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best ol ( auses, have an advocate on earth. But in some respects Wiclif claims precedence of Luther. We must ever bear in mind that he was two hundred years r>eibre him, and that he lived in a darker night of ignorance, and when the papal power was in its fullest strength. Wiclif, too, stood comparatively alone; for though countenanced by the mother of the king, and by the powerful Duke of Lancaster, yet he met with no support that deserved to be compared with that retinue of powerful patronage which gave effect to the exertions of Luther. "Allowing, however," (says Professor Le Bas,) "if we must, to Luther, the highest niche in this sacred department of tbe Temple of Renown, I know not who can be chosen to fill the next, if it shall be denied to Wiclif."'

Wiclif died December 30, 1384, of a stroke of the palsy, continuing to the ■\ ery end of life to labor with increasing zeal in that holy cause to which he had devoted himself in his earlier years. His inveterate enemies, the papal clergy, betrayed an indecent joy at his death, and the Council of Constance,* thirty years after, decreed that his remains should be disinterred and scattered. The order was obeyed, and what wcro supposed to be the ashes of Wiclif were cast into an adjoining brook, one of the branches of the Avon. "And thus," says old Fuller, the historian, "this brook did convey his ashes into Avon; Avon into Severn; Severn into the narrow sea; and this into die wide ocean. And so the ashes of Wiclif arc the emblem of his doctrine, which is now dispersed all the world over."*

The character of Wiclif was marked by piety, benevolence, and ardent zeal, to which was added great severity, and even austerity of manners, such as befitted the first great champion of religious liberty. In the extent and variety of his knowledge he surpassed all the learned men of his age; and the number of his writings still extant, though very many were burnt both before and after his death by order of tho Pope, is truly astonishing. Most of these now exist in manuscript, in the public libraries in England and Ireland, and some in the Imperial Library at Vienna. His great work was the translation of the Scriptures, and to him belongs die high honor of having

1 "In all stages of society, those unquestionably deserve the highest praise, who outstep the rest «f their contemporaries; who rise up in solitary majesty amidst a host of prejudices and errors, combaUng intrepidly on one side, though assailed and weakened on another. The merit consists In setting the example; In exhibiting a pattern after whleh others may work. It Is easy to follow where there is one to lead; but to be the first to strike out into a new and untried way, in whatever state of society it may be found, marks a genius above Uie common order. Such men are entitled to everlasting gratitude." Read— BvrxeWi English Pro* WrlUn.

I A town In Switzerland on the west of tbe lake of Uie same name. This papal Council, which met
In 14 H, condemned John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who were both burnt at the stake,
I Wordsworth has thus beautifully expressed this thought:—

Wiclif Is dislnbumed j

Yea—his dry bones to ashes are consumed,

And flung Into the brook tliat travels near:

Forthwith, that ancient volcewtucb streams can hear.

Thus Boeaks—(that voice which walks upon the wind.

Though seldom heard by busy human kind:)

■ As thou these ashes, little brook, wilt bear

Into the Avon—Avon to the tide

Of Bevern—Severn to the narrow seas—

Into main ocean they—this deed accurst.

An emblem yields to friends and enemies,

llow the bold teacher's doctrine, sanctified

By tmtli, shall spread throughout tho world dispersed.'

given to the English nation the first translation of the entire Scriptures in their mother tongue, which he made, however, not from the original languages, but from the Latin Vulgate. The following are his reasons for this great undertaking:'


Oh Lord God! sithin" at the beginning of faith, so many men translated into Latin, and to great profit of Latin men; let one simple creature of God translate into English, for profit of Englishmen. For, if worldly clerks look well their chronicles and books, they shoulden find, that Bede translated the Bible, and expounded much in Saxon, that was English, either3 common language of this land, in his time. And not only Bede, but king Alfred, that founded Oxenford, translated in his last days, the beginning of the Psalter into Saxon, and would more, if he had lived longer. Also Frenchmen, Bemers,4 and Britons han5 the Bible and other books of devotion and exposition translated into their mother language. Why shoulden not Englishmen have the same in their mother language? I cannot wit.0 No, but for falseness and negligence of clerks,7 either for" our people is not worthy to have so great grace and gift of God, in pain of their old sins.


Christian men and women, old and young, shoulden study fast in the New Testament, and that no simple man of wit should be aferde unmeasurably to study in the text of holy writ; that pride and covetisse of clerks,7 is cause of their blindness and heresy, and priveth them fro very understanding of holy writ. That the New Testament is of full autority, and open to understanding of simple men, as to the points that ben most needful to salvation; that the text of holy writ ben word of everlasting life, and that he that keepeth meekness and charity, hath the true understanding aud perfection of all holy writ; that it seemeth open heresy to say that the Gospel with his truth and freedom sufficeth not to

1 For this noble labor, which he completed In 1380, he received abuse without measure from the priests. The following Is but a mild specimen or papal rage. It Is from one Henry Knygliton, a contemporary priest. "This master John WU-Uf translated out of Latin into English, uie Gospel wbicn Christ had Intrusted with the clergy and doctors of the church, that taffy might minister It to Ge laity and weaker sort, according to the exigency of Umes and their several occasions. So that by this means the Gospel Is made vulgar, and laid more open to the laity, and even to women who could read, than It used to be to the most learned of the clergy, and those or the best understanding, and so the Gospel jewel, or evangelical pearl, is Uirown about and trodden under foot of swine." —Even In the third year of Henry Vn (1115,) It was enacted t; a Parliament held In Leicester, " that whosoever u>ey were that should read the Scriptures in their mother tongue," twn'ch was then called WitUf'i learning,) "they should forfeit land, cattle, body, lite, and goods, from their heirs forever, and be condemned for heretics to God, enemies to the crown, and most arrant traitors to the mi'

8 since. 3 Or. * Bohemians. • Have. s Know, or tell. t Scholars. 8 Or because


salvation of Christian men, without keeping of ceremonies and statutes of sinful men and uncunning, that ben made in the time of Satanas and of Anti-Christ; that men ought to desire only the truth and freedom of the holy Gospel, and to accept man's law and ordinances only in as much as they ben grounded in holy scripture, either good reason and common profit of Christian people. That if any man in earth either angel of heaven teacheth us the contrary of holy writ, or any thing against reason and charity, we should flee from him in that, as frc the foul fiend of hell, and hold us stedfastly to life and death, to the truth and freedom of the holy Gospel of Jesus Christ; and take us meekly men's sayings and laws, only in as much as they accorden with holy writ and good consciences; no further, for life, neither for death.

And so (says Wiclif) they would condemn the Holy Ghost, that gave it in tongues to the apostles of Christ, as it is written, to speak the word of God in all languages that were ordained of God under heaven, as it is written.


And Jhesus seynge the peple, went up into an hil; and whanne he was sett, his disciplis camen to him. And he openyde his mouthe, and taughte hem; and seide, Blessid be pore men in spirit; for the kyngdom of hevenes is herun.8 Blessid ben mylde men: for thei schulenweelde the erthe. Blessid ben thei that mournen; for thei schal be coumfortid. Blessid be thei that hungren and thirsten rightwisnesse :s for thei schal be fulfilled. Blessed ben merciful men: for thei schul gete mercy. Blessed ben thei that ben of clene herte : for thei schulen se God. Blessid ben pesible men: for thei schulen be clepid goddis children. Blessid ben thei that suffren persecucioun for rightwisnesse: for the kyngdom of hevenes is hern. Ye schul be blessid whanne men schul curse you, and schul pursue you: and schul seye al yvel agens you liynge for me. Joie ye and be ye glade: for your meede is plenteous in hevenes: for so thei han pursued also prophetis that weren bifore you. Ye ben salt of the erthe, that if the salt vanishe awey wherynne schal it be salted? to nothing it is worth over, no but it be cast out, and be defoulid of men. Ye ben light of the world, a citee set on an hill may not be hid. Ne men leendith not a lanterne and puttith it undir a bushel: but on a candilstik that it give light to alle that ben in the hous. So, schyne your light bifore men, that thei see youre gode workis, and glorifie your fadir that is in hevenes. Nyle ghe deme that

I The original spelling is preserved in this extract from Wldlf'a Bible as a curiosity,
s Theirs. * Rightfulnosse, ii many manuscripts.

1 cam to undo the Lawe or the prophetis, I cam not to undo the Jawe but to fulfille. Forsothe I sey to you till hevene and erthe passe, oon leltre, or oon title, schal not passe fro the Lawe til alle thingis be don. Therefore he that brekith oon of these leesle maundementis, and techith thus men, schal be clepid the Leest in the rewme of hevenes: but he that doth, and techith, schal be clepid greet in the kyngdom of hevenes.

JOHN BARBOUR. 1326—1396.

Asoxe the very earliest of the poets of Scotland was John Barbour, Archdeacon of Aberdeen. But very little is known of his personal history. The only work of consequence which he has left, is entitled «Bruce." It is a metrical history of Robert the First (1306—1329)—of his exertions and achievements for the recovery of the independence of Scotland, including the principal transactions of his reign. Barbour, therefore, is to be considered in the doable character of historian and poet As he flourished in the age immediately following that of his hero, he enjoyed the advantage of hearing, from eye-witnesses themselves, narratives of the war for liberty. As a history, his work is good authority. He himself boasts of its "soothlastness;" and the lofty sentiments and vivid descriptions with which it abounds, prove the author to have been fitted by feeling and principle, as well as by situation, for the task which he undertook.

As many of the words in Barbour are now obsolete, we will give but one quotation from his heroic poem. After the painful description of the slavery to which Scotland was reduced by Edward I., he breaks out in the following noble Apostrophe to Freedom. It is in a style of poetical feeling uncommon not only in that but many subsequent ages, and has been quoted with high praise by the most distinguished Scottish historians and critics.

"A! fredome is a nobill thing!
Fredome mayse man to haiff liking!
Fredome all solace to man giffis:
He levys at ese that frely levys!
A noble hart may haiff nane ese,
Na ellys nocht that may him plese,
Gyff fredome failythe: for fre liking
Is yeaxnyt our all othir thing.
Na he, that ay hase levyt fre,
May nocht knaw Weill the propyrte,
The angyr, na the wretchyt dome,
That is cowplyt to foule thyrldome.
Bot gyff he had assayit it,
Then all perquer he suld it wyt;
And suld think fredome mar to pryse
Than all the gold in warld that is."1

1 The Ibnowrns paraphrase or the above lines la taken from Chambers'! Blogmpbtcnl Dictionary *f Inlnent Scotsmen :—

Ah I freedom ts a noble thing,
And can to lu> a rettsa bring |


■ ■ ■ That renowned Poet
Dan Chaucer, Well of English undefyled,
On Famc'f eternall bcadroll worthle to be fyled.
f Sri User.

That noble Chancer, In those former Umes,
Who first enriched our English with bis rhymes.
And was Uie flrat of ours that ever broke
Into the Huse'i treasures, and first Bpoke
Id mighty numbers; delving In the mine
Of perfect knowledge. Woudbwortk.

Wb now come to one of the brightest names in English literature—to him who has been distinctively known as "The Father of English poetry"— Geoffrey Chaucer. Warton, with great beauty and justice, has compared the appearance of Chaucer in our language to « a premature day in an English spring, after which the gloom of winter returns, and the buds and blossoms which have been called forth by a transient sunshine, are nipped by frosts and scattered by storms."

Chaucer was born probably about the year 1328, though all attempts to fix the precise year have utterly failed. His parentage is unknown, nor is there any certainty where he was educated. His great genius early attracted the notice of l»e reigning sovereign, Edward III., and he soon became the most popular personage in the brilliant court of that monarch. It was in this circle of royalty that he became attached to a lady whom he afterwards married, Philippa Pyknard. She was maid of honor to the queen Philippa, and a younger sister of the wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. By this connection, -therefore, Chaucer acquired the powerful support of the Lancastrian family, and during his life his fortune fluctuated with theirs. To his courtly accomplishments he added much by foreign travel, having been commissioned by the king in 1372 to attend to some important matters of state at Genoa. While in Italy he became acquainted with Petrarch,1 and probably with Boccacio, whose works enriched his mind with fresh stores of learning

Freedom nil solace to man give*;

He lives at ease that freely lives.

A noble heart may liave no case,

Nor aught beside that may It please,

If freedom fail—for 'Us the choice,

More than the chosen, man enjoys.

Ah, he that ne'er yet lived In thrall,

Knows not the weary pains which gall

The limbs, the soul, of him who plains , In slavery's foul and festering chains,

t If these ho knew, I ween right soon

He Tvould seek back the precious boon

Of freedom, which he then would prize

More than all wealth beneath the skies, t The three distinguished scholars of Italy of the fourteenth century were, Dibit., (1263—iS2i.) the father of modern Italian poetry; Pxtrakch, (1304—1374,) the reviver of ancient learning, and the Brst founder and collector of any considerable llbmry of ancient literature: an:l Hoccaco, (1318 — IKS,) rh*? father of modem Italian prose.

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