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ing them was the destruction. Would you know who it is that gives this assurance? It is one who is able to make good his word: one who loved you so well as to die for you; yet one too great to be held a prisoner in the grave. No; He rose with triumph and glory, the first-born from the dead, and will, in like manner, call from the dust of the earth all those who put their trust and confidence in Him.

where her wit, and learning, and beauty, acquired her a brilliant reputation Her husland had long been on intimate terms with Addison, Pope, and other eminent literary men of the day, and in that society she moved with the same bastre as in the circles of rank and fashion. In 1716, her husband was apprinted ambassador to the Porte, and she accompanied him to Constantinople. During her residence here she addressed to her sister, to Mr. Pope, and other friends, the celebrated Letters upon which her fame principally rests. In mis her husband being recalled from his embassy, she returned to England, aed, by the advice of Pope, settled at Twickenham. The warm friendship between these geninses did not, however, very long continue; a coolness and Lalí an open quarrel ensued. The cause of it is involved in considerable Desery, bat it is probable that the vanity and irritability of the poet were gut as much to blame as the levity and heartlessness of the lady,

Lady Mary's visit to Turkey, besides producing the Letters, is famous for Litig been followed by the introduction into England, through her means, di te practice of the innoculation for the small-pox. Observing this practice eing the villages in Turkey, and seeing its good effects, she applied it to a own son, then about three years old, and by great exertions established de practice of innoculation in England. She resided in England for twenty fears after her return from Constantinople, during which time she published 2 considerable quantity of verse, for it hardly deserves the name of poetry. It is enough to say of it, that, from its indelicate character, it has been excluded

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CHRIST AND MOHAMMED CONTRASTED. Go to your Natural Religion : lay before her Mohammed and his disciples arrayed in armor and in blood, riding in triumph over the spoils of thousands and tens of thousands who fell by his victorious sword: show her the cities which he set in flames, the countries which he ravaged and destroyed, and the miserable distress of all the inhabitants of the earth. When she has viewed him in this scene, carry her into his retirements : show her the prophet's chamber, his concubines and wives; let her see his adultery, and hear him allege revelation and his divine commission to justify his lust and his oppression. When she is tired of this prospect, then show her the blessed Jesus, humble and meek, doing good to all the sons of men, patiently instructing both the ignorant and the perverse : let her see him in his most retired privacies : let her follow him to the mount, and hear his devotions and supplications to God: carry her to his table to view his poor fare, and hear his heavenly discourse : let her see him injured, but not provoked : let her attend him to the tribunal, and consider the patience with which he endured the scoffs and reproaches of his enemies : lead her to the cross, and let her view him in the agony of death, and hear his last prayer for his persecutors: “ Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do!" When Natural Religion has viewed both, ask, Which is the prophet of God? But her answer we have already had, when she saw part of this scene through the eyes of the centurion who attended al the cross : by him she said, “ Truly, this was the Son of God."

won the modem editions of her works. For reasons, the nature of which is I tell known, she left England in 1739 without her husband, and resided most of the time, for twenty-two years, in Italy. She was prevailed upon, by De solicitations of her daughter, to return to England in 1761; but she did rt surtive her return to her native country a year, dying of a cancer in the

bras, August 21, 1762

Lady Montagu owes her reputation chiefly to her Letters from Constanti. wope. The picture of Eastern life and manners given in them, is in general le siglect as it is clear, lively, and striking and they abound not only in wit od mimor, but in a depth and sagacity of remark conveyed in a style at once fining and forcible, such as has rarely proceeded from a female pen. But the literary qualities are more than counterbalanced by the want of that triang, that refinement of feeling, and those pure moral sentiments, without Vrh the female character is any thing but an object of admiration. Her Beste to convey scandal, or to paint graphically, leads her into offensive do. is, which the more decorous taste of the present age can hardly tolerate. Se described what she saw and heard without being scrupulous; and her strong masculine understanding, and carelessness as to refinement in habits et expressions, render her sometimes apparently unamiable as well as unfeel

Still her letters are models of epistolary style, and from thom, as such, se present a few extracts that are unexceptionable.

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU. 1690-1762.

EASTERN MANNERS AND LANGUAGE.

ADRIANOPLL, April 1, 0. S. 1717

Tus lady, the daughter of Evelyn, Earl of Kingston, was born at her Intber's seat at Thoresly, in Nottinghamshire, about the year 1690. Display ing great attractions of person as well as sprightliness of mind from her carli est years, she was the pride of her father, who took every pains with biet education, and had her instructed by the same masters as her brother in the Greek, Latin, and French languages. In 1712 she was married to Edward Wortley Montagu, Esq., and soon after this, resided principally in London

" I no longer look upon Theocritus as a romantic write.
be bras only given a plain image of the way of life amongst the
prasants of his country, who, before oppression had reduced them
W tant, were, I suppose, all employed as the better sort of the

45+

where her wit, and learning, and beauty, acquired her a brilliant reputation Her husband had long been on intimate terms with Addison, Pope, and other eminent literary men of the day, and in that society she moved with the same lustre as in the circles of rank and fashion. In 1716, her husband was appointed ambassador to the Porte, and she accompanied him to Constantinople. During her residence here she addressed to her sister, to Mr. Pope, and other friends, the celebrated Letters upon which her fame principally rests. In 1718, her husband being recalled from his embassy, she returned to England, and, by the advice of Pope, settled at Twickenham. The warm friendship between these geniuses did not, however, very long continue; a coolness and finally an open quarrel ensued. The cause of it is involved in considerable mystery, but it is probable that the vanity and irritability of the poet were quite as much to blame as the levity and heartlessness of the lady.

Lady Mary's visit to Turkey, besides producing the Letters, is famous for having been followed by the introduction into England, through her means, of the practice of the innoculation for the small-pox. Observing this practice among the villages in Turkey, and seeing its good effects, she applied it to her own son, then about three years old, and by great exertions established the practice of innoculation in England. She resided in England for twenty years after her return from Constantinople, during which time she published a considerable quantity of verse, for it hardly deserves the name of poetry. It is enough to say of it, that, from its indelicate character, it has been excluded from the modern editions of her works. For reasons, the nature of which is not well known, she left England in 1739 without her husband, and resided most of the time, for twenty-two years, in Italy. She was prevailed upon, by the solicitations of her daughter, to return to England in 1761; but she did not survive her return to her native country a year, dying of a cancer in the beast, August 21, 1762.

Lady Montagu owes her reputation chiefly to her Letters from Constanti. nople. The picture of Eastern life and manners given in them, is in general As correct as it is clear, lively, and striking; and they abound not only in wit and humor, but in a depth and sagacity of remark conveyed in a style at once flowing and forcible, such as has rarely proceeded from a female pen. But these literary qualities are more than counterbalanced by the want of that delicacy, that refinement of feeling, and those pure moral sentiments, without wbich the female character is any thing but an object of admiration. “Her desire to convey scandal, or to paint graphically, leads her into offensive de. tails, which the more decorous taste of the present age can hardly tolerate. She described what she saw and heard without being scrupulous; and her strong masculine understanding, and carelessness as to refinement in habits or expressions, render her sometimes apparently unamiable as well as unfeel. ing." Still her letters are models of epistolary style, and from thom, as such, we present a few extracts that are unexceptionable.

EASTERN MANNERS AND LANGUAGE.

ADRIANOPLE, April 1, 0. S., 1717. To Mr. Pope.

* * I no longer look upon Theocritus as a romantic writei , he has only given a plain image of the way of life amongst the peasants of his country, who, before oppression had reduced them to want, were, I suppose, all employed as the better sort of them

535

FRANCE IN 1718.

Paris, October 10, 0. S., 1718,
To Lipt Rich

" The air of Paris has already had a good effect upon me;
Lo I was never in better health, though I have been extremely ill
all the road from Lyons to this place. You may judge how agree-
alile the journey has been to me, which did not want that addition
is make me dislike it. I think nothing so terrible as objects of
misery, except one had the Godlike attribute of being capable to
redress them; and all the country villages of France show nothing
else. While the post-horses are changed, the whole town comes
out to beg, with such miserable starved faces, and thin tattered
eithes, they need no other eloquence to persuade one of the
sretchedness of their condition. This is all the French magnifi.
rence till you come to Fontainbleau, where you are showed one
thrasand five hundred rooms in the king's hunting palace.
apartments of the royal family are very large, and ricbly cile;

The tw: I saw nothing in the architecture or painting worth remem

are now. I don't doubt, had he been born a Briton, but his Idyl. liums had been filled with descriptions of thrashing and chuming, both which are unknown here, the corn being all trodden out by oxen ; the butter (I speak it with sorrow) unheard of.

I read over your Homer here with an infinite pleasure, and find several little passages explained that I did not before entirely comprehend the beauty of; many of the custoins, and much of the dress then in fashion, being yet retained. I don't wonder to find more remains here of an age so distant, than is to be found in any other country; the Turks not taking that pains to introduce their own manners, as has been generally practised by other nations, that imagine themselves more polite. It would be too tedious to you to point out all the passages that relate to present customs. But I can assure you that the princesses and great ladies pass their time at their looms, embroidering veils and robes, surrounded by their maids, which are always very numerous, in the same manner as we find Andromache and Helen described. The description of the belt of Menelaus exactly resembles those that are now worn by the great men, fastened before with broad golden clasps, and embroidered round with rich work. The snowy veil that Helen throws over her face is still fashionable; and I never see half-a-dozen of old bashaws (as I do very often) with their reverend beards, sitting basking in the sun, but I recollect good king Priam and his counsellors. Their manner of dancing is certainly the same that Diana is sung to have danced on the banks of Eurotas. The great lady still leads the dance, and is followed by a troop of young girls, who imitate her steps, and, if she sings, make up the chorus. The tunes are extremely gay and lively, yet with something in them wonderfully soft. The steps are varied according to the pleasure of her that leads the dance, but always in exact time, and infinitely more agreeable than any of our dances, at least in my opinion. I sometimes make one in the train, but am not skilful enough to lead; these are the Grecian dances, the Turkish being very different.

I should have told you, in the first place, that the eastern man. ners give a great light into many Scripture passages that appear odd to us, their phrases being commonly what we should call Scripture language. The vulgar Turk is very different from what is spoken at court, or amongst the people of figure, who al. ways mix so much Arabic and Persian in their discourse, that it inay very well be called another language. And 'tis as ridicu. lous to inake use of the expressions commonly used, in speaking to a great man or lady, as it would be to speak broad Yorkshire or Somersetshire in the drawing-room. Besides this distinction, they have what they call the sublime, that is, a style proper for poetry, and which is the exact Scripture style,

I have seen all the beauties, and such nauseous creatures! so fantastically absurd in their dress! so monstrously unnatural in their paints! their hair cut short, and curled round their faces, and so breded with powder, that it makes it look like white wool! and on their cheeks to their chins, uomercifully laid on a shining red japan, that glistens in a most flaming manner, so that they seem la bare no resemblance to human faces. I am apt to believe that they took the first hint of their dress from a fair sheep newly ruddid. "Tis with pleasure I recollect my dear pretty country. wonen: and if I was writing to anybody else, I should say that tbexe grotesque daubers give me a still higher esteem of the natural charins of dear Lady Rich's auburn hair, and the lively colors d ber unsullied complexion.

FEMALE EDUCATION.

Louvane, January 28, N. S., 1753
TO TAL COTETESS OF BOTE.

Dear Child-You have given me a great deal of satisfaction
in your account of your eldest daughter. I am particularly
phased to hear she is a good arithmetician; it is the best pruni
d understanding: the knowledge of numbers is one of the chief
ystinctions between us and brutes. If there is any thing in
hund, you may reasonably expect your children should be en-
comed with an uncommon share of good sense. I will therefore
pak to you as supposing Lady Mary not only capable, but de
pras of learning; in that case by all means let her be indulged

FRANCE I

Paris, October 10, 0. S., 1718. To Lady Ricu.

* * The air of Paris has already had a good effect upon me; for I was never in better health, though I have been extremely ill all the road from Lyons to this place. You may judge how agreeable the journey has been to me, which did not want that addition to make me dislike it. I think nothing so terrible as objects of misery, except one had the Godlike attribute of being capable to redress them; and all the country villages of France show nothing else. While the post-horses are changed, the whole town comes out to beg, with such miserable starved faces, and thin tattered clothes, they need no other eloquence to persuade one of the wretchedness of their condition. This is all the French magnificence till you come to Fontainbleau, where you are showed one thousand five hundred rooms in the king's hunting palace. The apartments of the royal family are very large, and richly gilt ; but I saw nothing in the architecture or painting worth remembering.

I have seen all the beauties, and such nauseous creatures! so fantastically absurd in their dress! so monstrously unnatural in their paints ! their hair cut short, and curled round their faces, and so loaded with powder, that it makes it look like white wool! and on their cheeks to their chins, unmercifully laid on a shining red japan, that glistens in a most flaming manner, so that they seem to have no resemblance to human faces. I am apt to believe that they took the first hint of their dress from a fair sheep newly ruddled. 'Tis with pleasure I recollect my dear pretty countrywomen: and if I was writing to anybody else, I should say that these grotesque daubers give me a still higher esteem of the natural charms of dear Lady Rich's auburn hair, and the lively colors of her unsullied complexion.

FEMALE EDUCATION.

· LOUVERE, January 28, N. S., 1753 TO THE COUNTESS OF BUTE.

Dear Child-You have given me a great deal of satisfaction by your account of your eldest daughter. I am particularly pleased to hear she is a good arithmetician; it is the best proof of understanding : the knowledge of numbers is one of the chief distinctions between us and brutes. If there is any thing in blood, you may reasonably expect your children should be endowed with an uncommon share of good sense. I will therefore speak to you as supposing Lady Mary not only capable, but de sirous of learning ; in that case by all means let her be indulged 537

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than myself. You should encourage your daughter to talk over
with you what she reads ; and as you are very capable of distin
guishing, take care she does not mistake pert fully for wit and
humor, or rhyme for poetry, which are the common errors of
young people, and have a train of ill consequences. The second
cantion to be given her, (and which is most absolutely necessary,)
is to conceal whatever learning she attains, with as much solicia
tade as she would hide crookedness or lameness: the parade of it
cap only serve to draw on her the envy, and consequently the
most inveterate hatred, of all he and she fools, which will cer-
tainly be at least three parts in four of her acquaintance. The
use of knowledge in our sex, besides the amusement of solitude, is
to moderate the passions, and learn to be contented with a small

spense, which are the certain effects of a studious life; and it
may be preferable even to that fame which men have engrossed
to themselves, and will not suffer us to share. If she has the
sme inclination (I should say passion) for learning that I was
born with, history, geography, and philosophy will furnish her

in it You will tell me I did not make it a part of your educa. tion ; your prospect was very different from hers. As you had much in your circumstances to attract the highest offers, it seemed your business to learn how to live in the world, as it is hers to know how to be easy out of it. It is the common error of builders and parents to follow some plan they think beautiful, (and perhaps is so,) without considering that nothing is beautiful which is displaced. Hence we see so many edifices raised that the raisers can never inhabit, being too large for their fortunes. Vistas are laid open over barren heaths, and apartments contrived for a coolness very agreeable in Italy, but killing in the north of Britain: thus every woman endeavors to breed her daughter a fine lady, qualifying her for a station in which she will never appear, and at the same time incapacitating her for that retirement to which she is destined. Learning, if she has a real taste for it, will not only make her contented, but happy in it. No entertainment is so cheap as reading, nor any pleasure so lasting. She will not want new fashions, nor regret the loss of expensive diversions, or variety of company, if she can be amused with an author in her closet. To render this amusement complete, she should be per. mitted to learn the languages. There are two cautions to be given on this subject : first, not to think herself learned when she can read Latin, or even Greek. Languages are more properly to be called vehicles of learning than learning itself. True knowledge consists in knowing things, not words. I would no further wish her a linguist than to enable her to read books in their originals, that are often corrupted, and are always injured by translations. Two hours' application every morning will bring this about much sooner than you can imagine, and she will have leisure enough besides to run over the English poetry, which is a more important part of a woman's education than it is generally supposed. Many à young damsel has been ruined by a fine copy of verses, which she would have laughed at if she had known it had been stolen from Mr. Waller. I remember, when I was a girl, I saved one of my companions from destruction, who communicated to me an epistle she was quite charmed with. As she had naturally a good taste, she observed the lines were not so smooth as Prior's of Pope's, but had more thought and spirit than any of theirs. She was wonderfully delighted with such a demonstration of her lover's sense and passion, and not a little pleased with her own charms, that had force enough to inspire such elegancies. In the midst of this triumph, I showed her that they were taken from Randolph's poems, and the unfortunate transcriber was dismissed with the scorn he deserved. To say truth, the poor plagiary was very unlucky to fall into my hands; that author, being no longer in fashion, would have escaped any one of less universal reading

Pia materials to pass away cheerfully a longer life than is albitted to mortals. I believe there are few heads capable of making Sir Isaac Newton's calculations, but the result of them is not waficult to be understood by a moderate capacity.

It is a saying of Thucydides, that ignorance is bold, and knor. beige reserved. Indeed, it is impossible to be far advanced in it for beau: being more humbled by a conviction of human iguorance aan elated by learning. At the same time I recommend books, I teither exclude work nor drawing. I think it is scandalous for e woman not to know how to use a needle, I was once extremely ind of my pencil, and it was a great mortification to me when my father turned off my master, having made a considerable progreat for the short time I learned. My over-eagerness in the pursuit of it had brought a weakness in my eyes, that made it necessary to leave off; and all the advantage I got was the improvement of my hand. I see by hers, that practice will make bet a ready writer : she may attain it by serving you for a secrebary, when your health or affairs make it troublesome to you to mile yourself; and custom will make it an agreeable amusement u her. She cannot have too many for that station of life which fil probably be her fate. The ultimate end of your education has to make you a good wife, (and I have the comfort to hear that Titu are one ;) hers ought to be to make her happy in a virgin sze. I will not say it is happier, but it is undoubtedly safer kan any marriage. In a lottery, where there is (at the lowest wmputation) ten thousand blanks to a prize, it is the most pru.

dent choice not to venture, I have always been so thoroughiy
persuaded of this truth, that, notwithstanding the flattering viewe

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