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all unjust and tyrannical governments, and in the extermination even of sin and death, is to restore his power to Him who gave it. " Then cometh the end, when Christ shall deliver up the kingdom to his God and Father, when he shall put down all rule and all authority and power; for he must reign till he put all enemies uder his feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is death. For he hath subjected all things under his feet. But when it is said, all things are subjected, it is manifest that He is excepted who subjected all things to him. And when all things shall be subjected to him, then the Son himself also will be subjected to him, who shall subject all things, that God may be all in all.” Observe what the Apostle here says, “ He is excepted who subjects all things to himself.” This is a self-evident truth; and the exception would render it absurd and contradictory. Nor would the writer have made it, did he not level' his language against the blasphemy, that the Almighty was subject to a Being higher and more perfect than himself, maintained by the Gnostics.

Gamaliel Smith allows the genuineness of the epistles of Paul, and thinks that to the GALATIANs an important document; and so it is, but for reasons very different from those he supposes. It was called forth by the introduction of the same antichristian principles which infected the churches at Rome and Corinth. This will appear from a very slight examination. .“ Grace be to you and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from the present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father: To whom be glory for ever and ever, Amen. I wonder that you are so soon removed from him who called you in the grace of Christ unto another Gospel; which is not another, but the artifice of some who throw you into confusion, wishing to subvert the Gospel of Christ. But if we or an angel from heaven preach a Gospel unto you, besides that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.” Gal. i. 3—9.

In this passage we see that a system was introduced into the church at Galatia, the object of which was to subvert the Gospel of Christ; and that the base authors caused it, at least for a time, to be received in the room of that taught by Paul. The leading features of this new Gospel may be gathered from this paragraph; and they were the following ; that Christ did not really die -die to deliver mankind from their sins ;--that he came not to fulfill, but to oppose, the will of God. In opposition to these tenets, the Apostle asserts, that Christ gave himself up to death for our sins; that in doing so, he acted agreeably to the will of God, who exercises over bis creatures the providence and affection of a Father, and who therefore wished them to be saved. It appears, from other parts of this epistle, that the authors of the false Gospel were Pharisees, who sought to substitute for repentance and reformation, the rites, or, as they were called, the works of the law, as the means of salvation.

From the following passage it appears further, that, according to the deceivers, Christ was crucified in appearance and not in reality. “O unwise Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was clearly set forth as crucified in the midst of you? I desire to know this of you, Received ye the spirit by the works of the law, or by the doctrine of faith ? Are ye so unwise, having begun with the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the law ?” The Galatians did not now obey the truth, but submitted to the foolish imposition, that Christ, being only a phantom, suffered merely in appearance. It is for the folly of such belief, that Paul calls them avontos, unwise. The deceivers were magicians; and the persons misled by them must have been stultified by their arts, or they could not have received such absurdities.

This is the Apostle's meaning when he asks, “Who hath bewitched you ? who hath made you the dupes of his magic, that you should assent to such absurd falsehoods ?But in what way was Christ clearly set forth as crucified in the midst of them? The language of the original is still stronger, as it implies that the crucifixion of Jesus was painted in vivid colours before their

eyes, and in the midst of them at Galatia. I have already observed, that the holy spirit was communicated to the apostles, and through them to their converts, as a sig. nature from Heaven to the fact that Christ had really been crucified, and that, being crucified, he really rose from the dead and ascended to heaven. With these were joined the abolition of the ceremonial law, and the necessity of repentance and reformation as the means of acceptance with God. The Apostle taught the Galatians these simple points; and the holy spirit, shed on those who received them with sincerity, sealed their truth. Hence, after saying that the crucifixion of Christ was clearly set forth among them, he asks with much propriety, “ This I wish to know of you; received ye the spirit by the works of the law or by the doctrine of faith ?” that is, the doctrine of repentance which is through faith in a life to come.

There are no less than five different documents from which we may gather some information respecting the state of the church at Ephesus. These are, the affecting narrative which Luke (Acts xx. 17–38) gives of Paul's last interview with the Ephesian converts; the epistle of Paul to the Ephesians ; the two epistles addressed to Timothy, whom he had appointed bishop of that church; and finally the writings of John, who is supposed to have published his Gospel and epistles in that city. A few passages selected from these authentic documents will be sufficient to show that the impostors had planted their antichristian doctrine in the church at Ephesus, soon after its establishment by the Apostles. In his

farewell address to the presbyters Paul says, “ And now behold I know that ye will not all of you again see my face, among whom I came preaching the kingdom of God: Wherefore I bear testimony to you this day that I am clear from the blood of all men : for I have not refrained from declaring the whole will of God. Take heed therefore to yourselves, and to all the flock, over whom the holy spirit hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God which he (Jesus) hath fenced around with his own blood. For. I know this, that after my departure grievous wolves will enter in among you, not sparing the flock. From among yourselves also men will arise, speaking perverse things to draw away disciples after them. Watch therefore, and remember that for three years night and day I ceased not to admonish every one with tears.” Acts xx. 25–32.

These were the authors of the Gnostic system. Our Lord, as I have already observed, early in his ministry warned his followers against them, as wolves coming. among them in sheep's clothing. The deceivers prided themselves in their superior knowledge, and affected to have doctrines revealed to them, which were not communicated to the Apostles, who were vulgar and illiterate men. Among these was the doctrine of the divinity and miraculous birth of the Saviour, with other sublime mysteries known to have been taught neither by Christ nor his Apostles. It is to their pretensions in this respect that Paul refers when he solemnly says, that he made known to all men the whole will of God. The Apostles were known to have frequently written to the churches founded by them in distant places : and it was natural for the deceivers to avail themselves of this circumstance as a plea, that the writers were conscious of some defects or omissions in their preaching, or they would not have been at the trouble thus repeatedly to address their flocks. On the supposition that John al-, ludes some such specious plea as this, we can account

for the repetitions which occur in the following passage : “I write to you, fathers, because you have known him (namely Christ) from the beginning : I write to you, young men, because ye have conquered the evil one ; I write to you, children, because ye have known the father. I wrote to you, fathers, because ye have known him from the beginning ; I wrote to you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God remains in you, and ye have conquered the evil one.” 1 John ii. 13, 14. Which is to this effect, “My object in my present and former letters, is not to reveal any additional doctrine, which has not yet been communicated to you, as the wicked men, who endeavour to deceive you, would have you believe ; but to warn, to remind, to encourage you to stand fast in the truths, which we have already made known to you, and to be upon your guard against the artifices of these impostors.”

This import is further confirmed by the following verse : "I did not write to



did not know the truth, but because you know it, and because every lie is not of the truth.” As though he had said, “I did not write to you, because you need, as the false teachers will have it, any additional knowledge to the Gospel you have already learnt; but because I wish to confirm you in the assurance that what these men say, are lies ; which, so far from being true, are intended to supplant the truth.” He goes on, W'ho is the liar, except he who denies Jesus, saying that he is not the Christ ? this is the antichrist who denieth the Father and the Son." 1 John ii. 22. Here we see what the Apostles meant by antichrist. It consisted in maintaining, that the Christ was not the man Jesus, but a God within him : it denied the father, because it taught that the Creator was an inferior evil being, was not the. father, but the tyrant and oppressor, of his creatures. It denied the son, because it taught that Christ did not come with authority from the Father to save the world,


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