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on the illicit intercourse of the sexes. Cor- CORINTHIANS, Epistles to. St. Paul inth also possessed numerous schools of phi- left Corinth A. D. 53 or 54, and went to Jelosophy and rhetoric; in which, as at Alex- rusalem. From Ephesus he wrote his first andria, the purity of the faith, by an easy Epistle to the Corinthians, in the beginning and natural process, became early corrupted. of A. D. 56. In this epistle he reproves
There occurs a chronological difficulty in some who disturbed the peace of the church, the visits of St. Paul to Corinth. In 2 Cor. complains of some disorders in their assemxii. 14, and xiii. 1, 2, the apostle expresses blies, of law-suits among them, and of a his design of visiting that city a third time; Christian who had committed incest with whereas only one visit before the date of the his mother-in-law, the wife of his father, second epistle is noticed in the Acts, xviii. 1, and had not been separated from the church. about A. D. 51; and the next time that he This letter produced in the Corinthians visited Greece, Acts xx. 2, about A. D. 57, great grief, vigilance against the vices reno mention is made of his going to Corinth. proved, and a very beneficial dread of God's Mr. Horne observes on this subject, “ It has anger. They repaired the scandal, and exbeen conjectured by Grotius, and Drs. Ham- pressed abundant zeal against the crime mond and Paley, that his first epistle virtu- committed, 2 Cor. vii. 9–11. ally supplied the place of his presence; and To form an idea of the condition of that it is so represented by the apostle in a the Corinthian church, we must examine corresponding passage, 1 Cor. v. 3. Admit- the epistles of the apostle. The differting this solution to be probable, it is, how- ent factions into which they were divided, ever, far-fetched, and is not satisfactory as exalted above all others the chiefs, Tous a matter of fact. Michaëlis has produced inè riav anosálovs, 2 Cor. xi. 5, xii. 11, another, more simple and natural; namely, whose notions they adopted, and whose docthat Paul, on his return from Crete, visited trines they professed to follow, and attemptCorinth a second time before he went to ed to depreciate those of the opposite party. winter at Nicopolis. This second visit is Whilst, then, some called themselves disciunnoticed in the Acts, because the voyage ples of Paul, Cephas, or Apollos, others asitself is unnoticed. The third visit, promised sumed the splendid appellation of Christ's in 2 Cor. xii. 14, and xiï. 1, 2, was actually party. Probably they affected to be the paid on the apostle's second return to Rome, followers of James, the brother of our Lord, when he took Corinth in his way, 2 Tim. iv. and thought thus to enter into a nearer dis20. Thus critically,' says Dr. Hales, does cipleship with Jesus than the other parties. the book of the Acts harmonize, even in its The controversy, as we shall see from the omissions, with the epistles; and these with whole, related to the obligation of Judaism. each other, in the minute incidental circum- The advocates of it had appealed, even in stances of the third visit.' »
Galatia, to Cephas and James, for the sake of About A. D. 268, the Heruli burned Cor- opposing to Paul, who had banished Jewish inth to ashes. In 525, it was again almost ceremonies from Christianity, authorities ruined by an earthquake, About 1180, which were not less admitted than his own. Roger, king of Sicily, took and plundered The question itself divided all these various it. Since 1458, it was till lately under the parties into two principal factions : the parpower of the Turks; and is so decayed, that tisans of Cephas and James were for the its inhabitants amount to no more than about law; the friends of Paul adopted his opinion, fifteen hundred, or two thousand; half Maho- as well as Apollos, who, with his adherents, metans, and half Christians. A late French was always in heart in favour of Paul, and writer, who visited this country, observes, never wished to take a part in a separation “When the Cæsars rebuilt the walls of Cor- from him, i Cor. xvi. 12. The leaders of inth, and the temples of the gods rose from the party against Paul, these yeudarósodos, their ruins more magnificent than ever, an ob- as Paul calls them, and METCO XTMATIGóuero eis scure architect was rearing in silence an edi. åros dous Xpisoû, who declared themselves fice which still remains standing amidst the the promulgators and defenders of the docruins of Greece. This man, unknown to the trines of Cephas and James, were, as may great, despised by the multitude, rejected as be easily conceived, converted Jews, 2 Cor. the offscouring of the world, at first associated xi. 22, who had come from different places, with himself only two companions, Crispus -to all appearance from Palestine, dpxouérai, and Gaius, and with the family of Stephanas. 2 Cor. xi. 4,--and could therefore boast of These were the humble architects of an inde- having had intercourse with the apostles at structible temple, and the first believers at Jerusalem, and of an acquaintance with their Corinth. The traveller surveys the site of principles. They were not even of the this celebrated city; he discovers not a ves- orthodox Jews, but those who adhered to tige of the altars of paganism, but perceives the doctrines of the sadducees; and though some Christian chapels rising from among they were even now converted to Christhe cottages of the Greeks. The apostle tianity, whilst they spoke zealously in favour might still, from his celestial abode, give the of the law, they were undermining the hopes salutation of peace to his children, and ad- of the pious, and exciting doubts against the dress them in the words, ‘Paul to the church resurrection, 1 Cor. xv. 35; so that Paul, from of God, which is at Corinth.""
regard to the teachers, whose disciples they
prayer. They admit only three æcumenical This city was one of the best peopled councils ; those of Nice, Constantinople, and and most wealthy of Greece. Its situation Ephesus. There are three Coptic liturgies ; between two seas drew thither the trade of one attributed to St. Basil, another to St. both the east and west. Its riches produced Gregory, and the third to St. Cyril. At pre- pride, ostentation, effeminacy, and all vices, sent, however, little more than the mere the consequences of abundance. For its shadow of Christianity can be seen in Egypt; insolence to the Roman legates, it was deand, in point of numbers, not more than stroyed by L. Mummius. In the burning fifty thousand Christians in all can be found of it, so many statues of different metals in this country. There are not more than were melted together, that they produced three Christian churches at Cairo.
the famous Corinthian brass. It was afterCORAL, nigra, Job xxviii. 18; Ezekiel wards restored to its former splendour by Ixvii . 16; a hard, cretaceous, marine pro
Julius Cæsar. duction, resembling in figure the stem of a Christianity was first planted at Corinth plant, divided into branches. It is of differ- by St. Paul, who resided here eighteen ent colours,- black, white, and red. The months, between the years 51 and 53; durlatter is the sort emphatically called coral, ing which time he enjoyed the friendship
of s being the most valuable, and usually Aquila and his wife Priscilla, two Jewish made into ornaments. This, though no
Christians, who had been expelled from gem, is ranked by the author of the book of Italy, with other Jews, by an edict of ClauJob, xxviii. 18, with the onyx and sapphire. dius. The church consisted both of Jews Dr. Good observes, “It is by no means cer
and of Gentiles; but St. Paul began, as tain what the words here rendered corals usual, by preaching in the synagogue, until 20d pearls, and those immediately after- the Jews violently opposed him, and blaswards rendered • rubies and topaz, really phemed the name of Christ ; when the apossignified. Reiske has given up the inquiry tle, shaking his garment, and declaring their as either hopeless or useless ; and Schultens blood to be upon their own heads, left them, has generally introduced the Hebrew words and made use afterwards of a house adjointhemselves, and left the reader of the trans- ing the synagogue, belonging to a man lation to determine as he may. Our com
named Justus. The rage of the Jews, howmon version is, in the main, concurrent with ever, did not stop here; but, raising a tumost of the oriental renderings : and I see mult, they arrested Paul, and hurrying him no reason to deviate from it."
before the tribunal of the pro-consul Gallio, CORBAN, yamp, Mark vii. 11; from the the brother of the famous Seneca, accused Hebrew 21p, to offer, to present. It denotes him of persuading men to worship God con
But Gallio, who was a gift, a present made to God, or to his tem- trary, to the law. ple. The Jews sometimes swore by corban, Christianity, and finding that Paul had com
equally indifferent both to Judaism and er by gifts offered to God, Matt. xxiii. 18, mitted no breach of morality, or of the pubTheophrastus says that the Tyrians forbad
refused to hear their complaint, the use of such' oaths as were peculiar to and drove them all from the judgment-seat. foreigners
, and particularly of corban, which, The Jews being thus disappointed in their Josephus informs us, was used only by the malicious designs, St. Paul was at liberty to Jews. Jesus Christ reproaches the Jews remain some time longer at Corinth ; and with cruelty towards their parents, in making after his departure, Apollos, a zealous and a corban of what should have been appro- eloquent Jewish convert of Alexandria, was priated to their use. For when a child was
made a powerful instrument in confirming asked to relieve the wants of his father or
the church, and in silencing the opposition mother, he would often say, “ It is a gift,” of the Jews, Acts xviii. How much it stood corban,“ by whatsoever thou mightest be in need of such support, is evident from profited by me;" that is, I have devoted the epistles of St. Paul ; who cautions the that to God which you ask of me; and it is Corinthians against divisions and party spino longer mine to give, Mark vii. 11. Thus rit; fornication, incest, partaking of meats they violated a precept of the moral law, offered to idols, thereby giving an occasion through a superstitious devotion to Phari- of scandal, and encouragement to idolatry; saic observances, and the wretched casuistry by which they were made binding upon the abusing the gifts of the Spirit, litigiousness,
&c. The Corinthians, indeed, were in great CORIANDER, 72, Exod. xvi. 31 ; Num- kind of persecution, and were exposed to
danger: they lived at ease, free from every bers xi. 7; a strongly aromatic plant. It much temptation. The manners of the citibears a small round seed, of a very agreeable zens were particularly corrupt : they were, smell and taste. The manna might be com- indeed, infamous to a proverb. In the cenpared to the coriander seed in respect to its tre of the city was a celebrated temple of form or shape, as it was to bdellium in its Venus, a part of whose worship consisted in colour. See Manna.
prostitution; for there a thousand priestesses CORINTH, a celebrated city, the capital of the goddess ministered to dissoluteness of Achaia, situated on the isthmus which under the patronage of religion: an exampla separates the Peloponnesus from Attica. which gave the Corinthians very lax ideas
consultation, they decided the point in ques- at Constantinople, in 870, by the emperor tion; and they sent their decree, which they Basilius. It is matter of historical record, declared to be made under the direction of and therefore cannot be denied, that the the Holy Ghost, to all the churches, and convening of all these councils appertained commanded that it should be the rule of their solely to the respective emperors ; that they conduct. This is generally considered as alone exercised authority on such occasions; the first council; but it differed from all that the bishop of Rome was never thought others in this circumstance, that its members to possess any, although his power may be were under the especial guidance of the said to have been set up between the fifth Spirit of God. The gospel was soon after and sixth general councils ; nor did the bishop conveyed into many parts of Europe, Asia, himself, pro tempore, think himself entitled and Africa ; but it does not appear that there to an authority of the kind. The other was any public meeting of Christians for the councils which the Romish church dignifies purpose of discussing any contested point, with the title of “general,” are the ten till the middle of the second century. From western ones, which are here subjoined :that time councils became frequent; but as (9.) The first council of Lateran, held under they consisted only of those who belonged pope Calixtus, A.D. 1123 ; (10.) the second to particular districts or countries, they were of Lateran, under Innocent II., in 1139; called provincial or national councils. The (11.) the third of Lateran, under Alexander first general council was that of Nice, con- III., in 1179, the decrees of which were invened by the emperor Constantine, A. D. tended to extirpate the Albigenses, as well 325; the second general council was held at as the Waldenses, who were variously called Constantinople, in the year 381, by order of Leonists, or poor men of Lyons; (12.) the Theodosius the Great; the third, at Ephesus, fourth of Lateran, under Innocent III., in by order of Theodosius, Junior, A. D. 431; 1215, which incited Christian Europe to enand the fourth, at Chalcedon, by order of gage in a crusade for the recovery of the the emperor Marcian, A. D. 451. These, as Holy Land, and whose canons obtruded on they were the first four general councils, so the church the monstrous doctrines of tranthey were by far the most eminent. They substantiation and auricular confession, the were caused respectively by the Arian, Apol- latter being ranked among the duties prelinarian, Nestorian, and Eutychian contro- scribed by the law of Christ; (13.) the first versies, and their decrees are in high esteem of Lyons, under Innocent JV., in 1245; both among Papists and orthodox Protest- (14.) the second of Lyons, under Gregory ants; but the deliberations of most councils X., in 1274; (15.) that of Vienne, under were disgraced by violence, disorder, and Clement V., in 13il; (16.) that of Florence, intrigue, and their decisions were usually under Eugenius IV., in 1439; (17.) the fifth made under the influence of some ruling of Lateran, under the infamous Julius II.; party. Authors are not agreed about the and (18.) the council of Trent, of which an number of general councils ; Papists usually account is given in the preceding paragraph, reckon eighteen, but Protestant writers will and which grounds its fame on its opposition not allow that nearly so many had a right to to the progress of the Reformation under that name.
The last general council was Luther. Though, according to Bellarmine, that held at Trent, for the purpose of check- these eighteen alone are recognised by the ing the progress of the Reformation. It Romish church as æcumenical or universal first met by the command of pope Paul III., councils, yet some of them did not deserve A. D. 1545; it was suspended during the even the more restricted appellation of latter part of the pontificate of his successor, general.” For the council of Trent itself, Julius III., and the whole of the pontificates in some of its sessions, could scarcely numof Marcellus II. and Paul IV., that is, from ber more than forty or fifty ecclesiastics 1552 to 1562, in which year it met again by and, of those, not one eminent for profound the authority of pope Pius IV., and it ended, theological or classical knowledge. The while he was pope, in the year 1563. Pro- lawyers who attended, says Father Paul, vincial councils were very numerous : Baxter “knew little of religion, while the few divines enumerates four hundred and eighty-one, were of less than ordinary sufficiency.” Some and Dufresnoy many more.
of the other councils which are not acknow2. Of the eighteen councils denominated ledged by the Papists to be " general" with "general” by the Papists, four have already repsect to all their sessions, (as those of been enumerated ; and they with the next four Basle and Constance,) are in part received by constitute the eight eastern councils, which them, and in part rejected. alone, according to the" Body of Civil Law," other celebrated writers of his church, cach of the popes of Rome, on his elevation are dubious about determining whether or to the Pontificate, solemnly professes to not “the fifth of Lateran” was really: maintain. The fifth was convened at Con- general council, and leave it as a thing disstantinople, A.D. 556, by the emperor Jus- cretionary with the faithful either to retain tinian ; the sixth, also at Constantinople, in or reject it; if it be rejected, the only refuge 681, in which the emperor Constantine IV. which they have is, to receive in its place the himself presided; the seventh at Nice, in council of Constance, held under John 787, by the empress Irene; and the eighth, XXIII., in 1414, which is disclaimed by the
Bellarmine and Italian clergy but admitted by those of and maintained, but we do not believe the France, and which is rendered infamous in doctrines upon the authority of the councils. the annals of religion and humanity by its COVENANT. The Greek word διαθήκη cruel and treacherous conduct towards those occurs often in the Septuagint, as the transtwo early Protestant martyrs, John Huss and lation of a Hebrew word, which signifies Jerome of Prague; “ who went to the covenant : it occurs also in the gospels and stake,” says, Æneas Sylvius, “as if it had the epistles ; and it is rendered in our Engbeen to a banquet, without uttering a com- lish Bibles sometimes covenant, sometimes plaint that could betray the least weakness testament. The Greek word, according to of mind. When they began to burn, they its etymology, and according to classical use, sung a hymn, which even the crackling of may denote a testament, a disposition, as the flames could not interrupt. Never did well as a covenant ; and the gospel may be any philosopher suffer death with so much called a testament, because it is a significacourage, as they endured the fire.” But this cation of the will of our Saviour ratified by acknowledgment of Constance as one of the his death, and because it conveys blessings eighteen is resisted vi et armis, by the crafty to be enjoyed after his death. These reasons Cisalpine ecclesiastics, because one of the for giving the dispensation of the gospel the earliest acts of that council declared the name of a testament appeared to our transrepresentatives of the church in general lators so striking, that they have rendered council assembled to be superior to the diadýkn more frequently by the word testa. sovereign pontiff, not only when schism ment, than by the word covenant. Yet the prerailed, but at all other times whatsoever. train of argument, where drað hun occurs,
3. A general council being composed of men generally appears to proceed upon its meanevery one of whom is fallible, they must also ing a covenant; and therefore, although, be liable to error when collected together; when we delineate the nature of the gospel, and that they actually have erred is suffici- the beautiful idea of its being a testament is ently evident from this fact, that different not to be lost sight of, yet we are to rememgeneral councils have made decrees directly ber that the word testament, which we read opposite to each other, particularly in the in the gospels and epistles, is the translation Arian and Eutychian controversies, which of a word which the sense requires to be were upon subjects immediately“ pertaining rendered covenant. A covenant implies two unto God.” Indeed, neither the first gene- parties, and mutual stipulations. The new nl councils themselves, nor those who de- covenant must derive its name from somefended their decisions, ever pretended to thing in the nature of the stipulations beinfallibility; this was a claim of a much more tween the parties different from that which recent date, suited to the dark ages in which existed before; so that we cannot underit was asserted and maintained, but now con- stand the propriety of the name, new, withndered equally groundless and absurd in out looking back to what is called the old, the case of general councils as in that of or first. On examining the passages in Gal. popes. If God had been pleased to exempt iii., in 2 Cor. iii., and in Heb. viii.-8., them from a possibility of error, he would where the old and the new covenant are have announced that important privilege in contrasted, it will be found that the old bis written word; but no such promise or covenant means the dispensation given by asurance is mentioned in the New Testa. Moses to the children of Israel ; and the new ment. If infallibility belonged to the whole covenant, the dispensation of the gospel pubchurch collectively, or to any individual part lished by Jesus Christ ; and that the object of it, it must be so prominent and conspicu- of the apostle is to illustrate the superior ons that no mistake or doubt could exist excellence of the latter dispensation. But, upon the subject; and above all, it must in order to preserve the consistency of the have prevented those dissensions, contests, apostle's writings, it is necessary to rememberesies, and schisms, which have abounded ber that there are two different lights in among Christians from the days of the apos- which the former dispensation may be ties to the present times; and of which that viewed. Christians appear to draw the line Fery church, which is the assertor and between the old and the new covenant, patron of this doctrine, has had its full share. according to the light in which they view
The scriptures being the only source from that dispensation. It may be considered which we can learn the terms of salvation, it merely as a method of publishing the moral follows that things ordained by general law tó a particular nation; and then with councils as necessary to salvation, have nei. whatever solemnity it was delivered, and ther strength nor authority, as the church with whatever cordiality it was accepted, it of England has well said, unless it may be is not a covenant that could give life. For, declared that they be taken out of holy being nothing more than what divines call a scripture. It is upon this ground we receive covenant of works, a directory of conduct the decisions of the first four general coun- requiring by its nature entire personal obecils, in which we find the truths revealed in dience, promising life to those who yielded the scriptures, and therefore we believe that obedience, but making no provision for them. We reverence the councils for the transgressors, it left under a curse “every sake of the doctrines which they declared one that continued not in all things that
were written in the book of the law to do mised and expected Saviour ; “it was a them.” This is the essential imperfection schoolmaster to bring men unto Christ." of what is called the covenant of works, the The covenant made with Abraham retained name given in theology to that transaction, its force during the dispensation of the law, in which it is conceived that the supreme and was the end of that dispensation. Lord of the universe promised to his crea- The views which have been given furnish ture, man, that he would reward that obedi- the ground upon which we defend that ence to his law, which, without any such established language which is familiar to promise, was due to him as the Creator. our ears, that there are only two covenants
No sooner had Adam broken the cove- essentially different, and opposite to one nant of works, than a promise of a final de- another, the covenant of works, made with liverance from the evils incurred by the the first man, intimated by the constitution breach of it was given. This promise was of human nature to every one of his posthe foundation of that transaction which terity, and having for its terms, “Do this Almighty God, in treating with Abraham, and live;"-and the covenant of grace, condescends to call,“ my covenant with which was the substance of the Abrahamic thee,” and which, upon this authority, has covenant, and which entered into the conreceived in theology the name of the Abra- stitution of the Sinaitic covenant, but which hamic covenant. Upon the one part, Abra- is more clearly revealed and more extenham, whose faith was counted to him for sively published in the gospel. This last righteousness, received this charge from covenant, which the scriptures call new in God, “Walk before me and be thou perfect;" respect of the mode of its dispensation under upon the other part, the God whom he be- the gospel, although it is not new in respect lieved, and whose voice he obeyed, besides of its essence, has received, in the language promising other blessings to him and his of theology, the name of the covenant of seed, uttered these significant words, “In grace, for the two following obvious reasons : thy seed shall all the families of the earth be because, after man had broken the covenant blessed.” In this transaction, then, there of works, it was pure grace or favour in the was the essence of a covenant; for there Almighty to enter into a new covenant with were mutual stipulations between two par- him; and, because by the covenant there is ties; and there was superadded, as a seal of conveyed that grace which enables man to the covenant, the rite of circumcision, which, comply with the terms of it. It could not being prescribed by God, was a confirma- be a covenant unless there were terms,tion of his promise to all who complied with something required, as well as something it, and being submitted to by Abraham, was, promised or given,-duties to be performed, on his part, an acceptance of the covenant. as well as blessings to be received. Accord
The Abrahamic covenant appears, from ingly, the tenor of the new covenant, founded the nature of the stipulations, to be more upon the promise originally made to Abrathan a covenant of works; and, as it was ham, is expressed by Jeremiah in words not confined to Abraham, but extended to which the apostle to the Hebrews has quoted his seed, it could not be disannulled by any as a description of it: “ I will be to them a subsequent transactions, which fell short of God, and they shall be to me a people," a fulfilment of the blessing promised. The Heb. viii. 10 :-words which intimate on one law of Moses, which was given to the seed part not only entire reconciliation with God, of Abraham four hundred and thirty years but the continued exercise of all the perfecafter, did not come up to the terms of that tions of the godhead in promoting the happicovenant even with regard to them, for, in ness of his people, and the full communication its form it was a covenant of works, and to of all the blessings which flow from his unother nations it did not directly convey any changeable love; on the other part, the surblessing. But although the Mosaic dis- render of the heart and affections of his pensation did not fulfil the Abrahamic cove- people, the dedication of all the powers of nant, it was so far from setting that cove- their nature to his service, and the willing nant aside, that it cherished the expectation uniform obedience of their lives. But, of its being fulfilled : for it continued the although there are mutual stipulations, the rite of circumcision, which was the seal of covenant retains its character of a covenant the covenant; and in those ceremonies of grace, and must be regarded as having its which it enjoined, there was a shadow, a source purely in the grace of God. For the type, an obscure representation, of the pro- very circumstances which rendered the new mised blessing, Luke i. 72, 73.
covenant necessary take away the possibility Here, then, is another view of the Mosaic of there being any merit upon our part: the dispensation. It was added, because of faith by which the covenant is accepted is transgressions, till the seed should come to the gift of God; and all the good works by whom the promise was made,” Gal. iii. 19. which Christians continue to keep the coveBy delivering a moral law which men felt nant, originate in that change of character themselves unable to obey; by denouncing which is the fruit of the operation of his judgments which it did not of itself provide Spirit. any effectual method of escaping; and by Covenants were anciently confirmed by holding forth, in various oblations, the pro- eating and drinking together; and chiefly by