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The seven-branched candlestick, and other articles used in the Jewish
Temple worship..

Page 7 Brickmakers in Egypt

12 Mode of reclining at table.

18 Skin bottles

21 Polish Jews.

22 Modes of bowing, doing homage, and worship in the East

31 Putting off the shoes

34 Women grinding at the mill.

39 Small hand-mill

41 Eastern oven...

42 Persians at breakfast

50 Washing before meals.

52 Shepherd and his flock..

61 Eastern women at a well.

62 Egyptian wheat..

68 Ancient reapers ...

69 Treading out the corn

70 Carts and implements used by the Saxons

71 The Mount of Olives

76 Small domestic loom of the East.

77 The potter at work.

78 Woman spinning .

79 Egyptian loom

81 Roman coin..

85 The wild ass.

95 Stone of witness

105 Ancient musical instruments

113 An ancient foot-race..

121 Arab scholars writing on sand.

123 Mesh-als, or lamps

127 Mourning for the dead

135 Rock-tomb in the sides of the Valley of Jehoshaphat

140 Abel offering sacrifice...

142 Putting up the tabernacle.

158 The court of the tabernacle.

159 St. Paul addressing the people

171 Large altar for sacrifices..

174 Molten sea and brazen oxen

175 The high priest...

191 Sacrifices in the court of the tabernacle

201 The meat-offering

205 Modern Jerusalem.

208 First-fruits offered..

213 The first-fruits carried up to Jerusalem..

214 The leper pronounced clean

228 A Jewish priest at prayer

232 Jews teaching children the law

245 A Jew lighting the Sabbath candle

255 A school of the prophets..

264 Offering children in sacrifice to Moloch

295 Proclaiming the Jubilee..

311 Jewish Sabbath meal

329 Manslayer fleeing to a city of refuge Elisha multiplying the widow's oil A witness holding up his right hand.

370 Stoning to death

377 Eastern soldiers..

385 Ancient armor

387 Eastern gleaners.

394 Scribes and Pharisees

400

334 343

JEWISH NATION.

BIBLE MANNERS, CUSTOMS, RITES, AND LAWS.

[graphic]

THE SEVEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK, AND OTHER ARTICLES USED IN THE

JEWISH TEMPLE WORSHIP.

INTRODUCTION.

THE MANNERS and Customs of the ancient Jews, and other nations mentioned in the Bible, differed very much from those of Europe and America at the present time. On this account it is not easy for a modern reader to understand some passages of Scripture. Hence many things in the Bible seem very strange to those who do not know the manner in which people in the East lived in former times. Nor do the beauty and importance of many texts appear, unless what is alluded to in them is known.

The eastern MANNERS and Customs of old times may be explained from two sources :-1. From the ancient writers of other nations, who have described the customs of former times. Their works contain many passages which confirm the accounts given in the Bible, and nothing which really contradicts them when carefully examined. Learned men have clearly proved this. Nor should we forget, that a great part of the Old Testament was written many

hundred years before

any

other book now in existence.-2. Much also

may be learned from modern travelers, who have visited the places mentioned in the Bible, and other countries of the East. People live there now very much in the same manner as they did in the times about which we read in the Bible, which were from two to six thousand years ago. The books of eastern travelers now are full of such statements; many are given in this volume, but they are only a small part of what might have been stated. Perhaps some travelers have gone too far, and mention as illustrations of the Bible what are not really such.

Also the RITES and CEREMONIES of the Jewish religion are too often carelessly passed by, from ignorance as to many of the particulars, which are very interesting when explained by the customs of the ancient Jews, or by the accounts of their own writers who lived about the time of our Saviour.

The Laws and Polity, or the political institutions of the Jews, contain much that is very important to be known, but which is not noticed by common readers; here, also, a knowledge of the manners and customs is of much use. All these things will be found interesting when inquired into. The design of this volume is to induce the reader so to study his Bible ; and all who read it should examine the texts noticed. It would have been easy to refer to a great many other texts, but most who read this book can look at a Concordance, or, if young persons, it is a good exercise to examine for themselves, and thus to be led to search the Scriptures. For this reason, as well as to save space, the texts are seldom given at great length in this volume. If that had been done, the book would have been doubled in size and cost, without any advantage in return; while any plan that prevents the examining of the whole Bible is by no means desirable.

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