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Many, I suppose, know as well, or better than myself; yet all do not: to those my directions tend, although every man have ship-provisions allowed him for his five pound, which is salt beef, pork, salt fish, butter, cheese, pease, pottage, water-gruel, and such kind of victuals, with good biscuits, and six-shilling beer : yet will it be necessary to
às have ability, some conserves, and good claret wine, to burn at sea; or you may have it by some of your vintners or wine-coopers burned here, and put up into vessels, which will keep much better than other burnt wine, is a very comfortable thing for the stomach, or such as are sea-sick: sallad oil likewise; prunes are good to be stewed ; sugar for many things, white biscuits, and eggs and bacon, rice, poultry, and some wether sheep to kill aboard the ship, and fine flour-baked meats will keep about a week or nine days at sea; juice of lemons, well put up, is good either to prevent or cure the scurvy. Here it must not be forgotten to carry small skillets, or pipkins, and small frying-pans, to dress their victuals in at sea. For bedding, so it be easy, and cleanly, and warm, it is no matter how old or coarse it be, for the use of the sea; and so likewise for apparel, the oldest clothes be the fittest, with a long coarse coat, to keep better things from the pitched ropes and planks. Whosoever shall put to sea in a stout and well-conditioned ship, having an honest master, and loving seamen, shall not need to fear, but he shall find as good content at sea as at land.
“ For the health of passengers, it hath been observed, that of six hundred souls, not above three or four have died at sea. It is probable, in such a company, more might have died either by sickness or casualties, if they had staid at home. For women, I see not but that they do as well as men, and young children as well as either, having their healths as well at sea as at land. Many likewise which have come with such foul bodies to sea, as did make their days uncomfortable at land, have been so purged and clarified at sea, that they have been more healthful for after-times; their weak appetites being turned to good stomachs, not only desiring, but likewise digesting such victuals as the sea affords. Secondly, for directions for the country: it is not to be feared but that men of good estates may do well there, always provided, that they go well accommodated with servants, in which I would not wish them to take over many; ten or twelve lusty servants being able to manage an estate of two or three thousand pounds. It is not the multiplicity of many bad servants (which presently eat a man out of house and harbour, as lamentable experience hath made manifest), but the industry of the faithful and diligent labourer, that enricheth the careful master; so that he that hath many dronish servants shall soon be poor, and he that hath an industrious family, shall as soon be rich.
« Now for the encouragement of his men, he must not do as many have done, (more through ignorance than desire), carry many mouths and no meat; but rather much meat for a few mouths. Want of due maintenance produceth nothing but a grumbling spirit, with a sluggish idleness; whereas those servants which be well provided for, go through their employments with speed and cheerfulness. For meal, it will be *requisite to carry a hogshead and a half, for every one that is a labourer, to keep him till he may receive the fruit of his own labours, which will be a year and a half after his arrival, if he land in May or June. He must likewise carry malt, beer, butter, cheese, some pease, good wines, vinegar, strong waters, &c. Whosoever transports more of these than he himself useth, his over-plus being sold, will yield as much profit as any other staple commodity. Every man likewise must carry over good store of apparel; for if he come to buy it there, he shall find it dearer than in England. Woollen cloth is a very good commodity, and linen better, as Holland, lockram, flaxen, hempen, calico, stuffs, linsey-wolsies, and blue calico, green baize for housewives' aprons, hats, boots, shoes, good Irish stockings, which if they be good are much more serviceable than knit ones; all kind of grocery wares, as sugar, prunes, raisins, currants, honey, nutmegs, cloves, &c.; soap, candles, .and lamps, &c.; all manner of household stuff is very good trade there, as pewter and brass, but great iron pots be preferred before brass for the use of that country; warming-pans and stewing-pans be of necessary use and good traffic there; all manner of iron wares, as all manner of nails for houses, and all manner of spikes for building of boats, ships, and fishing-stages; all manner of tools for workmen; hoes for planters, broad and narrow for setting and wadding; with axes, both broad and pitching axes; all manner of augers, piercing bits, whip saws, two-handed saws, froes, both for the riving of pales and lathes, rings for beetles' heads, and iron wedges, though all these be made in the country, (there being divers blacksmiths), yet being a heavy commodity, and taking but a little stowage, it is cheaper to carry such commodities out of England. Glass ought not to be forgotten of any that desire to benefit themselves or the country; if it be well loaded, and carefully packed up, I know no commodity better for portage or sale. Here, likewise, must not be forgotten all utensils for the sea, as barbels, splitting-knives, leads, and cod-hooks and lines, mackarelhooks and lines, shark-hooks, seans, or bass nets, large and strong herring-nets, &c. Such as would eat fowl, must not forget their sixfoot guns, their good powder and shot of all sorts; a great round shot called Bastable-shot, is the best, being made of a blacker lead than ordinary shot. Furthermore, good pooldavies, to make sails for boats, roads and anchors for boats and pinnaces, be good; sea coal, iron, lead, and mill-stones, flints, ordnances, and whatsoever a man can conceive is good for the country, that will lie as ballast, he cannot be a loser by it. And lest I should forget a thing of so great importance, no man must neglect to provide for himself, or those belonging to him, his ammunition for the defence of himself and the country. For there is no man there that bears a head, but that bears military arms; even boys of fourteen years of age are practised with men in military discipline, every three weeks. Whosoever shall carry over drums and English colours, pattesons, halberds, pikes, muskets, bandeleras with swords, shall not needs to fear good gain for them, such things being wanting in the country : likewise, whatsoever shall be needful for fortification of holds and castles, whereby the common enemy may be kept out in future times, is much desired. They as yet have had no
great cause to fear; but because security hath been the overthrow of many a new plantation, it is their caré, according to their abilities, to secure themselves by fortifications as well as they can. Thus, having shown what commodities are most useful, it will not be amiss to show you what men be most fit for these plantations. i “ First-Men of good working, and contriving heads; a wellexperienced conimonwealth's-man, for the good of the body politic, in matters of advice and counsel; a well-skilled and industrious husbandman, for tillage and improvement of grounds; an ingenious carpenter, a cunning joiner, a handsome cooper, such a one as can make strong ware for the use of the country, and a good brickmaker, a tiler, and á smith; a leather-dresser, a gardener, and a tailor; one that hath good skill in the trade of fishing, is of special use; and so is a good fowler. If there be any that hath skill in any of these trades, if he can transport himself, he needs not fear but he may improve his time and endeavours to his own benefit and comfort; if any cannot transport himself, he may provide himself of an honest master, and so may do as well. There is as much freedom and liberty for servants as in England, and more too; a wronged servant shall have right volens nolens from his injurious master, and a wronged master shall have right of his înjurious servant, as well as here: wherefore let no servant bé discouraged from the voyage, that intends it. And now, whereas it is generally reported, that servants and poor men grow rich, and the masters and gentry grow poor: I must needs confess that the diligent hand makes rich, and that labouring men having good store of employment, and as good pay, live well and contentedly; but I cannot perceive that those that set them a-work are any way impoverished by them : Peradventure, they have less money by reason of them, but never the less riches; a man's work well done being more beneficial
by him to no purpose. Many men be so improvident as to set men about building of castles in the air, or other unnecessary employments, he may grow poor; but such as employ labourers about planting of corn, building of houses, fencing in of ground, fishing, and divers other necessary occasions, shall receive as much or more by poor men's labours, than those that live in England do from the industry of such as they hire: wherefore I do suppose this to be but the surmisings of some that are ignorant of the state of the country, or else misinformed by some ill-willers to the plantations. Many objections, I know, are daily invented to hinder the proceedings of these new plantations, which may damp the unsettled spirits of such as are not greatly affected with those undertakings.
“ Some there are who count, with Claudian, that it is an incomparable happiness to have their birth, life, and burying in the same place these are never likely to remove further than the shell of their own country. But because there are some noble spirits that devote their estatės and their persons to the common good of their king and country, I have therefore for their direction and delight made this relation. For as the end of my travel was observation, so I desire the end of my observation may tend to the information of others. As I have observed what I have seen, and written what I have observed, so do I desire to publish what I have written, desiring it may be beneficial to posterity ;- and if any man desire to fill himself at that fountain from whence this tasting cup was taken, his own experience shall tell him as much as I have here related.”
The “ note of preparation," so remarkable in the abundance of provisions which Wood recommends, shows that our forefathers were accustomed to enjoy comforts, in a degree somewhat surprising to modern readers. The picture either designates a class of emigrants, very different, indeed, from that which now is well satisfied with the ordinary “ships allowance;" or, if the bulk of the adventurers were from the poorest classes, their habits of living must have been widely different from that of the same rank in life in the 19th century.
Our author's interesting discussions upon the character of the native inhabitants of the country, must be reserved for a future occasion. It is a subject to which justice can only be done by undivided attention. It is full of difficulty; and from the gross barbarity with which they have been treated by white men, demanding the most serious regard. We promise that it shall not be neglected ; and we are glad to be able to announce, that the views of the government of our own country, as well as that of the United States of America, are greatly changed towards the unhappy tribes whom they have supplanted.
ART. IV.-Lettres de Ninon de l' Enclos au Marquis de Sévigné,
avec sa Vie, &c. 2 tom. in 18mo. Amsterdam, 1757, Mémoires sur la Vie de Mademoiselle de l' Enclos. Par Mr.
B**** 12mo. Amsterdam, 1758.
We are by no means inclined to verify the prediction of Voltaire in our own persons, who has prophesied, in the bitterness of his heart, against certain forgers then, as now, in the practice of uttering false letters under celebrated names, that the works, whose titles are prefixed to this article, would one day be taken down from the shelves of dusty libraries, and proclaimed by some ignorant scribbler ås precious monuments of history. From his personal acquaintance with the reputed authoress of the letters to the Marquis de Sévigné, Voltaire had undoubtedly better means of judging of their originality than we can pretend to possess. As he has decided against them, and has also thrown a doubt upon the Memoirs of the life of their pretended writer, we shall proceed with requisite caution to the performance of our task. This is fortunately rendered less difficult by the information we are able to gather from other sources of unquestioned authenticity, and especially from Voltaire himself, who has left us many anecdotes on the subject of the works before us, which check and correct the errors of their anonymous authors.
So much for the books themselves. As for the singular person whose life and character are pourtrayed in these Memoirs, we have something farther to add, before we proceed in our undertaking. If it be asked why we have selected her as the subject of our criticism, we reply, that we have done so on the usual grounds which determine our choice of subjects; which are, that we believe them to be either instructive or amusing, or both. In the present instance, as in all, it remains with the reader to decide how far our judgement is correct. For many reasons, we are induced to believe that the books before us are neither devoid of interest nor altogether uninstructive. However trite the comparison, it is one too true to be omitted, that the life of Ninon de l'Enclos bears a great resemblance to the histories we read of the most celebrated of those women, in ancient times, who occupied a middle station between the honourable condition of marriage and the infamous state of prostitution—a class of females whose Greek name has been of late familiarised to our ears by the English translator of Aristophanes. Ninon was of the order of the French hetare; and as by her beauty and her talents, she attained the first rank in her class, her name has come down to posterity with those of Aspasia and Leontina, while the less distinguished favourites of less celebrated voluptuaries, have shared the common oblivion
ther of vice or virtue. A class of this kind, a status of this singular nature existing amongst accomplished women, can never be uninteresting or uninstructive; and as a distinguished specimen of such a class, Ninon de l'Enclos will peculiarly strike the attention of all, who, whether for knowledge or amusement, are observers of human nature under all its shapes and circumstances. We shall not inflict upon the reader an historical digression on the state of female manners in ancient Athens, or at Paris in the last two centuries. We are only anxious that he should not discard them from his memory when he peruses the life of Ninon. At the first view, and to a narrow intellect, a woman of such a character would seem hopelessly lost to all virtue, abandoned by every feeling of shame, and irreclaimable to any sense of social or private duty; but only at the first view, and to the most circumscribed of narrow minds. We cannot inculcate too frequently, or with too great