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"The triple trine* of old Parnassus' hill,
Should I invoke [for] to direct my quill,
Or if that great Apollo's sacred quire
I should entreat my muse for to inspire,
It would transcendently my theme disgrace
For to implore the aid of things so base.

The liquor of the Heliconian grape
Did never yet my pericranium rape,
Nor nectar, nor ambrosia will I quaff,
Such fictious fancies I esteem but draff;
For why? they are no better than a dream,
Compar'd to this divine celestial theme.

For though the muses, as the poets feign,
Could really intoxicate the brain
With extacies and raptures, yet think I
None will be so audacious to deny
Unto our cocknies the pre-eminence
Above them for unhappy influence.

Which have produced more dismal effects,

Than ever the unfortunate aspects

Of the erratick and malevolent

Planets, that wander in the firmament;

The mischiefs, which to Mars' or Saturn's square

Are subsequent, thereto may not compare.

Their pow'r extends, not only to the brain,

Infusing it with notions idly vain,

But wounds the heart with horrid pangs of pain,

Which never perfectly are cur'd again:

Yea, by their art, with a dissembling smile,

They many of their senses do beguile.

And for the sake of such unhappy men,
I have adventured to take my pen

* This expression strikes us to be original: one of Lord Byron's imitators says,

"Aid me, ye nine! I own that's nothing new,

I'll think of novelty another time:
Aid me, ye three-times-three! perhaps may do,

And, three to one, it passes for sublime."

We prefer the apprentice's, however.

In hand, for to delineate their folly
If possible, to cure their melancholy,
That when their idols' pourtraiture they see,
They of their madness may ashamed be."

It is remarkable, that he speaks of the cockney as synonymous with the Greek a*u£uv, not very remote from the French coquin, the most rational origin of that controverted dissyllable. From various allusions, we gather that his attainments were above those of his class at that time; nor does he hesitate to express his contempt for astrology, the fashionable study of his age. Another writer, equally hardy, speaking of "upstart astrologers, which will take upon them to tell things to come," says, "what that art is I know not, or from whence they fetch the evil aspect of any of the planets, seeing in the beginning they were made all good; neither do I find how these celestial bodies lost their first vertue."* We now come to the " character" itself.

"These cockneys, they of which my muse doth sing,

They are the oldest daughters of the king

Of pride, old Lucifer, and may compare

With all his off-spring, for their filial care

To tread his steps: for pride's epitome

In them compris'd exactly you may see.

They do conceit, that the whole world was
Vented for their lust, and will not pass
For cost, or pain, to satisfy their will,
And their extravagant desires fulfill;
Nor East, nor Western Indies able are,
To suffice their ambitious minds by far.

They hang at once more wealth upon their backs,

Than is contain'd in forty pedlers' packs,

In silks and satins, pearls, and diamond rings,

And many other superfluous things,

To which the seller liberally affords

Bombastic names of long six-footed words.t

For if their names to understand were plain,
They with the greatest scorn would them disdain:

* Extract of a printed letter, dated York, December 18, 1651, in the Perfect Account, No. 52, December 31.

t Did the learned apprentice fancy that he was translating the sesquipedalia verba of Horace?

Like as the rustic slights an almanack,

If an useless anatomy it lack:

For all strange things which are not understood,

Admired are, and judged very good."

Though probably of humble origin, he has a due regard for genealogy.

"But pride in them is not predominant

Alone, but likewise idleness doth haunt

Them so inseparably close, that it

To them is as a second nature knit:

For that which once within the bone is bred,

Will never from the flesh be severed.

Idleness unto them doth come by kind,
And thereto they do wholly give their mind;
They suck't it from their mothers, and will give
Themselves to it, as long as they do live:
And slothfulness and want of exercise,
They are the greatest homisters of vice."

The early dramatists were equally severe, and the City Madam is to them a perpetual object of satire. Nor are the prose-writers more polite; Wilkins* remarks, " 'tis grown a fashion among them to eat their breakfasts in their beds, and not to be ready till half an hour after noon, about which time their husbands are to return from the Burse." But the employments of these ladies are made as reprehensible as their indolence,—after rising at ten, and sitting before a mirror till twelve,

"The afternoon most commonly they spend

In gossiping and tattling without end;

Or else are coach'd to th' Old, or New Exchange^

To see if there they can spie any strange

New fashions, which aredaiLy there invented,

To please such fools as never are contented.

There have they patches, for to represent
Their faoes, like the starry firmament:

* ;§ee [Tfie Conjuring-up of Cock Wg.t, (the walking,spirit of Newgate,) appended to Jests to mp,ke ,you Merie, 4to. 160,7.

t From ttris passage it appears, that,although the term Bpzaar has been recently adopted, the custom is of long continuance.

<X stars, horn'd Cynthia and Pleiades are
The most affected; sextile, trine, and square
Of aspects, perfectly are imitated,
And all are unto Venus consecrated.

Religion usually they send before,
And say, they'll overtake it at three-score.—
They'll laugh and cry, and frown and smile together,
And make more change of faces than the weather;
An hundred times they will their humours change, .
Whilst the earth once doth round her axis range.
Their fury to more shapes transformed is,
Than Jove, in Ovid's Metamorphoses."

The following description, though not quite a counterpart to Shakspeare's Seven Ages of Man, possesses some merit: we have taken great liberties, by selecting the best lines, and blending them in one extract.

"These rare creatures, thus richly qualified,
As unto you I briefly have described,
At fifteen years of age begin to whine
For husbands, and to wear away, and pine
With frettings and lamenting, if that they,
Against their wills, do any longer stay.
With great anxiety the time they pass
To think how hard it is to catch an ass.
Therefore they, this, and that young man espy,
And on them keep a strict observing eye.
I on this knavery do insist the more,
Because it's grown an epidemic sore:
The hook that's covered with a silver bait,
Doth all the senses so intoxicate,
The match is made, all parties are agreed
The nuptials to celebrate with speed,
That so the creature may be made.a bride,
And then the Gordian knot full fastis tied.

Now all the qualities, which I before
Have briefly here describ'd, and many more,
Do all most perspicuously appear.
And they begin to rant and domineer.
Fashions they see, .they presently do cry,
''O, such a one hath so, why may not IV

Litigious, and prone unto contention,
Loving to make perpetual dissension,
So rashly they're addicted to their will,
And will not from it, be it good, or ill;
This is the special, only argument,
Which all the force of logic cannot rent.
And of all other torments that there be,
There's none that half so bad appear to me,
As unto death, with nonsense to be worded,
By such, who a good reason, ne'er afforded,
Which is like to be perpetually,
Who doth himself unto a cockney tie."

He then introduces an anecdote, scarcely worth telling, unless it relate to his relentless Amanda: the woman fancied herself " as ladies wish to be who love their lords," and was persuaded by her maid that her girdle was too short. After which follows the epilogue.

"And you, my brethren, for whose only sake

The spirit mov'd me, for to undertake

This work; you every one can testify,

That what I here have written is no lie; •

And if that Zo-ilus carp and Momus rage,

Because I lash the crimes of this our age,

I weigh it not a rush, nor do I care,

Although they do their worst; let them not spare;

1 know that none but the gall'd horse will kick;

If so, I'll deal them such another trick:

At what here's writ, if any be offended,

It is not like by me to be amended.

And thou, my muse, who yet was ne'er outwitted
By them, although too many have been fitted;
Flourish thou still, and live for to disdain
The sweet temptations of such bitter gain.
Those who their minds to it do wholly bend,
May they of sorrow never know an end."

During the civil wars, the apprentices presented petitions, passed resolutions, raised regiments, and supported the levellers. Cosmo III. Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was in England in 1669, speaks of the license they enjoyed, and mentions, that on their holidays an armed force was necessary to

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