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And when she walked had a little, thraw

Under the sweete greene boughis bent,'
Her fair fresh face, as white as any snaw,

She turned has, and furth her wayis went;

But iho began mine aches and torment,
To see her part and follow I na might;
Methought the day was turned into night'

WILLIAM CAXTON. 1413—1491.

O Albion I still thy gratitude confess
To Caxtow, founder of the British Prrrs:
Since first thy mountain* rose, or rivers flow'd.
Who on thy isles to rich n boon bestow'd t


Lord I tnught by thee, when Caxton bade
Rli (silent words for ever apeak:

A grave for tyrants-then was made-
Then crack'd the chain which yet shall break.


The name of William Caxton will ever be held in grateful remembrance by the world of letters, for he it was who introduced the art of printing into England. He was born in the county of Kent in the year 1413, and at the age of fifteen was put as an apprentice to a merchant of London, In consideration of his integrity and good behavior, his master bequeathed him a small sum of money as a capital with which to trade. He was soon chosen by the Mercer's Company to be their agent in Holland and Flanders, in which countries he spent about twenty-three years. While there, the new invention of the art of printing3 was everywhere spoken of; and Caxton, at a great

1 "It would, perhaps, be difficult to select even from Chaucer's most finished works a long specimen of descriptive poetry to uniformly elegant as this: indeed some of the verses are so highly finished, that they would not disfigure the compositions of Dryden, Pope, or Gray."— EUm.

t It Is not a little singular that the history of prtnUnp, that art which commemorates all other Inventions, and which hands down to posterity every important event, is so enveloped In mystery that the ablest minds In Europe have had long and acrimonious disputations respecting the question to what place and to what person the Invention is rightfully due. There is not space here to give even an outline of these controversies; I can merely give the result. The two cities which claim tht discovery arc Haarlem or Haerlem, a city of North Holland, and Mentx, In Germany on the Rhine. The dispute, however, as Mr. Tlmperley properly observes, has turned rather on words than facts, arising from the different definitions of the word Paixtixo. If the honor Is to be awarded from ths discovery of the principle, it is unquestionably due to Lawrence Coster, of Haarlem, who first found out the method of impressing characters on paper, by means of blocks of carved wood, about KM. tf movable types be considered the criterion, as it seems to me they must, the merit of the InvenUon It due to John Guttenburg, of Mentx, who used them about 1440: while Scboefler, In conjunction with Faust, was the first who founded types of metal.

From all the arguments and opinions, therefore, which lave been adduced In this Important controversy, the following conclusion may be satis(Hctortly drawn. To JOHN GUTTENBURQ, of McnLz, la due the appellation of Father or Prixtikq; to PETER SCHOEKFER that of Father or x.KTTBR-rouxntKo; and to JOHN FAUST that of Kxzroetic Patrox, by whose pecuniary aid U* wonderful discovery was brought rapidly to perfection

expense of time and labor, and with an industry to which all obstacles w' II ever give way, made himself complete master of it, as then known. He first employed himself in translating from French into English, The Recuyell1 of the Hislories of Troye, which was published at Cologne, 1471, and is the first book erer printed in the English language. The next year Caxton returned to England, and in 1474 put forth The Game of Chess, remarkable as being the first book ever printed in England. It was entitled, The Game and Playe of the Cheat: Translated out of the French, and imprynted by William Caxton. Fynyshed the last day of Marche, the yer of our lord God, a thousand foure hundred, hexmj.

Caxton was a man who united great modesty and simplicity of character to indefatigable industry. He styled himself "simple William Caxton." He printed, in all, about sixty-four different works, a great number of which ho translated as well as printed; and those which he did not translate, he often revised and altered; so that, in point of language, they may be considered as his own. He continued to prepare works for the press to the very close of his life; and though of no brilliancy of talent, he exemplifies, in a remarkable degree, how much good one man may do, of even moderate powers, provided be industriously and faithfully employs all that has been given to him with an eye single to one great object*

Among other works' printed by Caxton were the Chronicles of England, which contained indeed some true history, but much more of romantic fable. As a specimen of the latter, the following may be given upon the


Before that I will speak of Brute,4 it shall be shewed how the land of England was first named Albion, and by what encheson* it was so named.

Of the noble land of Syria, there was a royal king and mighty, and a man of great renown, that was called Dioclesian, that well and worthily him governed and ruled thro' his noble chivalry ; so that he conquered all the lands about him; so that almost all the kings of the world to him were attendant. It befel thus that this Dioclesian spoused a gentle damsel that was wonder fair, that was his uncle's daughter, La Dana. And she loved him as reason would; so that he had by her thirty-three daughters; of the which the eldest was called Albine. And these damsels, when they came unto age, became so fair that it was wonder. Whereof Dioclesian anon let make a summoning, and commanded by his letters, that all the kings that held of him, should come at a certain day, as in his letters were contained, to make a feast royal. At which day, thither they came, and brought with them adn.irals, princes, and dukes, and noble chivalry. The feast was royally arrayed; and there they lived in joy and mirth enough, that

1 Compllatlon—n-lectlon. t Read—" Life of Caxton," published by the Society for the Du*

fsston of Useful Knowledge. 8 For a full list of bin works, see Ames's "Typographical Antiquities," or " Thnperley's History of Printing," pare 155. * This Brute was the grandson of JEnca* •ad the old chronicles dertred the descent of the Britons from the Trojans. 5 Chance

it was wonder to wyte.1 And it befel thus, that Dioclesian thought to marry his daughters among all those kings that were of that solemnity. And so they spake and did, that Albine, his eldest daughter, and all her sisters, richly were married unto '.hirty-three kings, that were lords of great honour and of power, at this solemnity. And when the solemnity was done, every king took his wife, and led them into their own country, and there made them queens.

The story then goes on to relate how these thirty-three wives conspired to kill their husbands, all on the same night, and "anon, as their lords were asleep, they cut all their husbands' throats; and so they slew them all."

When that Dioclesian, their father, heard of this thing, he became furiously wroth against his daughters, and anon would them all have brente." But all the barons and lords of Syria counseled not so for to do such straitness3 to his own daughters; but only should void the land of them for evermore; so that they never should come again; and so he did.

And Dioclesian, that was their father, anon commanded them to go into a ship, and delivered to them victuals for half a year. And when this was done, all the sisters went into the ship, and sailed forth in the sea, and took all their friends to Apolin, that was their God. And so long they sailed in the sea, till at the last they came and arrived in an isle, that was all wilderness. And when dame Albine was come to that land, and all her sisters, this Albine went first forth out of the ship, and said to her other sisters: For as much, (said she,) as I am the eldest sister of all this company, and first this land hath taken; and for as much as my name is Albine, I will that this land be called Albion, after mine own name. And anon, all her sisters granted to her with a good will.

WILLIAM DUNBAR. 1465—1530.

William Dtjnbah is pronounced by Ellis,4 to be "the greatest poet Scotland has produced." His writings, however, with scarcely an exception, remained in the obscurity of manuscript, till the beginning of the last century; but his fame since then has been continually rising. His chief poems are Thk Thistle Aitd The Rose, The Dakce, and The Goldes Terse. The Thistle and the Rose was occasioned by the marriage of James IV. of Scotland with Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, ar. event in which the whole future political state of both nations was vitally interested, and which ultimately produced the union of the two crowns and

l Know. * Burnt. 8 strlctnetji. * 'Specimen* of the Early English Poet*,"

vol. 1. n. S7?: but abould he not have excepted Burni and Sir Walter Scott f

kingdoms, in the person of James VI. of Scotland, and I. of England, 1603— 1625. This poem opens with the following stanzas, remarkable for their descriptive and picturesque beauties: v

Quhen' Merche wes with variand windis past,
And Appryll had with hir silver shouris
Tane leifa at Nature, with ane orient blast,
And lusty May, that muddir3 is of Houris,
Had maid the birdis to begyn thair houris,
Amang the tendir odouris reid and quhyt
Quhois4 harmony to heir it wes delyt:

In bed at morrow sleiping as I lay,
Methocht Aurora, with her cristall ene
In at the window lukit5 by the day,
And halsir8 me with visage pale and grene;
On quhois hand a lark sang, fro the splene,7
"Awak, luvaris,' out of your slemering,*
Se how the lusty morrow dois upspring 1"

Methocht freeche May befoir my bed upstude,
In weid10 depaynt of mony diverse how,
Sober, benyng, and full of mansuetude,
In bright atteir of Houris forgit" new,
Hevinly of color, quhyt, reid, brown, and blew,
Balmit in dew, and gilt with Phebus' bemys;
Quhil al the house illumynit of her lemys.14

Tbk Disci of the Seven Deadly Sine through Hell has much merit. On the eve of Lent, a day of general confession, the poet, in a dream, sees a display of heaven and helL Mahomet,u or the devil, commands a dance to be performed by a select party of fiends, and immediately the Seven Deadly Sine appear. The following is a description of Ear v i:—

Next in the dance followit Ihvt,
Fild full of feid'« and fellony,

Hid malyce and dispyte;
For pryvie haterit" that tratour trymlit,"
Him followit mony freik dissymlit,"

With feynit wordis qnhyte.
And flattereis into mens facis,
And back-byttaris18 of sundry racis,

To ley" that had delyte.
With rownaris20 of fals lesingis :21
Allace! Hint courtis of noble kingis

Of tham can nevir be quyte!"2*

As a specimen of one of his minor poems take the following, containing nuch wholesome advice:—

I When. 0> haa the three of ts. I Taken leave. I Mother. 4 Whole. » Looked. (Hailed, t with rood will. « Lovers. » Slumbering. 10 Attire. It Forged, made. u Brightness. B The Christians, In the crusades, were accustomed to hear the 8araoena swear by their Prophet Mahomet, who then became. In Europe, another name for the Devil. M Enmity. 15 Hatred. 1» Trembled. II Dissembling gallant Is Baekblters. » Lie. * Rounder*, whispers. To wand in the tar, or simply to reaad, was to whisper In the ear. n F&httie*. c Free.


Be merry, man! and take not sair in mind

The wavering of this wretchit world of sorrow!
To God be humble, and to thy friend be kind,

And with thy neighbours gladly lend and borrow:
His chance to-night, it may be thine to-morrow.

Be blithe in heart for any aventure;
For oft with wysure1 it has been said aforrow,9

Without gladness availis no treasure.


Make thee good cheer of it that God thee sends,

For worldis wrak* but welfare, nought avails:
Na good is thine, save only but thou spends;

Remenant all thou brookis but with bales *
Seek to solace when sadness thee assails:

In dolour lang thy life may not endure;
Wherefore of comfort set up all thy sails:

Without gladness availis no treasure.


Follow on pity;5 flee trouble and debate;

With famous folkis hold thy company;
Be charitable, and humble in thine estate,

For worldly honour lastis but a cry;6
For trouble in earth take no melancholy;

Be rich in patience, gif thou in goods be poor;
Who livis merry, he livis mightily:

Without gladness availis no treasure.


Though all the werk' that ever had livand wight

Were only thine, no more thy part does fall
But meat, drink, clais* and of the laifs a sight!

Yet, to the Judge thou shall give 'compt of all.
Ane reckoning right comes of ane ragment10 small,

Be just, and joyous, and do to none injure,
And Truth Shall Hake Thee Strong As Am Wall:

Without gladness availis no treasure.

1 Wiidom. i A-fore, before. 3 Merchandise, treasure; that Is, world's trash without

healUi. Here we see the original, etymological meaning of the preposition ear to be nilini.

4 Tuou canst enjoy all the remainder only with bait, or sorrow. 6 Originally pUy and pkty are tlie same. • No longer than a sound. > Possessions. s Clothes, s Remainder. 10 One aceompu

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