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Periodic Comets.

Pecibel.

Perihel. 1
Period
Perihelion
Dist. Eccen-i

Perihelion Period Dist.
NAME.

EccenPassage.

NAME, (Years). Earth's ltricity.

Passage. (Years). Earth's tricity. Orbit=1.

Orbit=1. Encke..... 1885, Mar 3.3 0.34 0.846 Biela.......... 1882, Sept.23 6.6 0.86 0.755 Tempel.. 188 , Nov. 20

5. 2

1.34 0.553! D'Arrest..... 1884, Jan. 13 6.7 1.33 0.626 Barnard...... 1890. Feb.

1.28
Faye...... 1881, Jan, 22

1.74 0.549 Tempel-Swift 1886, May 95.5 1.07 0.656 Tuttle.... ... 1885, Sept.11 13 8 1.02 0.821 Brorsen....... 1879, Mar. 3

0.59 10.810 Pons-Brooks. 1844, Jan. 25 71 5 0.77 0.955 Winnecke... 1886, Sept. 1

0.88 0.727 Olbers........1887, Oct. 8 7:26 1.20 0.931 Tempel........ 1885, Sept, 251 65 | 2.07 0.405 Halley....... 11835, Nov. 15 76 4 0.59 10.967

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Pole Star..

MEAN TIME OF TRANSIT (AT WASHINGTON) AND POLAR DISTANCE OF POLARIS.

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A.

M.

P. M.
A. M,

A. M.

P. M.

P. M. H. M.S. OIII H. M. S o III | H. M. S.OI IL | H. M. S. OI ! | H. M.

S O | H. Ms. OIII 11 6 50 6 1 11 40 | 4 50 411 11 38 ! 2 19 16 1 11 30 12 51 35 1 11 19 10 45 48 1 11 8 | 8 47 3 1 10 57 11 6 10 57 1 11 40 | 4 11 32 1 11 35 || 2 10 3 1 11 27 11 12 12 18 1 11 16 | 10 6 27 1 11 4 1 8 8 11 1 10 55 21 ! 5 31 491 11 39 3 82 22 1 11 32 11 30 49 1 11 24 11 99 4 P.M. 1 11 12 9 27 3 1 11 1 17 28 44 1 10 53

From June 16 to August 1 both the upper and lower transits take place during davlight. The azimuth at the time of greatest eastern or western elongation can be easily computed from the formula:

sina_ sin p

"A cos where A denotes the azimuth, p the polar distance, and I the latitude of the place.

DATE OF GREATEST ELONGATION. To find the time of greatest eastern or western elongation, let H denote the hour angle, and I and as before, then we shall have

cos H= tan p tan l. And the hour angle in mean time is

Hm = H x 0.0664846. This quantity, Hli, added to or subtracted from the time of transit given above, according to the elongation required, will give the mean time of the greatest elongation at any place whose north latitude is l.

Star Table.
FOR IDENTIFYING THE PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS.
NAME OF STAR. Declination On Meridian.

NAME OF STAR. Declination On Meridian.

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Upper. Lower.

Upper. Lower. I H. M. H. M.

OI H . M H. M. a Andromeda.

28 31 - 1 18.0 +10 40.0 Ja Leonis (Regulus). N 12 28 + 8 40.1 +20 38.1 Pegasi (Algenib).

N 14

- 1 13.2 +10 44.8 la Virginis (Spica)..... S 10 37 +11 56.5 +23 54.5 11.Cassiopeiæ....

N 55 0 42.2 +11 15. 8 a Bootis (Arcturus).. N 19 43 +12 47.5 0 45.5 a Arietis ........ 40.0 +12 38.0 BU rsæ Minoris....

N 74 35 +13 27.5 25.5 BPersei (Algol).

39.9 +13 37.9 aCoronæ Borealis.. N 27 4 +13 49.7 1 47.7 a Tauri (Aldebaran) N 16 3 8.2 +15 6.2 aScorpii (Antares) S 26 12 +14 59. 2 57.3 u Aurigæ (Capella).. N 45 3 47.1 +lo 45.1 a Lyra (Vega)....

841 +17 9.3 + 5 7. BOrionis (Rigel)..... S 8 19 + 3 47.6 +13 45.62 Aquilæ (Altair)... N 8 36 +18 21.4 a Orionis (Betelguese). N 7 23 + 4 27.6 +16 25.6 aCygni (Deneb).

44 55 +19 13.5 + 7 11. aCanis Majoris (Sirius). + 5 18.4 +17 16. 4 aCephei....

62 9 +19 51.5 + 7 49.5 aGeminorum (Castor).. + 6 5.7 +18 3.7 a Aquarii ......

S 0 49 +20 35.8 + 8 33.8 BGeminorum Pollux).. N 28 16 + 6 16.6 +18 14.6 a Piscis Aus..

S 30 10 +21 27.1 + 9 25.1 aCanis Minor............ 5 29 + 6 11.6 +18 9.6 la Pegasi (Markab)... N 14 39 +21 34.7 + 9 32.7

To find the time of the star's transit add or subtract, according to the sign, the numbers in the second column of figures to the date of the transit of the pole star given above. Thus, for a Andromeda February 1. Lower Transit of Polar Star is 4 h. 43 m. 36 s. A.M, to which add 10 h. 40 m. and we have 3 h, 23 m. 36 S. P, M.; for December 1, we find 7 h. 29. 38s. P. M., etc.

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STAR TABLE-Continued.

APPROXIMATE PARALLAX AND DISTANCE IN LIGHT-YEARS OF SOME OF THE

PRINCIPAL FIXED STARS. By light-years is to be understood the number of years light requires to travel from the star to us. Light.

Light-
Parallax

Parallax
Yers.

Years.

17 26 60

28

Polaris (Pole Star)....

0.073
45 a Lyræ (Vega).

0.140

23 a Aurigæ (Capella)...

0.046
61 Cygni.. ......

0.348 -0.564 6-8 a Canis Majoris (Sirius).... 0.233

15 B Cassiopeia..

0.187 a Canis Minoris (Procyon)... 0.123

y Draconis ....

0.127 a Boötis (Arcturus).........

0.127
85 Pegasi ......

0.054 a Centauri ..............

0.916

3.6 The determination of stellar parallax is one of the most difficult and refined problems in practic.il or observational astronomy. It is to find the angle which the semi-diameter of the earth's orbit subtends at the star-an angle always very small as seen from the above table and which cannot be measured directly but by various processes too complicated to be explained here.

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Thermometers. Rules for Foretelling the weather. COMPARATIVE SCALES.

ADAPTED FOR USE WITH ANEROID BAROMETERS,

A RISING BAROMETER. Reau Centi- Fahr

A RAPID rise indicates unsettled weather. grade, lenheit,

A gradual rise indicates settled weather.
80°
1002129

WATER BOILS A rise with dry air and cold increasing in Summer indicates
AT SEA-

wind from the northward ; and if rain has fallen, better weather 76 203 LEVEL.

may be expected. 72 90 194

A rise with moist air and a low temperature indicates wind and 185

rain from the northward. 63.1 78.9 174

A rise with southerly winds indicates fine weather. 60 167 Alcohol Boils.

A STEADY BAROMETER. 56 158

With dry air and seasonable temperature indicates a continuance 52 65 l 149

of very fine weather. 48 60

140 44 55 131

A FALLING BAROMETER. 42.2 127 Tallow Melts.

A rapid fall indicates stormy weather. 40 50 122

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 36 45 113

the northward. 33.8 42.2 108

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with rain and hail 40 104

in Summer, and snow in Winter. 29.3 Blood Heat.

A fall with increased moisture in the air, and heat increasing, 28 35 95

indicates wind and rain from the southward. 25.8

A fall with dry air and cold increasing in Winterindicates snow. 24 30 1

A fall after very calm and warm weather indicates rain with 21.3 26.71

squally weather. 20 25 77

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north16 | 68

west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, for less 12.4 60 Temperate.

wind, or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, when rain, hail, or snow comes from the northward with

strong wind. 45

The barometer falls for southerly wind, including from south41

east by south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind

or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, WATER

when moderate wind, with rain or snow, comes from the northFREEZES.

ward.

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka-Corinthian Yacht Club of New York.

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OBJECTS VISIBLE AT SEA-LEVEL IN CLEAR WEATHER. The following table shows the distance at sea-level at which objects are visible at certain elevations:

ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.

ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.

ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.

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Normal Temperature and Rainfall

IN THE UNITED STATES. TABLE SHOWING THE NORMAL TEMPERATURE FOR JANUARY AND JULY, AND THE NORMAL

A XUAL PRECIPITATION AT WEATHER BUREAU STATIONS IN EACH OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES, ALSO THE HIGHEST AVD LOWEST TEMPERATURES EVER REPORTED FROM

EACH OF SAID STATIONS, TO DECEMBER 31, 1905. (Prepared in the office of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S. Department of Agriculture, for

THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1907.)

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50 Mobile ............. Ala...........

19174 107

(North Platte...... 19 Montgomery.

- 5 52.7 Neb....

Omala..........

19176 106 (Grant, Fort*. 43 78 103

(Valentine,.........

14 74 106 Ariz......... Prescott*...... 731100

Winnemucca .....

72 104

--28 8.5 (Yuma ............ 92118

(Charlotte.........

79 102 - 552.0 Fort Smith.....

80 107Ark.

Hatteras ......

78 92 Little Rock....

( Wilmington ...

5 54.3 (Red Blutt.

82115
826. 1
S Bismarck .......

-44 18.4 Cal......... Sacramento.... 46 72 110 19 20.9

Williston...

107

-49 14.0 (San Diego.... 67 101 32 10.5 N. H........ Manchester*

169 96

-1141.9 Denver......... 105 -29 14.5 ( Atlantic City...

99

742.7 Col. .........R Las Animas*... 22 76 105

-31 13.5 N. J.........
3 Cape May..... 34 74/ 96

--747.2 Montrose*.

317298
-20 8.
(New Brunswick 28 74 100

-10 46.8 SNew llaven.......

-14 50.3 (o:in.......

Santa Fé...

368 97

- 1314.2 New London*.

-10 49.1

Stanton, Fort* 4 68 95
Del.....
Del. Br'kwate

731
132.6

Albany ....

373 100 -2-37.9 Dist. ofl

Y ......... New York City.. 74 100

-644.8 Col. ...... Washington.

3 104 -
-15 43.5

(Oswego.

25 69 100 (Jacksonville.. 55 82 104 10 54.1

Cincinnati ...

105 -1739.9 Florida...Key West...... 41 38.5 Ohio...... 3 Columbus..

75 104 -20 38.9 (Pensacola...... 181 1031 7 57.1

(Toledo

74 102 -16 30.9 ( Atlanta 78100 - - 9 52.0. Okla...... Sill, Fort*..

107 - 931.2 Georgia. Augusta ....

82 105

(Portland

102 – 2 46.8 (Savannah

51 82105
851.9 Oregon... Roseburg.......

104 Idaho...... Boisé.......... 28 7 111

(Umatilla*..

110--24 9.7 (Cairo ............. 34 79 106

-16 42.8
(Erie...

94 -1641.3 Illinois ... Chicago ....... 24 72 103

Philadelpuja...

103 - 639.8 (Springfield.....

Pittsburgh...

103 -20 36.7 Indiana.. Indianapolis..

S Block Island

89 - 444.2 (Des Moines .......

Newport* ......

92

- 850.0 Iowa........ Dubuque ........... -32 35.5 S. C........ Charleston...

756.7 (Keokūk.. -27 34. S. Dak..... Yankton.........

-3426.8 Dodge....

( Chattanooga.

101 -1055.0 Kansas. Concordia...

5 Tenn...... Memphis........

81104 --953.3 Leavenworth* 24 78

(Nashville ........

104 1-13 50.1 Ky............. Louisville.....

Elliott, Fort*

108 -14 24.5 New Orleans..

Brownsville*.

102 La...

1836.9 Texas .... Shreveport .....

El Paso.............

113 - 5 9.3 Maine.....3 SEastport .......

| Palestine

104 - 6'46.5 Portland

6997

42.3
Utah........
SFrisco*

- 9 7.6 Vid ....... Baltimore... 34 78 104 43.8

Salt Lake...

102 -2016.2 Mass...... Boston.. 26 71 102 45.0 Vt. ......... Burlington

1-25 28.5 Springfield*

26 73 94
47.0
SLynchburg....

102 -- 642.8 6 65 108 32.4

Norfolk ....

102 Micb........ S Marquette...

252.1 Port Huron.. 21 69

25 31.6
5 Dayton*

109
Wash ..

-2627.8 ( Duluth

41 31.0
Olympiak.......

97

- 253.1 Minn...... St. Paul

41 27.5

Vil.....
Morgantown*.

--2546.9
(St. Vincent*..
103-54 16.6

La Crosse

15173 104 --43 30.7

W Miss. .......

is.........

1 55.7 Vicksburg ..........

Milwaukee. 19 69 100 -2532.1 S St. Louis.......... 1071 41.1

(Bridger, Fort*. 1964 89 Mo.

-42 8.7 Springfield..

145.7

Cheyenne...........

25/67 100 -3812.2 Havre .........

514.1

(Washakie, Fort 10 67 100 -5411.0 Moi

Custer, Fort*... 14 71 107 -48 13.0

Poplar River*...1-569111063 10.81 The minus () sign indicates temperature below zero. Not now a station of the weather Bureau, and report is therefore for the period preceding its discontinuance as a station,

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Es

TWeather Flags
OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U, S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

Forecasts, which are nne, for the benen..

...cuti conditions, the

THE Weather Bureau furnishes, when practicable, for the benefit of all interests dependent upon weather conditions, the "Forecasts'' which are prepared daily at the Central Office in Washington, 1). C., and certain designated stations. These forecasts are telegraphed to stations of the Weather Bureau, railway officials, postmasters, and many others, to be communicated to the public by means of flags or steam whistles. The flags adopted for this purpose are five in number, and of the forms and colors indicated below:

No. 1. White Flag.

EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS..
No. 2.
No. 3.

No. 4,

No. 5.
Blue Flag. White and Blue Flag. Black Triangular Flag. White Flag with

black square in
centre.

Clear or fair weather. Rain or snow. Local rain or snow. Temperature. Cold wave.

When number 4 is placed above number 1, 2, or 3, it indicates warmer; when below, colder; when not displayed, the temperature is expected to remain about stationary. During the late Spring and early Fall the cold-wave flag is also used to indicate anticipated frosts.

WHISTLE SIGNALS. A warning blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds duration is sounded to attract atten. tion. After this warning the longer blasts (of from four to six seconds duration) refer to weather, and shorter blasts (of from one to three seconds duration) refer to temperature; those for weather are sounded first. Blasts. Indicate.

Blasts.

Indicate. One long.... ..... Fair weather.

One short. ...... Lower temperature. Two long.. ........ Rain or snow.

Two short.............. Higher temperature. Three long............... Local rain or snow.

Three short.......... .Cold wave.

By repeating each combination a few times, with intervals of ten seconds, liability to error in reading the signals may be avoided.

As far as practicable the forecast messages will be telegraphed at the expense of the Weather Bureau; but if this is impracticable, they will be furnished at the regular commercial rates and sent collect." In no case will the forecasts be sent to a second address in any place, except at the expense of the applicant.

Persons desiring to display the flags or sound the whistle signals for the benefit of the public should communicate with the Weather Bureau officials in charge of the climate and crop service of their respective States, the central stations of which are as follows: Alabama, Montgomery, Massachusetts, Boston

Oklahoma (for Indian TerriArizona, Phoenix.

(for New England).

tories, and Oklahoma).
Arkansas, Little Rock.
Michigan, Grand Rapids,

Oregon, Portland,
California, San Francisco.
Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Colorado, Denver.
Mississippi, Vicksburg.

South Carolina, Columbia.
Florida, Jacksonville.
Missouri, Columbia.

South Dakota, Huron.
Georgia, Atlanta.
Montana, Helena.

Tennessee, Nashville.
Idaho, Boisé.
Nebraska, Lincoln.

Texas, Galveston.
Illinois, Springfield.
Nevada, Reno.

Utah, Salt Lake.
Indiana, Indianapolis,
New Jersey, Atlantic City.

Virginia, Richmond.
Iowa, Des Moines.
New Mexico, Santa Fé.

Washington, Seattle.
Kansas, Topeka.
New York, Ithaca.

West Virginia, Parkersburg.
Kentucky, Louisville.
North Carolina. Raleigh.

Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
Louisiana, New Orleans.
North Dakota, Bismarck.

Wyoming, Cheyenne.
Maryland, Baltimore

Ohio, Columbus. (for Delaware and Maryland).

The Ancient and Modern Kear.

THE Athenians began the year in June, the Macedonians in September, the Romans first in March and afterward in January, the Persians on August 11, the ancient Mexicans on February 23, the Mohammedans in July. The Chinese year, which begins early in February, is similar to the Mohammedan in having 12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately: bit in every nineteen years there are seven years which have 13 months. This is not quite correct, and the Chinese have therefore formed a cycle of 60 years, in which period 22 intercalary months occur.

Storm and Hurricane Udarnings OF THE WEATHER BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

STORM WARNINGS.

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Northeasterly winds. Southeasterly winds. Northwesterly winds. Southwesterly winds. Red, black centre.

Storm Warnings. -A red flag with a black centre indicates that a storm of marked violence is expected.

The pennants displayed with the flags indicate the direction of the wind; red, easterly (from northeast to south); white, westerly (from southwest to north). The pennant above the flag indicates that the wind is expected to blow from the northerly quadrants; below, from the southerly quadrants.

By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white light above a red light westerly winds.

Hurricane Warnings. -Two red flags with black centres, displayed one above the other, indicate the expected approach of a tropical hurricane, and also one of those extremely severe and dangerous storms which occasionally move across the Lakes and Northern Atlantic Coast.

Velocity of TWinds in the United States.

AVERAGE hourly velocity of the wind at selected stations of the United States Weather Bureau. also the highest velocity ever reported for a period of five minutes. (Prepared by W.L. Moore, Chief of the Weather Bureau, and revised to December 31, 1905, for THE WORLD ALMANAC.)

Average
Hourly
Velocity. B
Highest

Ever
Reported.

STATIONS.

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Abilene, Texas .........
El Paso, Texas..........

||Philadelphia, Pa..
Albany, N. Y.......
Fort Smith, Ark....

Pittsburgh, Pa ......... Alpena, Mich .... 72 Galveston, Texas .....

Portland, Me.......
Atlanta, Ga.........
56 Havre, Mont.........

Red Bluff, Cal....
Bismarck, N. D..
Helena, Mont......

Rochester, N. Y.......
Boisé, Idaho ......
Huron, s. D........

St. Louis, Mo.......
Boston, Mass.....
Jacksonville, Fla......

St. Paul, Minn.
Buffalo, N. Y.
90 Keokuk, Iowa......

St. Vincent, Minn.t..
Charlotte, N.O.O.
Knoxville, Tenn....

Salt Lake City, Utah
Chattanooga, Tenn.
60 Leavenworth, Kant

San Diego, Cal..... Chicago, Ill ........ | Louisville, Ky......

San Francisco, Cal... Cincinnati, Ohio...

Lynchburg, Va......

50 Santa Fé, N. Ñ...
Cleveland, Ohio...
Memphis, Tenn.....

Savannah, Ga...
Custer, Mont.f....
Montgomery, Ala..

Spokane, Wash.....
Denver, Col........
Nashville, Tenn.......

Toledo, Ohio ........
Detroit, Mich .......
New Orleans, La.......

Vicksburg, Miss......
Dodge City, Kan...

New York City, N.Y

80 Washington, D. C.... Dubuque, Iowa..... North Platte, Neb..

Wilmington, N.C.... Duluth, Minn.......

Omaha, Neb.......

64 Eastport, Me ........ 78 l Palestine, Texas........

60 Anemometer blew away, at a velocity of 84 miles per hour, September, 1900. fStations discontinued. STANDARD TABLE SHOWING VELOCITY AND FORCE OF WINDS. Miles Feet 1 Feet Force in

Miles Feet Feet

Tent Force in lbs. per DESCRIPTION.

lbs. per per

DESCRIPTION.
Square

per
Hour. Minute. Second Foot.

Hour. Minute. Second.

Square

Foot. Perceptible.............. 88 1. 47

2,640

44.0 176

4. 428 2.93

High wind ............. .020

3,080 51.3 6.027 Just perceptible.... 264 4.4 .044v

3,520 58.6 7.872 352 5.87 :079 Very high wind......

3, 960

9. 963 Gentle breeze ........

440
7.33

.123
Storm, ..................

4,400

12.300 880 14.67 .492)

5, 280 88.0 17.712 Pleasant breeze......

15 11,320 22.01
1: 107 Great storm...........

6,160 102.7 24.108 11,760 | 29.3

807, 040 117.3 31. 488 Brisk wind............... 1 2.200 36.6 3.075Hurricane .......

8.800 | 146.6 149. 200 From 1890 to 1898 the property loss by tornadoes in the United States was $26,633,750 [See THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1902, page 61). The number of persons killed by toruadoes 1889 to 1898 inclusive was 1,437.

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THE Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture in October, 1900, issued a bulletin giving these facts: In 1899 the total number of strokes of lightning which caused damage was 6,527; number of buildings injured, 6,256; value of property lost, $3,016,520, number of deaths by lightning during the year. 563; number of persons injured, 820; number of live stock killed in the felds, 4,251; value, $129,955. These are the latest available statistics.

The Chronicle Fire Tables record 3,012 fires caused by lightning in the United States in 1902, the property logs occasioned thereby being $3,396,810. These are the latest reported statistics on the subject.

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