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HALF TRUTHS AND THE TRUTH.

LECTURES

ON THE

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PREVAILING FORMS OF UNBELIEF,

CONSIDERED IN RELATION TO THE NATURE AND

CLAIMS OF THE CHRISTIAN SYSTEM.

BY

REV. J. M. MANNING, D.D.,

PASTOR OF THE OLD SOUTII CHIURCII, BOSTON, AND LECTURER ON TIIE
RELATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY TO POPULAR INFIDELITY

AT ANDOVER TIIEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.

no

oma

ILLU IEA
Other foundation can no man lay than that is hatch, which

is Jesus Christ. 1 Cor. iii. 11.

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LONDON:
DICKINSON AND HIGH AM,

73 (LATE 92) FARRINGDON STREET.

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CONTENTS.

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LECTURE I.

SPINOZA AND OTHER MASTERS.

A singular death-bed scene. — Spinoza's parents religious refugees. - His

childhood. His studies. - His defection. His trial. - His conduct.

His excommunication. - A fugitive. At school. - His love. - His pur-

pose formed.
Reads Descartes. Characteristics. His poverty. - His

(v)

Definition of pantheism. - How it differs from theism and atheism.- Wherein

atheism and pantheism agree. - Language of pantheists often ambiguous. —

Many names for one thing.– Knowledge of Spinozism which the purpose

of this work requires. – Descartes was Spinoza's guide. — This doubted. -

Opinion of Saisset. — Parentage of Descartes. — Early purpose. - Criterion

of truth. - Not original with Descartes. — Testimony as to Descartes' posi-

tion. - Four main points in Cartesianism. -“I think, therefore I am.” - Crit-

icism of Gassendi and Huxley. - Descartes to be taken as he understood

himself. – The Cartesian method. — Descartes' first step. – A foothold for

Spinozism. — The recognition of Reid's doctrine of necessary truths would

have saved Descartes. - The Cartesian argument for the divine existence

favors Spinozism. — The argument for a God which now tends to prevail. –

Descartes only seems to anticipate this. — How his argument legitimates

pantheism. — The Cartesian method aids the tendency to pantheism. – The

tendency further strengthened by his denial of second causes. - Spinoza's

logic faultless. — The premises of pantheism untenable. — The central posi-

tion of Spinozism. The dogmatic result. - Three kinds of knowledge. —

Some account of the Ethics. — Subject of the Second Part. – Of Part Third.

- Or Part Fourth. – Of Part Fifth.– Of the First Part. – Definitions. -

Axioms. A demonstration, - Perfection of superstructure. — Two attri-

butes of substance. - Bearing on question of immortality. - Fatalism.

The a-priori philosophy not to be judged by Spinozism. Malebranche. -

Leibnitz. — The safeguard.

74-110

A reaction. – Empiricism. — This movement to be passed over for the present,

– Revival of Spinozism. – What is here attempted. - Relation of Leibnitz

to the new movement. - The Leibnitz-Wolfian philosophy.- Kant's earlier

views. – The need of a critic suggested by Hume. – Critique of the pure

reason. - Relation of the reason to the understanding. - Space and time

forms of the reason. — The categories of the understanding. — Ideas of the

– What they are. – Their subjective nature. – - Where this critique

leaves us. – Kant's plan broader than this sphere of the reason. – Another

faculty. - Function of the practical reason. – Result not satisfactory.- Cri.

tique of the judgment. The object not attained. Three distinct tendencies

in Kant. - Reinhold. - Jacobi. — His mystical tendency. – Argues against

Kant's first critique. - The thinkers of his time not with him. - The inter-

view with Lessing. – Character of Jacobi. — Hegel's criticism. Fichte. -

Thought-activity the only knowable thing. — The non-ego. A product of

the ego. - - The alternative of atheism or pantheism. – Accused of atheism. -

Becomes a pantheist. - Unlike Spinoza. The true wisdom. - Fichte's pan-

theism considered defective. — Schelling. - Grand objection to Fichte.

Schellingian doctrine of knowledge. - How Schelling reaches the position

· of the pantheist. — His system described. · Agreement with Spinoza. —

Three potences. How they work in the evolution of spirit. — Distinction

between nature and spirit. - How Schelling would account for Christianity.

- The spirit of Schelling's system. Short continuance of this school of

pantheism. — Schelling and Edgar A. Poe. - Culminated in Hegel. - The

best refutation of error its clear statement. — An anachronism. — Hegel. –

The absolute idea. — Use of Kant's antinomies. — The logical movement. -

Natural philosophy.- Philosophy of spirit. - Its theological result. - Hegel

and Kant.- Consequences of the system. - Strauss. – Schleiermacher. – Net

result. – Lesson of the survey now taken. — Testimony of Müller. 111-149

Philosophy and religion inseparable. This more manifest in the a-priori

philosophy. – Two uses of the word “religion.” – When pantheism is a
religion. – Religions to which pantheism may be applied. — Re-statement of

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