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And until we are persuaded to stop, and step a little aside, out of the noisy crowd and encumbering hurry of the world, and calmly take a prospect of things, it will be impossible we should be able to make a right judgment of ourselves, or know our own misery. But after we have made the just reckonings, which retirement will help us to, we shall begin to think the world in great measure mad, and that we have been in a sort of Bedlam all this while.
Reader, whether young or old, think it not too soon or too late to turn over the leaves of thy past life; and be sure to fold down where any passage of it may affect thee; and bestow thy remainder of time, to correct those faults in thy future conduct, be it in relation to this or the next life. What thou wouldst do, if what thou hast done were to do again, be sure to do as long as thou livest, upon the like occasions.
Our resolutions seem to be vigorous as often as we reflect upon our past errors; but, alas! they are apt to flag again upon fresh temptations to the same things.
The author does not pretend to deliver thee an exact piece; his business not being ostentation, but charity. It is miscellaneous in the matter of it, and by no means artificial in the composure. But it contains hints, that may serve thee for texts to preach to thyself upon, and which comprehend much of the course of human life: since whether thou art parent or child, prince or subject, master or servant, single or married, public or private, mean or honorable, rich or poor, prosperous or unprosperous, in peace or controversy, in business or solitude; whatever be thy inclination or aversion, practice or duty, thou wilt find something not unsuitably said for thy direction anu advantage. Accept and improve what deserves thy notice; the rest excuse, and place to account of good-will to thee and the whole creation of God.
Penn's Advice To His Children.1 Next, betake yourself to some honest, industrious course of life, and that not of sordid covetousness, but for example, and to avoid idleness. And if you change your condition and marry, choose with the knowledge and consent of your mother, if living, or of guardians, or those that have the charge of you. Mind neither beauty nor riches, but the fear of the Lord, and a sweet and amiable disposition, such as you can love above all this world, and that may make your habitations pleasant and desirable to you.
And being married, be tender, affectionate, patient, and meek. Live in the fear of the. Lord, and he will bless you and your offspring. Be sure f.o live within compass; borrow not, neither be
■ Read, e*p xrially, " Life by Sarauol M. Januey," undoubtedly the life of Ponn. Also, en admirable " Discourse on the Virtue* aud Public Services of William Peon," by Albert Barnes.
beholden to any. Ruin not yourselves by kindness to others; for that exceeds the due bounds of friendship, neither will a true friend expect it. Small matters I heed not.
Let your industry and parsimony go no further than for a sufficiency for life, and to make a provision for your children, and that in moderation, if the Lord gives you any. I charge you help the poor and needy; let the Lord have a voluntary share of your income for the good of the poor, both in our society and others; for we are all his creatures; remembering that "he that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord."
Know well your incomings, and your outgoings may be better regulated. Love not money nor the world: use them only, and they will serve you; but if you love them you serve them, which will debase your spirits as well as offend the Lord.
Pity the distressed, and hold out a hand of help to them; it may be your case, and as you mete to others, God will mete to you again.
Be humble and gentle in your conversation; of few words 1 charge you, but always pertinent when you speak, hearing out before you attempt to answer, and then speaking as if you would persuade, not impose.
Affront none, neither revenge the affronts that are done to you; but forgive, and you shall be forgiven of your heavenly Father.
In making friends, consider well first; and when you are fixed, be true, not wavering by reports, nor deserting in affliction, for that becomes not the good and virtuous.
Watch against anger; neither speak nor act in it; for, like drunkenness, it makes a man a beast, and throws people into desperate inconveniences.
Avoid flatterers, for they are thieves in disguise; their praise is costly, designing to get by those they bespeak; they are the worst of creatures; they lie to flatter, and flatter to cheat; and, which is worse, if you believe them, you cheat yourselves most dangerously. But the virtuous, though poor, love, cherish, and prefer. Remember David, who, asking the Lord, "Who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell upon thy holy hill?" answers, "He that walketh uprightly, worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart; in whose eyes the vile person is contemned, but honoreth them who fear the Lord."
Next, my children, be temperate in all things: in your diet, for that is physic by prevention; it keeps, nay, it makes people health}', and their generation sound. This is exclusive of the spiritual advantage it brings. Be also plain in your apparel, keep out that lust which reigns too much over some; let your virtues be your ornaments, remembering life is more than food, and the body than raiment. Let your furniture be 3implc and cheap. Avoid pride, avarice, and luxury. Read ray "No Cross, no Crown." There is instruction. Make your conversation with the most eminent for wisdom and piety, and shun all wicked men as you hope for the blessing of God and the comfort of your father's living and dying prayers. Be sure you speak no evil of any, no, not of the meanest; much less of your superiors, as magistrates, guardians, tutors, teachers, and elders in Christ.
Be no busybodies; meddle not with other folk's matters, but when in conscience and duty pressed ; for it procures trouble, and is ill manners, and very unseemly to wise men.
In your families remember Abraham, Moses, and Joshua, theii integrity to the Lord, and do as you have them for your examples.
Let the fear and service of the living God be encouraged in your houses, and that plainness, sobriety, and moderation in all things, as becometh God's chosen people; and as I advise you, my beloved children, do you counsel yours, if God should give you any; Yea, I counsel and command them as my posterity, that they love and serve the Lord God with an upright heart, that he may bless you and yours from generation to generation.
And as for you, who are likely to be concerned in the government of Pennsylvania and my parts of East Jersey, especially the first, I do charge you before the Lord God and his holy angels, that you be lowly, diligent, and tender, fearing God, loving the peop.'e, and hating covetousness. Let justice have its impartial course, and the law free passage. Though to your Joss, protect no man against it; for you are not above the law, but the law above you. Live, therefore, the lives yourselves you would have the people live, and then you have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Keep upon the square, for God sees you: therefore, do your duty, and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no lurchers, cherish no informers for gain or revenge, use no tricks, fly to no devices to support or cover injustice; but let your hearts be upright before the Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant.
JOSEPH ADDISON. 1672—1719.
Joseph Addisojt, one of the brightest names in English literature, was born at Milston, in Wiltshire, of which place his father was rector, on the 1st of May, 1672. After the usual course of study, he entered the University of Oxford, at the age of fifteen. Here he devoted himself with great assiduity to ciassica, studies, the fruits of which were soon seen in a small volume of Latin poems, which attracted considerable attention. In his twenty-second year lie addressed some verses to Mr. Dryden, which procured him the notice and approbation of that poet, for whom he afterwards wrote a prefatory M Essay on the Geoigics," which Dryden prefixed to his translation in 1697. Before this, however, lie had become acquainted with that distinguished patron of letters, Lord Keeper Somers, who, in 1609, procured for him a pension of £300 a year, to enable him to travel in Italy In this classic land he composed his Epistle to Lord Halifax, one of his best poetical productions, hl« "Dialogue on Medals," and the greater part of his "Cato." Soon after his return he published his travels in Italy, dedicated to his patron, Lord Somers illustrative chiefly of the classical associations of diat renowned land.
The change of the administration in 1702 deprived Addison of his pen sion; and he had lived more than two years in retirement when he was requested by one of the ministry to write a poem in praise of the victory of Blenheim, gained by the Duke of Marlborough, in August, 1704. He did so, and before the year closed, appeared the "Campaign,"1 which procured for him the office of under-sec re tary of state. In 1709 he went to Ireland as secretary to the lord-lieutenant, and while here, on the 12th of April (O. S.) of that year, appeared the first number of "The Tatler." When the sixth number of this appeared, Addison knew that the author was his friend Sir Richard Steele, from a critical remark which he had privately made to him alone,2 and he therefore immediately took a very active part in the conduct of this periodical.*
The "Taller" had scarcely terminated, when Addison formed the plan of that work on which his fame chiefly rests—the "Spectator."* The essays in it most valuable for humor, invention, and precept, are the product of his pen, and it soon became the most popular work England had produced. So great was its reputation, that sometimes twenty thousand copies of a number were sold in one day. It travelled through every part of the kingdom, and was
1 Warton has not too severely called this poem "a Gazette In Rhyme." How infinitely superior for Its fine moral tone, as well as for its pattios and poetry, U that touching ballad of Southcy's, on thu same subject; the last verse of which reads thus:—
And everybody praised the Duke,
Quoth little PeterUn. "Why, that I cannot tell," said he, "But 'twas a famous victory." t The critical remark which Addison made to Steele was upon the hero of the -Encld, which Steele gives as follows:—
"Virgil** common epithet to /Eneas Is Pirn or Pater. I have therefore considered wliai passage there Is In any of his hero's actions where cither of these appellations would have been most improper;—and this, I think, is his meeting with Dido In the cave, where Pha Mnesun would have been absurd, and P-Uer JEneaa a burlesque: tbe poet therefore wisely dropped them both for Dur Trqfanut; which lie has repeated twice In Juno's speech and his own narration: for ho very well knew a loose art Ion might be consistent enough with the usual manners of a soldier, though it became neltncr the caa-tity of a pious man, nor the gravity of the father of a people."
3 Tbe Tatli-r may bo considered as the father of English periodical literature. It was published every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, from the 12th of April, 1709, to the 2d of January, 1711. Of the 371 papers, Steele wrote 188; Addison, 42; Steele and Addison jointly, 36; Swift and Addison, I' Hughes, 2; Swift, 1; Fuller, L
4 The Spectator wan commenced on the 1st of March, 1711, and continued every day, Sundays ex. eepted, till the 6th of December, 1712. The plan is founded upon the fiction of a club that assembles t-vt-ry Tuesday and Thursday, to carry on the publication. Of the G35 numbers, Addison wrote 21 A, bleele, H0; BudgeU, 37; Hughes, ll; Orovc, 4; Pope, Parnell, Puaree. Martyn, Byrom, 2eaeh;Swlff, Brown, Francliaiu, Dunlop, Hunlwicke, Fleetwood, leach; find 53 were anonymous. Vldison'h papers are designated by the letters of the word Cmo.
alike die recrtation of the learned, the busy, and the idle. The "Spectator'' was followed by the "Guardian,"1 which was commenced by Steele, but to which Addison largely contributed. In the mean time he published his tragedy of "Cato," which met with unbounded popularity, being represented on ilie stage thirty-five nights successively; not, however, so much from its merit? as a tragedy, as from the noble sentiments of liberty which it breathes throughout, and which, in those times of great political excitement, each party, the Whig and the Tory, wished to appropriate to itself.2
In 1716, Addison married the Countess of Warwick, who was, in every respect, vastly his inferior, except in the adventitious circumstance of family rank, which in England is of " wondrous potency." "In point of intellect," says Dr. Drake, "there could be no competition; and despicable must have been the ignorance of that woman who could for a moment suppose that the mere casualty of splendid birth entitled her to treat with contempt, and to arrogate a superiority over a man of exquisite genius and unsullied virtue." That she was the means of imbittering his life, and shortening his days, there is no doubt. He had long been subject to an asthmatic affection, and it soon became evident that the hour of his dissolution could not be far distant "The death-bed of Addison was the triumph of religion and virtue. Reposing on the merits of his Redeemer, and conscious of a life well spent in the service of his fellow-ercaturcs, he waited with tranquillity and resignation the moment of departure. The dying accents of the virtuous man have frequently, when odier means have failed, produced the happiest effect; and Addison, anxious that a scene so awful might make its due impression, demanded the attendance of his son-in-law, Lord Warwick. This young nobleman was amiable, but dissipated; and Addison had often, though in vain, endeavored to correct his principles, and to curb the impetuosity of his passions. He came, says Dr. Young, who first related the affecting circumstance; but life was now glimmering in the socket, and the dying friend was silent. After a decent and proper pause, the youth said, 'Dear sir, you sent for me; I believe, I hope you have some commands; I shall hold them most sacred.' May distant ages not only hear but feel the reply. Forcibly grasping the youth's hand, he softly said, 'sex Is What rzicr. A Cbkistiajt Can Die;'1 and soon alter expired, on the 17th of June, 1719."*
Of the merits of Addison as a writer, there never has been but one opinion among the critics. Mr. Mehnotli says of him, "In a word, one may justly
1 The first number of the Guardian was published on the 12th of March, and tho last on the 1st of October, 1713. Of the 176 numbers, Steele wrote 82; Addison, 53; Berkeley, 14; Pope, s; TiekeU, 7; BudjrelL Hushes, and Parncll, 2 each; Gay, Young, Philips, Wotton, Birch, Bartlett, 1 each.
3 "The tragedy of Calo," says Dr. Warlon, "Is a glRring Instance of the force of party. So aentenUous and declamatory a drama would never have met with such rapid success, If every line and sentiment had not been particularly tortured and applied to recent events. It Is a fine dialogue on liberty and the love of one's country, but considered us a dramatic performance it wants action and fnTAot, Uie two hinges on which a Just tragedy ought to turn, and without which it cannot subsist." Dr. Johnson has censured It as a " dialogue too declamatory, of unalfectlng elegance, and chill phtJosophy,"—Uie very terms most applicable to his own tragedy "irene."
"O wad some power the gifllc gic us
* Tlckeli toi'i Dr Voung, that in the following couplet of his elegy on the death of Addison, he alluded to [ids interview with the Enrl of Warwick: —
"He iniiiflit us how to live, and oh, loo hljth
* Read—an admirable sketch of Addison's life In Drake's Essays, vol. I. AI*o an article In the Kdino-crgh Review, July 1*«3, and In Macaulay's Miscellanies, vol. v. p. 83: also, l.ifj by Lucy Alkln.