an act made in the days of Nebuchadnezzar the great, another of his servants, that whoever would not fall down and worship his golden image, should be thrown into the fiery furnace. There was an act also made in the days of Darius, that whoso for some time called upon any god but him, should be cast into the lions' den. Now the substance of these laws this rebel hath broken, not only in thought (which is not to be borne), but also in word and deed; which must therefore needs be intolerable.

For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a suspicion to prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crime apparent. For the second and third, you see he disputeth against our religion; and for the treason he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death.

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Then went the jury out,* whose names were Mr. Blindman, Mr. Nogood, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Liveloose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate light, and Mr. Implacable; who every one gave in his private verdict against him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the judge. And first among themselves-Mr. Blindman, the foreman, said, 'I see clearly that this man is an heretic.' Then said Mr. Nogood, Away with such a fellow from the earth.' 'Ay,' said Mr. Malice, for I hate the very looks of him.'Then said Mr. Love-lust, I could never endure him.' Nor I,' said Mr. Live-loose, for he would always be condemning my ways.' Hang him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub,' said Mr. High-mind. My heart riseth against him,' said Mr. Enmity. 'He is a rogue,' said Mr. Liar. Hanging is too good for him,' said Mr. Cruelty. Let us dispatch him out of the way,' said Mr. Hate-light. Then said Mr. Implacable, Might I have all the world given me, I could not be reconciled 1 Exod. i. 2 Dan. iii. 3 Dan. vi.

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*Then went the jury out.] Mr. Bunyan has here very faithfully copied the mode of jurisprudence adopted in our courts of justice. His own indictment, and the legal process at his own trial, suggested

these ideas.

to him therefore let us forthwith bring him in guilty of death.' And so they did; therefore he was presently condemned to be had from the place where he was, to the place from whence he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented.

They therefore brought him out to do with him according to their law; and first they scourged him, then they buffetted him, then they lanced his flesh with knives: after that they stoned him with stones, then pricked him with their swords; and last of all they burned him to ashes at the stake.* Thus came Faithful to his end.

Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude, a chariot and a couple of horses waiting for Faithful, who, as soon as his adversaries had dispatched him, was taken up into it, and straightway was carried up through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the Celestial Gate. But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to prison; so he there remained for a space: but He that over-rules all things, having the power of their rage in his own hand, so wrought it about, that Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way.

And as he went, he sang, saying,

• Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully profest
Unto thy Lord, of whom thou shalt be blest:
When faithlefs ones, with all their vain delight,
Are crying out under their hellish plight:
Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive;
For though they kill'd thee, thou art yet alive.

They burnt him to ashes at the stake.] This cruel and horrible mode of punishment was reserved for the Church of Rome to exercise upon those, whom, in her great wisdom, she has denominated heretics.-William Sawtree, a clergyman, was the first victim to the Aames, for the protestant faith, in the reign of Henry the Fourth.In the reign of Queen Mary, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London, Worcester, Gloucester, and St. David's, a great number of the inferior Clergy, Gentry, Mechanics, and several Females, experienced the same fate. The glorious army of martyrs praise thee O God!


Christian meets with another excellent companion in Hopeful-Dialogues between them, By-ends, Money-love, and Demas.


OW I saw in my dream that Christian went not forth alone; for there was one whose name was Hopeful, (being so made by the beholding of Christian and Faithful in their words and behaviour in their sufferings at the fair), who joined himself unto him; and, entering into a brotherly covenant, told him that he would be his companion. Thus one died to bear testimony to the truth, and another rises out of his ashes to be a companion with Christian in his pilgrimage. This Hopeful also told Christian that there were many more of the men in the fair that would take their time and follow after.

So I saw that quickly after they were got out of the fair, they overtook one that was going before them, whose name was By-ends: so they said to him, What countryman, Sir? and how far go you this way? He told them that he came from the town of Fair-speech, and he was going to the Celestial City, but told them not his name. From Fairspeech! said Christian: is there any good that lives there ?1

Yes, said By-ends, I hope.

Pray Sir, what may I call you? said Christian.

By. I am a stranger to you, and you to me: if you be going this way, I shall be glad of your company; if not, I must be content.

This town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have heard of, and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place. By. Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very many rich kindred there.

Chr. Pray who are your kindred there, if a man may be so bold.

By. Almost the whole town: and in particular, my Lord Turn-about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord Fairspeech, from whose ancestors that town first took its name: also Mr. Smooth-man, Mr. Facing-both-ways, Mr. Any-thing; and the parson of our parish, Mr. Two1 Prov. xxvi. 23.

tongues, was my mother's own brother by father's side: and, to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good quality, yet my great-grandfather was but a waterman, looking one way and rowing another; and I got most of my estate by the same occupation.

Chr. Are you a married man?

By. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous woman, the daughter of a virtuous woman; she was my Lady Feigning's daughter, therefore she came of a very honourable family, and is arrived to such a pitch of breeding, that she knows how to carry it to all, even to prince and peasant. It is true we somewhat differ in religion from those of the stricter sort, yet but in two small points: First, we never strive against wind and tide :-Secondly, we are always most zealous when Religion goes in his silver slippers; we love much to walk with him in the street, if the sun shine, and the people applaud him.

Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow Hopeful, saying, It runs in my mind that this is one Byends, of Fair-speech; and if it be he, we have as very a knave in our company as dwelleth in all these parts,― Then said Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should not be ashamed of his name. So Christian came up with him again, and said, Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all the world doth; and, if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess of you: is not your name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech?

By. This is not my name, but indeed it is a nick-name that is given me by some that cannot abide me, and I must be content to bear it as a reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me,

Chr. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by this name?

By. Never, never! the worst that ever I did to give them an occasion to give me this name was, that I had always the luck to jump in my judgment with the present way of the times, whatever it was; and my chance was to get thereby. But if things are thus cast upon me, let me count them a blessing; but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach.

Chr. I thought indeed that you were the man that Į

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