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as a giant, doth run his unwearied course, should, as it* were, through a languishing faintness, begin to stand and to rest himself; if the moon should wander from her beaten way, the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture, the winds breathe out their last gasp, the clouds yield no rain, the earth be defected of heavenly influence, the fruits of the earth pine away, as children at the withered breasts of their mother, no longer able to yield them relief; what would become of man himself, whom these things do now all serve? See we not plainly, that obedience of creatures unto the law of nature is the stay of the whole world?

Of Law there can be no less acknowledged than that her seat is the bosom of God; her voice the harmony of the world. All things in heaven and earth do her homage; the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest as not exempted from her power. Both angels and men, and creatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniform consent, admiring her as the mother of their peace and joy.


Death is that which all men suffer, but not all men with one mind, neither all men in one manner. For being of necessity a thing common, it is through the manifold persuasions, dispositions, and occasions of men, with equal desert both of praise and dispraise, shunned by some, by others desired. So that absolutely we cannot discommend, we cannot absolutely approve, either willingness to live, or forwardness- to die. And concerning the ways of death, albeit the choice thereof be only in his hands who alone hath power over all flesh, and unto whose appointment we ought with patience meekly to submit ourselves, (for to be agents voluntarily in our own destruction, is against both God and nature ;) yet there is no doubt, but in so great variety, our desires will and may lawfully prefer one kind before another. Is there any man of worth and virtue, although not instructed in the school of Christ, or ever taught what the soundness of religion meaneth, that had not rather end the days of this transitory life, as Cyrus in Xenophon, or in Plato, Socrates, is described, than to sink (Town with them, of whom Elihu hath said, Momenlo morientur,1 there w scarce an instant between their flourishing and not being! But kt us which know what it is to die as Absalom, or Ananias and Sapphira died, let us beg of God, that when the hour of our rest is come, the patterns of our dissolution may be Jacob, Moses. Joshua, David; who, leisureably ending their lives in peace, prayed for the mercies of God to come upon their posterity; re

1 Job xulr, 20: "In a moment ihall they die"

plenished the hearts of the nearest unto them with words of memorable consolation; strengthened men in the fear of God; gave them wholesome instructions of life, and confirmed them in true religion; in sum, taught the world no less virtuously how to die, than they had done before how to live.1


The choice and flower of all things profitable in other books, the Psalms do both more briefly contain, and more movingly also express, by reason of that poetical form wherewith they are written. The ancients, when they speak of the Book of Psalms, used to fall into large discourses, showing how this part above the rest doth of purpose set forth and celebrate all the considerations find operations which belong to God; it magnifieth the holy meditations and actions of divine men; it is of things heavenly an universal declaration, working in them whose hearts God inspireth with the due consideration thereof, an habit or disposition of mind whereby they are made fit vessels, both for receipt and for delivery of whatsoever spiritual perfection. What is there necessary for man to know which the Psalms are not able to teach? They are to beginners an easy and familiar introduction, a mighty augmentation of all virtue and knowledge in such as are entered before, a strong confirmation to the most perfect amongst others. Heroical magnanimity, exquisite justice, grave moderation, exact wisdom, repentance unfeigned, unwearied patience, the mysteries of God, the sufferings of Christ, the terrors of wrath, the comforts of Grace, the works of Providence over this world, and the promised joys of that world which is to come, all good necessarily to be either known, or done, or had, this one celestial fountain yieldeth. Let there be any grief or disease incident unto the soul of man, any wound or sickness named, for which there is not in this treasure-house a present comfortable remedy at all times ready to be found. Hereof it is, that we covet to make the Psalms especially familiar unto all. This is the very cause why we iterate the Psalms oftener than any other part of Scripture besides; the cause wherefore we inure the people together with their minister, and not the minister alone, to read them as other parts of Scripture he doth.*

1 The reader here Is reminded of the lines of Tlckell on the death of Addison— "He taught us how to live, and 01 too high The price of knowledge, taught us how to die." * The heat edition of Hooker's works la thnt by Kcble, 2 vols., the author of the "Christian Year," und tlic writer of a valuable article on sacred poetry In the S2d vol. of the Quarterly Review. For an account of the tracts which gave rise to Hooker's great work—his Ecclesiastical Polity—sea stake's " Anecdotes of Literature," t. 19—Is.


Ths Minstrels were a class of men in the middle ages, who subsisted by the arts of poetry and music; who went about from place to place, and offered their poetical and musical wares wherever they could find a market. They appear to have accompanied their songs with mimicry and action, and in short to have practised such various means of diverting, as were much admired in those rude times, and supplied the want of more refined entertainment. These arts rendered them extremely popular and acceptable wherever ihey went No great scene of festivity was considered complete that was not set off with the exercise of their talents; and so long as the spirit of chivalry existed, with which their songs were so much in keeping, they were protected and caressed.

Of the origin of the Minstrels, it is difficult to find nny thing satisfactory. The term seems to be derived from the Latin minuter or ministtllus, "an attendant," "an assistant," as the Minstrels were attendant upon persons of rank, and assistants at their entertainments. But whatever may be said of their origin, the Minstrels continued a distinct order of men till centuries after the Norman conquest, and there i3 but little doubt that most of the fine old ballads in English Literature, were not only sung, but in many cases written by the professed Minstrel.

There are many incidents in early English history which show how numerous was this body of men, and in what high estimation they were held. The one most familiar, is that of King Alfred's entering the Danish camp, in the disguise of a harper. Though known by his dialect to be a Saxon, the character he assumed procured him a hospitable reception. He was admitted to entertain the Danish princes at their table, and stayed among them long enough to observe all their movements, and to plan that assault which resulted in their overdirow. So also the story of Blondell's going unharmed over Europe, in search of Richard L, goes to prove the same fact—die high estimation in which the Minstrel in early times was held.

In the reign of Edward II. (1307—1327) such extensive privileges were claimed by Minstrels, and by dissolute persons assuming their character, that they became a public grievance, and their liberties were restricted by express Etaime. Finally,in the 39th year of the reign of Elizabeth, (1597,) this class of persons had so sunk in public estimation, that a statute was passed by which "Minstrels, wandering abroad, were included among rogues, vagatonds,and sturdy beggars," and were adjudged to be punished as such.


This ljallad lays claim to a high and remote antiquity. There are different opinions as lo its origin, which the reader may see stated in Sir Walter Scott's "-Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border." The probability is, that it is founded on authentic history, and that it records the melancholy and disastrous fate of tltat gallant band which, about the year 1280, followed in the suite of MarRarer, daughter of Alexander the Tliird of Scotland, when she was espoused

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to Erie of Norway. According to Fordun, the old Scottish historian, many distinguished nobles accompanied her in this expedition to Norway, to graco her nuptials, several of whom perished in a storm whilo on their return to Scotland.

The king sits in Dunfermline town,

Drinking the bludo-red wine:
"0 where will I get a skeely skipper1

To sail this new ship of mine 1"

0 up and spake an eldern knight,

Sat at the king's right knee:
■ Sir Patrick Spens is the best sailor

That ever sailed the sea."

Our king has written a braid* letter,

And sealed it with his hand,
And sent it to Sir Patrick Spens,

Was walking on the strand.

"To Noroway, to Noroway,

To Noroway o'er the faem;
The king's daughter of Noroway,

Tis thou maun bring her name!"

The first word that Sir Patrick read,

Sae loud loud laughed he;
The ncist word that Sir Patrick read,

The tear blindit his e'e.

"0 wha is this has done this deed,

And tauld the king o' me,
To send us out at this time of the year,

To sail upon the sea?

"Be it wind, be it wcet, be it hail, be it sleet,

Our ship must sail the faem;
The king's daughter of Noroway,

Tis we must fetch her hame."

They hoysed their sails on Monenday morn,

Wi' a' the speed they may;
They hae landed in Noroway

Upon a Wodensday.

They hadna been a week, a week

In Noroway, but twae,
When that the lords o' Noroway

Began aloud to say:

"Ye Scottishmen spend a' our king's gowdJ

And a' our queenis fee."
"Ye lie, ye lie, ye liars loud 1

Fu' loud I hear ye lie 1

1 Skilful mariner.

S Brood, large.

I Gold.

"For I hae brought as much white monie

As gnnc1 my men and me,—
And I hae brought a half-fou1 o' gude red gowd

Out owro the sea wi' me.

"Make ready, make ready, my merryinen a'!

Our gude ship sails the morn."
"Now, ever alake! my master dear,

I fear a deadly storm!

"I saw the new moon, late yestreen,

Wi' the auld moon in her arm;
And if we gang to sea, master,

I ffar we'll come to harm."

They hadna sailed a league, a league,

A league, but barely tliree,
When the lift' grew dark, and the wind blew loud,

And gurly grew the sea.

The ankers brak, and the topmasts lap,4

It was sic a deadly storm;
And the waves came o'er the broken ship

Till a' her sides were torn.

"0 where will I get a gude sailor

To take my helm in hand,
Till I get up to the tall topmast,

To see if I can spy land?"

"0 here am I, a sailor gude,

To take the helm in hand,
Till you go up to the tall topmast,—

But I fear you'll ne'er spy land."

He hadna gane a step, a step,

A step, but barely ane,
When a boult* flew out of our goodly ship,

And the salt sea it came in.

"Gae fetch a web o' the silken claith,

Another o' the twine,
And wap them into our ship's side,

And letna the sea come in."0

They fetched a web o' the silken claith,

Another o' the twine,
And they wapped them roun' that gudo ship's side,

—But still the sea came in.

1 Suffice. « The eighth part of a peck. « 8ky. Sprung.

* If a "bolt flew out," of course a plank mutt have started.

* In one of Cook's voyages, when a leak could not be got at Inside, a sail was brought under vessel, which by Ute pressure of the sea was forced Into the hole, and prevented the entry of in

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