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the u Gesta Roinanorum," and we present the v *ader with the analysis of it Iselow, as given by Warton in his History of Engi ^h Poetry.1 The poem, however, is too long for our limits, and no extracts wou'd do it justice; but we will give a few lines to show its style. The last instarce of the angel's seeming injustice, is that of pushing the guide from the bridge into the river. At this the Hermit is unable to suppress his indignation:
Wild sparkling rage inflames the Father's eyes j
Another very interesting piece of Parncll's is his ballad, "Edwin of the Green, a fairy tale, in the ancient English stylebut its length excludes it
1 A devout hermit, lived In a cave, near wbleti a shepherd folded hU flock. Many of the sheep being •toko, the shepherd was unjustly killed by his master, as being concerned In the theft. The hermit, seeing an Innocent man put to death, began to suspect the existence of a Divine Providence, and resolved no longer to perplex himself with the useless severities of religion, but to mix in the world. In travelling from his retirement, be was met by an angel In the figure of a man, who said, "I am an angel, and am sent by God to be your companion on the road." They entered a city, and begged for lodging at the house of a knight, who entertained them at a splendid supper. In the night, the angel rose from his bed and strangled the knight's only child, who was asleep in the cradle. The hermit was astonished at this barbarous return for so much hospitality, but was nfrald to make any remonstrance to his companion. Next morning they went to another city. Here they were liberally received in the house of an opulent citizen; but in the night the angel rose, and stoic a golden cup of inestimable value. The hermit now concluded that his companion was a bad angel. In travelling forward the next morning, Uicy passed over a bridge, about the middle of which they met a poor man, of whom the angel asked the way to the next city. Having received the desired lnfonnaUon, the angel pushed the poor man Into the water, where he was Immediately drowned. In the evening they arrived at the bouse of a rich man, and begging for a lodging, were ordered to sleep In a shed with the cattle. In the morning the angel gave the rich man the cup which be had stolen. The hermit, amazed that the cup which was stolen from their friend and benefactor should be given to one wbo refused them a lodging, began to be now convinced that his companion was the devil; and begged to go on alone. But the angel said, "Hear me, and depart. When you lived In your hermitage, a shepherd was killed by bis master. He was innocent of the supposed ofience; but had he not been then killed, he would have committed crimes In which he would have died impenitent. His muter endeavors to atone for the murder, by dedicating the remainder of his days to alms and deeds of charity. I strangled the child of the knight. But know, that the father was so intent on heaping up riches for his child, as to neglect those acts of public munificence for which he was before so distinguished, and to which he has now returned. I stole the golden cup of the hospitable citixen. But know, that from a life of the strictest temperance, he became, in consequence of possessing this cup, a perpetual drunkard, and is now the mnst abstemious of men. I threw the poor man Into the water. He was tlten honest and religious. But know, had he walked one half of a mile further, be would have murdered a man in a state of mortal sin. I gave the golden cup to the rich man, wbo refused to take as within his roof. He has therefore received bin reward In this world, and In the next will sufler the pains of bell for his in hospitality." The hermit Ml prostrate at the angel's feet, and, requesting forgiveness, returned to his hermitage, fully convinced of the wisdom and Justice of Qod'a government.
from our pige.i. The following very beautiful "Hymn to Contentment' will, however, give a very good idea of this author's manner:—
HYMN TO CONTENTMENT.
Lovely, lasting peace of mind!
Ambition searches all its sphere
Lovely, lasting peace, appear!
Twas thus, as under shade I stood,
Oh! by yonder mossy seat,
The sun that walks his airy way,
Go search among your idle dreams,
WILLIAM PENN. 1C44—1718.
We come now to one of the purest and most exalted characters on the page of history;—to one who laid the foundation of a great state in the strictest justice and equity; established the utmost freedom of conscience in religion ; and demonstrated to the world that the most potent weapons to subdue the savage heart, are the peace principles of the gospel of Jesus Christ
William Penn, the only son of Admiral Penn, was born in London, October 14, 1644. His early education was very carefully attended to, and in 1660 he entered Oxford University. His first bias towards the doctrines of the Society of Friends was produced by the preaching of Thomas Loe, the effect of which was, that Penn and some of his fellow-students withdrew from attendance on the public worship of the established church, and held private prayer meetings. They were fined by the college, but this did not deter them. The principles which he adopted displeased his father very much, who repeatedly banished him from his house; but when it appeared that his son's opinions were unalterable, a reconciliation took place between them. In 1668, he began to preach, and also published his first work, "Truth Exalted." Like many others of the early Friends, Penn was repeatedly thrown into prison; and during his confinement in the Tower of London, he wrote his most popular work, »No Cross, no Crown,"—an able exposition of the views of his society. In 1670 the Conventicle act was passed, and Penn was one of the first sufferers under it. He was tried for prcaoliing to what was called "a riotous and seditious assembly;" but the jury, in opposition to the direction of the bench, had the firmness and moral courago to give a verdict of acquittal.
We now come to the most important event of Penn's life,—the establishment of the colcny of Pennsylvania. In 1G81 a large tract of country on the west side of the Delaware was granted by Charles II. to Penn and his heir* in consideration of a debt of JEIO.000 due from the Crown to Admiral Penn, for money advanced for the service of the navy. He set sail from England in August, 1682, in the ship Welcome, and arrived at Newcastle on the 27th of October, where he was hailed with acclamations by the Swedes and Dutch already there. Thence the colony proceeded up the river, and in the latter end of the year located the town and borough of Philadelphia, "having a high and dry bank next to the water, with a shore ornamented with a fine view of pine trees growing upon it" Penn solemnly declared that he "came to the charge of the province for the Lord's sake.'' "I wanted," says he, "to afford an asylum to the good and oppressed of every nation. I aimed to form a government which might be an example. I desired to show men as free and happy as they could be. I had also kind views towards the Indians."
In about two years Penn was called to return back to England; and from his intimacy with James II., he was enabled to procure the release of his Quaker brethren, of whom fourteen hundred and eighty were in prison at the accession of that monarch. Indeed he was perpetually engaged in deeds of kindness for his people, at the same time endeavoring to clear the way for his return, and to bring out his family to abide for life. But various obstacles hindered him from year to year, so that it was not till 1G99 that lie and his family embarked for America. They arrived in November, and were received with universal joy, on account of his known intention to stay for life. But in this intention he was overruled, partly by the owners of land in Pennsylvania, dwelling in England, who felt that Penn could plead their interests with the crown belter than any other one; and partly by the female members of the family, who, after the style to which they had been accustomed, could not well bear the rude and unformed state of things in the new colony. He says in a letter to James Logan, July, 1701: "I cannot prevail on my wife to stay, and still less with Tishe.1 I know not what to do." Accordingly he returned the latter part of that year; and after experiencing various vicissitudes, and especially the most heartless ingratitude from those whom be had most served, he died at his seat in Ruscombe, in Berkshire, July 30,1718.
Penn was the author of numerous works, which were collected and published in 172G, in two volumes, folio. Besides the many able works in defence of the religious views of his sect, he wrote others which would be considered of more general interest. Of these are his "Reflections and Maxims relating to the Conduct of Life." It is doubtful whether any odier work of the size can be found, containing so much sound, practical wisdom. The following is the preface to the same:—
PREFACE TO HIS "MAXIMS."
Reader, this Enchiridion' I present thee with, is the fruit of solitude: a school few care to learn in, though none instruct vis belter. Some parts of it are the result of serious reflection, others
l His dHiiffhter LctlUa.
? A nreek wont, compounded of en (tv), "lii," nnd tMr f.vflf)i "the hand." and correspond* to our word "manual." See Uie tame word In the selections froir Qmirles, page 18s.
the flashings of lucid intervals, written for private satisfaction, and now published for a help to human conduct.
The author blesseth God for his retirement, and kisses that gentle hand which led him into it: for though it should prove barren to the world, it can never do so to him.
He has now had some time he could call his own, a property he was never so much master of before: in which he has taken a view of himself and the world; and observed wherein he hath hit and missed the mark; what might have been done, what mended, and what avoided in his human conduct: together with the omissions and excesses of others, as well societies and governments, as private families and persons. And he verily thinks, were he to live over his life again, he could not only, with God's gTace, serve him, but his neighbor and himself, better than he hath done, and have, seven years of his time to spare. And yet, perhaps, he hath not been the worst or the idlest man in the world; nor is he the oldest. And this is the rather said, that it might quicken thee, reader, to lose none of the time that is yet thine.
There is nothing of which we are apt to be so lavish as of time, and about which we ought to be more solicitous; since without it we can do nothing in this world. Time is what we watit most, but what, alas! we use worst; and for which God will certainly most strictly reckon with us, when time shall be no more.
It is of that moment to us in reference to both worlds, that I can hardly wish any man better, than that he would seriously consider what he does with his time; how and to what end he employs it; and what returns he makes to God, his neighbor, and himself for it. Will he never have a ledger for this; this, the greatest wisdom and work of life?
To come but once into the world, and trifle away our true enjoyment of it, and of ourselves in it, is lamentable indeed. This one reflection would yield a thinking person great instruction. And, since nothing below man can so think, man in being thoughtless must needs fall below himself. And that, to be sure, such^o, as are unconcerned in the use of their most precious time.
This is but too evident, if we will allow ourselves to consider, that there is hardly any thing we take by the right end, or improve to its just advantage.
We understand little of the works of God, either in nature or grace. We pursue false knowledge, and mistake education extremely. We are violent in our affections; confused and immethodical in our whole life: making that a burden which was given for a blessing; and so of little comfort to ourselves or others: misapprehending the true notion of happiness, and so misfing of the right use of life, and way of happy living.