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Shall strike his frost-stretch'd wings, dissolve,and fly
Thus richer than untempted kings are we,
That asking nothir g, nothing need;
That wants himself; is poor indeed.
THOMAS FULLER. 1008—1661.
A Cosspi ccocs place in the prose literature of our language J due to lh( historian and divine, Thomas Fuller. He was the son of a clergyman of the same name, and was born in 1008 at Aldwinkle in Northamptonshire, the native place of Dryden. At the early age of twelve, he was sent to Queen's College, Cambridge, where he distinguished himself for his attainments, and on entering life as a preacher in that city, he acquired the greatest popularity. He afterwards passed through a rapid succession of promotions, until he acquired (1641) the lectureship of the Savoy Church in London. To show his fidelity to the royal cause, he procured, in 1043, a nomination as chaplain to the royal army. When the heat of the war was passed he returned to London, and became lecturer at St. Bride's church. Subsequently he occupied other situations in the church of England, and at the Restoration (1000) he was chosen chaplain extraordinary to the king. The next year he was prematurely cut off by fever at the age of fifty-three.
The works of Fuller are very numerous: the chief of which are the following: 1. "History of the Worthies of England," one of the earliest biographical works in the language; a strange mixture of topography, biography, and popular antiquities. 2. * The Holy and Profane State," the former proposing examples for imitation; the latter their oppositcs, for our abhorrence. Each contains cliaracters in every department of life, as, "the father," "husband," "soldier," "divine," &c.; lives of eminent persons, as illustrative of these characters; and general essays. 3. "The History of the Holy War," and "The Church History of Britain." There are specimens of historical painting in these works that have perhaps never been excelled. 4. "Good Thoughts in Bad Times." 5. "A Pisgah-sight of Palestine and the Confines thereof; with the History of the Old and New Testament acted thereon." Besides these he published a large number of tracts and sermons on various subjects.
Fuller was indeed an extraordinary man. "If ever there was an amusing writer in this world, Thomas Fuller was one. There was in hiin a combination of those qualities which minister to our entertainment, such as few have ever possessed in on equal degree. He was, first of all, a man of multifarious residing; of great and digested knowledge, which an extraordinary retentiveness of memory preserved ever ready for use, and considerable ae curacy of judgment enabled him successfully to apply. So well does he vary his treasures of memory and observation, so judiciously does he interweave his anecdotes, quotations, and remarks, that it is impossible to conceive a more delightful checker-work of acute thought anil apposite illustration, of original and extracted sentiment, than is presented in his works."1
1 Read—an article on Puller In the "Retrospective Review," 11. 5C
Know, next to religion, there is nothing accomplisheth a man more than learning. Learning in a lord is as a diamond in gold.
He must rise early, yea, not at ail go to bed, who will have every one's good word.
He needs strong arms who is to swim against the stream.
It is hard for one of base parentage to personate a king without overacting his part.
The pope knows he can catch no fish if the waters are clear.
The cardinals' eyes in the court of Rome were old and dim; and therefore the glass, wherein they see any thing, must be well silvered.
Many wish that the tree may be felled, who hope to gather chips by the fall.
The Holy Ghost came down, not in the shape of a vulture, but in the form of a dove.
Gravity is the ballast of the soul.
Learning hath gained most by those books by which the printers have lost.
He shall be immortal who liveth till he be stoned by one without fault.
It is the worst clandestine marriage when God is not invited to it.
Deceive not thyself by over-expecting happiness in the married state. Look not therein for contentment greater than God will give, or a creature in this world can receive, namely, to be free from all inconveniences. Marriage is not like the hill Olympus, wholly clear, without clouds. Remember the nightingales, which sing only some months in the spring, but commonly are silent when they have hatched their eggs, as if their mirth were turned into care for their young ones.
THE GOOD SCHOOLMASTER.1
There is scarce any profession in the commonwealth more necessary, which is so slightly performed. The reasons whereof I conceive to be these:—First, }'oung scholars make this calling their refuge; yea, perchance, before they have taken any degree in the university, commence schoolmasters in the country, as if nothing else were required to set up this profession but only a rod and a ferula. Secondly, others who are able, use it only as a
5 The remarks of Fuller on thla subject are most admirable. How Utile discrimination parent* often evince In placing tbclr children at school; and how many are there who "set up school," as the phrase Is, without any suitable preparation or qualifications for the responsible duty. It is humiliating to reflect how often that profession, for which as much training and study are requisite as tut any other, has been assumed merely as the hut resort. But a better day la at hand.
passage to better preferment, to patch the rents in their present fortune, till they can provide a new one, and betake themselves to some more painful calling. Thirdly, they are disheartened from doing their best with the miserable reward which in some places thev receive, being masters to their children and slaves to their parents. Fourthly, being grown rich they grow negligent, and scorn to touch the school but by the proxy of the usher. But see how well our schoolmaster behaves himself.
His genius inclines him with delight to his profession. God, of his sroodness, hath fitted several men for several callings, that the necessity of church and state, in all conditions, may be provided for. And thus God mouldeth some for a schpolmaster's life, undertaking it with desire and delight, and discharging it with dexterity and happy success.
He studieth his scholars' natures as carefully as they their books; and ranks their dispositions into several forms. And though it may seem difficult for him in a great school to descend to all particulars, yet experienced schoolmasters may quickly make a grammar of boys' natures.
He is able, diligent, and methodical in his teaching; nnt leading them rather in a circle than forwards. He minces his precepts for children to swallow, hanging clogs on the nimblentiss of his own soul, that his scholars may go along with him.
He is moderate in inflicting deserved correction. Many a schoolmaster better answereth the name paidotribes* than paidagogos,' rather tearing his scholars' flesh with whipping than giving them good education. No wonder if his scholars hate the muses, being presented unto them in the shapes of fiends and furies.
Such an Orbilius mars more scholars than he makes. Their tyranny hath caused many tongues to stammer which spake plain by nature, and whose stuttering at first was nothing else but fears quavering on their speech at their master's presence; and whose mauling them about their heads hath dulled those who in quickness exceeded their master.
To conclude, let this, amongst other motives, make schoolmasters careful in their place—that the eminences of their scholars have commended the memories of their schoolmasters to posterity .»
• He means "boy-teacher," but the paldagogat (a-oMlaysjyos) "pedagogue" of the Oreeks, waa tl e ■errant who conducted the chUJrcn from their homes to the schools, and not the Instructor.
* How beautifully the historian Olhbon expresses the obligations due from n scholar to a fhftliful and comprt*nt teacher: "The expression of gratitude Is a virtue and a pleasure; a liberal mind will drllgbt to cherish and celebrate the memory of Its parents, iHD rHK TEACKEas or Science She The rsxExn or The Siixd." Memoirs, cb. III.
THE GOOD WIFE.
She commandeth her husband in any equal matter, by constant obeying him.
She never crosseth her husband in the spring-tide of his anger, but stays till it be ebbing-water. Surely men, contrary to iron, are worst to be wrought upon when they are hot.
Her clothes are rather comely than costly, and she makes plain cloth to be velvet by her handsome wearing it.
Her husband's secrets she will not divulge: especially she is careful to conceal his infirmities.
In her husband's absence she is wife and deputy husband, ■which makes her double the files of her diligence. At his return he finds all things so well, that he wonders to see himself at home when he was abroad.1
Her children, though many in number, are none in noise, steering them with a look whither she listeth.
The heaviest work of her servants she maketh light, by orderly and seasonably enjoining it.
In her husband's sickness she feels more grief than she shows
THE GOOD SEA-CAPTAIN.
Conceive him now in a man-of-war, with his letters of marque, victualled, and appointed.
The more power he hath, the more careful he is not to abuse it. Indeed a sea-captain is a king in the island of a ship, supreme judge, above all appeal, in causes civil and criminal, and is seldom brought to an account on land for injuries done to his own men at sea.
He is careful in observing the Lord's day. He hath a watch in his heart, though no bells in a steeple to proclaim that day by ringing to prayers.
He is as pious and thankful when a tempest is past, as devout when 'tis present; not clamorous to receive mercies, and tonguetied to return thanks. Escaping many dangers makes him not presumptuous to run into them.
In taking a prize he most prizeth the men's lives whom he takes ; though some of them may chance to be negroes or savages.
1 In Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy there are twelve reasons In favor of man-Inge, of which the rirsl six arc as follows :—
1. Hast thou means T Thou hast one to keep and Increase IL
2. Hast none f Thou hast one to help to get It
3. Art in prosjierlty f Thine happiness is doubled.
*. Art In adversity T She'll comfort, assist, bear a part of thy burden, to make It more tolerable. 6. Art at hume t She'U drive away melancholy.
6. Art abroad r She looks after thee going from home, wishes for thee In thine absence, and joyfully welcome* thv return.
'Tis the custom of some to cast them overboard, and there's an end of them: for the dumb fishes will tell no tales. But the murderer is not so soon drowned as the man. What, is a brother of false blood no kin? a savage hath God to his father by creation, though not the church to his mother, and God will revenge his innocent blood. But our captain counts the image of God, nevertheless his image cut in ebony as if done in ivory.1
In dividing the gains, he wrongs no one who took pains to get them: not shifting off his poor mariners with nothing.
In time of peace he quietly returns home.
His voyages are not only for profit, but some for honor and knowledge."
He daily sees, and duly considers God's wonders in the deep.
Travel not early before thy judgment be risen; lest thou observest rather shows than substance.
Get the language (in part), without which key thou shalt unlock little of moment.
Know most of the rooms of thy native country before thou goest over the threshold thereof.
Travel not beyond the Alps. Mr. Roger Ascham did thank God that he was but nine days in Italy, wherein he saw in one city (Venice) more liberty to sin than in London he ever heard of in nine years.
Be wise in choosing objects, diligent in marking, careful in remembering of them. Yet herein men much follow their own humors. One asked a barber who never before had been at the court, what he saw there ?" O," said he, " the king was excellently well trimmed!"
Labor to distil and unite into thyself the scattered perfections of several nations. Many weed foreign countries, bringing home Dutch drunkenness, Spanish pride, French wantonness, and Italian atheism; as for the good herbs, Dutch industry, Spanish loyalty, French courtesy, and Italian frugality, these they leave behind them; others bring home just nothing; and, because they singled not themselves from their countrymen, though some years beyond sea, were never out of England.
I "It not this one of the earliest Intercession* on behalf of the poor slnves T"— Suit Afonttfu. No; lor a higher than all hnman authority proelalmtu, fifteen hundred years bctore, " All Uilngs whatso ever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them;" which. If obeyed, would bread every bond of oppression throughout the world. Light and darkness, virtue and vice, henvtn atiu earth, present no greater contrast than the code of Christian ethics and the slave code.
i This Is common to all professions: "I hold," says Lord Bacon, "that every ni:in Is a debtor lo his profession, from the which, as men do of course seek to receive countcrance and orofit, so ought they of dnty to endeavor themselves, by way of amends, to be a help and ornament 'hereunto."