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THE WORLD ALMANAC will welcome suggestions for the improvement of this page. The astronomical calculations in this work were expressly made for it by Dr. Morrison, of Washington, D. C., and are expressed in local Mean Time.

Chronological Eras. The year 1907 corresponds to the year 7415-16 of the Byzantine era; to 5667-68 of the Jewish era, the year 5668 commencing at sunset on September 8; to 2660 since the foundation of Rome according to Varro; to 2683 of the Olympiads (the third year of the 671st Olympiad commencing July 1, 1907); 'to 2567 of the Japanese era, and to the 40th year of the Meiji; to 1324-25 of the Mohammedan era, the year 1325 commencing on February 14, 1907. The 132d year of the Independence of the United States of America begins July 4, 1907.

Date of Beginning of Epochs, Eras, and Periods.
Name,

Began.
Name.

Began. Grecian Mundane Era..... B.C. 5598, Sept. 1 Grecian or Syro-Macedonian Era..B.C.312, Sept. 1 Civil Era of Constantinople. " 5508, Sept. 1 Era of Maccabees..

166, Nov. 24 Alexandrian Era " 5502, Aug. 29 Tyrian Era ....

• 125, Oct. 19 Julian Period.............

" 4713, Jan.
1 Sidonian Era......

6" 110, Oct. 1 Mundane Era...... 4008, Oct. 1 Julian Year

45, Jan. 1 Jewish Mundane Era. 3761, Oct. 1 Spanish Era....

38, Jan. 1 Era of Abraham......

" 2015, Oct.

1
Augustan Era......

27, Feb. 14 Era of the Olympiads.. 776, July 1 Vulgar Christian Era...

A. D. 1, Jan. 1 Roman Era (A. U.C.). 753, Apr. 24 Destruction of Jerusalem..

69, Sept. 1 Metonic Cycle........ 432, July 15 Mohammedan Era......

" 622, July 16

Chronological Cycles.
Dominical Letter.................. F | Lunar Cycle (Golden Number). 8 Roman Indiction ............
Epact
16 Solar Cycle.....

..12 Julian Period...

5 .6620

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Morning Stars.

Evening Stars. MERCURY. --Jannary 1 to February 2; March 18 MERCURY. --February 2 to March 18; May 24 to to May 24; July 24 to September 6; November 14 July 24; September 6 to November 14. to end of year.

VENUS. --September 14 to end of year. VENUS. --January 1 to September 14.

MARS. - July 6 to end of year. MARS. - January 1 to July 6.

JUPITER. - January 1 to July 16 JUPITER.- July 16 to end of year.

SATURN. --January 1 to March 9; September SATURN. – March 9 to September 17.

17 to end of year.

Church Memoranda for 1907.

January.

April.
July.

October
1 Tuesday.
1 Monday.
1 Monday.

1 Tuesday. 6 Epiphany (Sunday). 7 i. Sunday ast. Easter. 7 vi. Sunday aft. Trinity 6 xix. Sun. aft. Trinity. 13 i. Sün, aft. Epiphany. 14 ii.

11 vii.

13 xx. 20 ii. 21 iii. 21 viii.

18 St. Luke. 27 Septuagesima Sunday 28 iv.

28 ix,

20 xxi. Sun, aft. Trinity.

27 xxii,
February.

May.
August.

November 1 Friday.

1 Wednesday: 3 Sexagesima Sunday.

1 Thursday. 5 v. Sunday after Easter 10 Quinquagesima

4 x Sun. ast

1 Friday (All Saints).

Trinity: 9 Ascension. 13 Ash Wednesday.

3 xxiii. Sun, aft. Trinity 11 xi. 12 Sunday aft. Ascension 17 i. Sunday in Lent.

10 xxiv. 19 Whit Sunday.

18 xii. 24 ii.

17 xxv.
26 Trinity Sunday.

24 St. Bartholomew'.
25 xiii. Sun, ast. Trinity. 24 xxvi. “

30 St. Andrew'.
March,

June. 1 Friday.

September.

December, 3 iii, Sunday in Lent. 1 Saturday. 7 Thurs. (Mi-Careme). 2 i. Sunday aft. Trinity.

1 Advent Sunday. 10 iv. Sunday in Lent. 9ii.

1 xiv.Sun aft. Trinity. 8 ii. Sunday in Advent. 17 v. 16 iii.

15 iii. 24 Palm Sunday. 23 in 15 xvi.

21 St. Thomas. 2.) Good Friday. 24 St. John (Baptist). 22 xvii.

22 iv, Sunday in Advent. 31 Easter Sunday. 30 v. Sunday aft. Trinity 29 xviii.

125 Christmas.

8 xv.

Ember and Rogation Days. EMBER and Rogation Days are certain periods of the year devoted to prayer and fasting. Ember Days (twelve annually) are the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the first Sunday in Lent, after the feast of Pentecost (Whit Sunday), after the festival of the Holy Cross (September 14), and after the festival of St. Lucia (December 13). Ember Weeks are the weeks in which the Ember Days appear.

Rogation Days are the three days immediately preceding Holy Thursday or Ascension Day.

Church Fasts. The Roman Catholic Days of fasting are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the Wednesdays and Thursdays of the four weeks in Advent, and certain vigils or evenings prior to the gres feasts. In the American Episcopal Church the days of fasting or abstinence to be observed, according the Book of Common Prayer, are the forty days of Lent, the Ember Days, the three Rogation Days, and all the Fridays of the year except Christmas Day. In the Greek Church the four principal fasts are those in Lent, the week succeeding Whitsuntide, the fortnight before the Assumption, and forty days before Christmas.

Divisions of Time. The interval between two consecutive transits of a fixed star over any meridian or the interval during which the earth makes one absolute revolution on its axis is called a sidereal Day, and is invariable, while the interval between two consecutive transits of the Sun over any meridian is called an Apparent Solar Day, and its length varies from day to day by reason of the variable motion of the earth in its orbit, and the inclination of this orbit to the equator on which time is measured.

A Mean Solar Day is the average or mean of all the apparent solar days in a year. Mean Solar Time is that shown by a well-regulated clock or watch, while Apparent Solar Time is that shown by a well-constructed sun-dial; the difference between the two at any time is the Equation of Time, and may amount to 16 minutes and 21 seconds. The Astronomical Day begins at noon and the Civil Day at the preceding midnight. The Sidereal and Mean Solar Days are both invariable, but one day of the latter is equal to 1 day, 3 minutes, and 56. 555 seconds of the former.

The interval during which the earth makes one absolute revolution round the Sun is called a Sidereal Year, and consists of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and 9.6 seconds, which is invariable.

The 'Tropical Year is the interval between two consecutive returns of the Sun to the Vernal Equinox. If this were a fixed point, the Sidereal and Tropical Years would be identical; but in consequence of the disturbing influence of the Moon and planets on the spheroidal figure of the earth, the Équinox has a slow, retrograde mean motion of 5011:26 annually, so that the Sun returns to the Equinox sooner every year than he otherwise would by 20 minutes 23. 6 seconds; the Tropical Year, therefore,

consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds. The Tropical Year is not of uniform length; it is now slowly decreasing at the rate of.595 second per century, but this variation will not always continue.

Julius Cæsar, in B.C. 45, was the first to reform the calendar by ordering that every year whose date number is exactly divisible by 4 contain 366 days, and all other years 365 days. The intercalary day was introduced by counting the sixth day before the Kalends of March twice; hence the name bissextile, from bis, twice, and sex, six. He also changed the beginning of the year from 1st of March to the 1st of January, and also changed the name of the fifth month (Quintilis) to July, after himself. The average length of the Julian year is therefore 36544 days, which, however, is too long by li minutes and 14 seconds, and this would accumulate in 400 years to about three days. The Julian Calendar continued in use until A. D. 1582, when the date of the beginning of the seasons occurred 10 days later than in B, C. 45, when this mode of reckoning time was introduced.

The Gregorian Calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. with the view of keeping the Equinox to the same day of the month. It consists of 365 days, but every year exactly divisible by 4 and the centurial years which are exactly divisible by 400 contain 366" days; and if in addition to this arbitrary arrangement the centurial years exactly divisible by 4,000 contain 366 days, the error in the Gregorian system will amount to only one day in about 20 centuries. If, however, 31 leap years were intercalated in 128 years, instead of 32 as at present, the calendar would be practically exact and the error would not amount to more than a day in 100,000 years. The length of the mean Gregorian Year may therefore be set down at 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 12 seconds. The Gregorian Calendar was introduced into England and her colonies in 1752, at which time the Equinox had retrograded 11 days since the Council of Nice in A, D. 325, when the festival of Easter was established and the Equinox occurred on March 21; hence September 3, 1752, was called September 14, and at the same time the commencement of the legal year was changed from March 25 to January 1, so that the year 1751 lost the months of January and February and the first 24 days of March. The dif. ference between the Julian and Gregorian Calendars is now 13 days. Russia and the Greek Church still employ the Julian Calendar for civil and ecclesiastical purposes.

Standard Time. PRIMARILY, for the convenience of the railroads, a standard of time was established by mutual agreement in 1883, by which trains are run and local time regulated. According to this system, the United States, extending from 650 to 1250 west longitude, is divided into four time sections, each of 150 of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour, commencing with the 75th meridian. The first (eastern) section includes all territory between the Atlantic Coast and an irregular line drawn from Detroit to Charleston, S. C., the latter being its most southern point. The second (central) section includes all the territory between the last-named line and an irregular line from Bismarck, N. D., to the mouth of the Rio Grande. The third (mountain) section includes all territory between the lastnamed line and nearly the western borders of Idaho, Utah, and Arizona. The fourth (Pacific) section covers the rest of the country to the Pacific Coast. Standard time is uniform inside each of these sections, and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly one hour. Thus at 12 noon in New York City (eastern time), the time at Chicago (central time) is 11 o'clock A.M.; at Denver (mountain time), 10 o'clock A, M., and at San Francisco (Pacific time), 9 o'clock A.M. Standard time is 16 minutes slower at Boston than true local time, 4 minutes slower at New York, 8 minutes faster at Washington, 19 minutes faster at Charleston, 28 minutes slower at Detroit, 18 minutes faster at Kansas City, 10 minutes slower at Chicago, 1 minute faster at St. Louis, 28 minutes faster at Salt Lake City, and 10 minutes fasterat San Francisco.

Table of Days Between Two Dates. A TABLE OF THE NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEEN ANY TWO DAYS WITHIN TWO YEARS.

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ON-| Day Mo.

Jan,

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60 91 121) 152 182 213 244 274 305 335 1 366 397 425 456 486 517 547) 578 609 639 670 700 331 61 92 122 153 183 214 245 275 306 336 2 367 398 426 457 487 518 548 579 610 640 671 701 34 62 93 123 154 184 215 246 276 307 337 3 368 399 427 458 488 519 549 580 611 641 672 702 35 63 94 124 155 185 216 247 277 308 338 4 369 400 428 459 489 520 550 581 612 642 673 703

36 64 95 125 156 186 217) 248) 278 309 339 5 370 401) 429 460 490 521 551 582 613 643 674 704 6 61 65 96 126 157 187 218 249 279 310 340 6 371 402 430 461 491 522 552 583 614 644 675 705 7 7 38/ 66 97 127 158 188 219 250 280 311 341 7 372 403 431 462 492 523 553 584 615 645 676 706 8 8 39 67 98 128 159 189 220 251 281 312 342 8 373 404 432 463 493 524 554 585 616 646 677 707

9 40 68 99 129 160 190 221 252 282 313 343 9 374 405 433 464 494 525 555 586 617 647 678 708 101041 69 100 130 161 191 222 253 283 314 344 10 375 406 434 465 495 526 556 587 616 648 679 709 11 11 42 70 101 131 162 192 223 254 284 315 345 11 376 407 435 466 496 527 557 588 619 649 680 710 12 12 43 71 102 132 163 193 2241 2551 285 316 346 12 377 408 436 467 497 528 558 589 620 650 681 711 13 13 14 72 103 133 164 194 225 256 286 317 347 13 378 409 437 468 498 529 559 590 621 651 682 712 14 14 45 73 104 134 165 195 226 257 287 318 348 14 379 410 438 469 499 530 560 591 622 652 683 713 15 15 461 74 105 135 166 196 227 258 288 319 349 15 380 411 439 470 500 5311 561 592 623 653 684 714 16 16 47 75 100 136 167 197 228 259 289 320 350 16| 381 412 440 471 501 532 562 593 624 654 685 715 17 17 48 76 107 137 168 198 229 260 290 321 351 17) 382 413 441 472 502 533 563 594 325 655 686 716 18 18 49 77 108 138 109 199 230 261 291) 322 352 18 383 414 442 473 503 534 564 595 626 656 687 717 19 19 50 78 109 139 1701 200231 262 292 323 353 19 384 415 443 474 504 535 565) 596 627) 657 688 718 20 20 51 79 110 140 171, 2011 232 263 292, 324 354 20 385 416 444 475 505 52; 566 597 628 658 589 719 21 21 52 so 111 141 172 202 233 264 294 325 155 21 386 417 445 476 506 537 567 598 629 659 690 720

22 53 81 112 142 173 203 234 265 295 326 356 | 22 387 418 446 477 507 538 568 599 630 660 691 721 23 23 54 82 113 143 174 204 235 266 296 327 357 23 388 419 4471 478 5081 539 569 600 631 661 692 722 24 24 55 83 114 144 175 205 236 267 297) 328 358 24 389 420 448, 479 509, 540 570 601 632 662 693 723 25 23 56 84 115 145 176 206 237 268 298 329 359 25 390 421 449 480 510 541 571 602 633 663 594 724 26 26 57 85 116 146 177 207 238 269 299 330 360 26 391 422 450 481 511 542 572 603 634 634 695 725 27 27 86 117) 147) 178 208 239 270 300 331 361 27 392 423 451 482 512 543 573 604 635 665 696 726 28 28 69 87 118 148 179 209 240 271 301 332 362 28 393 424 452 483 513' 544 574 605 636 666 697 727 29 29 88 119 149 180 210 241 272 302 333 363 29 394 453 484 514) 545 575 606 637 667 698 728 30 30 89 120 150 181 211 242 273 303 334 364 30 395 454 485 515 546 576 607 638 668 699 729 811 31 90

212) 243)
304).. 365|31396 455 516). 577) 608 669

7:0 The above table applies to ordinary years only. For leap year, one day must be added to each number of days after February 28.

EXAMPLE. - To find the number of days between June 3, 1900, and February 16, 1901 : The fig. ures opposite the third day in the first June column are 154; those opposite the sixteenth day in the second February column are 412. Subtract the first from the second product-i, e., 154 from 412, and the result is 258, the number of days between the two dates.

151...

Easter Sunday. A TABLE SHOWING THE DATE OF EASTER SUNDAY IN EACH YEAR OF THE NINETEENTH AND

TWENTIETH CENTURIES. 1801-April 6. 1835-April 19. 1869-Mar. 28. 1902-Mar. 30. 1935-April 21. 1968-April 14. 1802-April 18. 1836-April 3. 1870-April 17. 1903-April 12. 1936-April 12. 1969-April 6. 1803-April 10. 1837-Mar. 26. 1871-April 9. 1904-April 3. 1937-Mar. 28. 1970–Mar. 29. 1804-April 1. 1838-- April 15. 1872-Mar. 31. 1905-April 23. 1938-April 17. 1971-April 11. 1805-April 141839-Mar. 31. 1873--April 13. 1906- April 15. 1939-April 9. 1972-April 2. 1806-April 6. 1840-April 19. I 1874-April 5. 1907-Mar. 31. 1940-Mar. 24. 1973-April 22. 1807-Mar. 29. 1841-April 11. 1875-Mar. 28. 1908-April 19. 1941-April 13. 1974-April 14. 1808-April 17. 1842-Mar. 27. 1876-April 16. 1909-April 11. 1942-April 5. 1975- Mar. 30. 1809-April 2. 1843-April 16. 1877-April 1. 1910-Mar. 27. 1943--April 25. 1976-April 18. 1810-April 22. 1844-April 7. 1878-April 21. 1911-April 16. 1944-April 9. 1977--April 10. 1811-April 14. 1845-Mar. 23. 1879-April 13. 1912-April 7. 1945--April 1. 1978-Mar. 26. 1812-Mar. 29. 1846-April 12. 1880-Mar. 28. 1913-Mar. 23. 1946-April 21. 1979-April 15 1813-April 18. 1847-April 4. 1881-April 17. 1914-April 12. 1947-April 6. 1980-April 6. 1814-April 10. 1848-April 23. 1882-April 9. 1915-April 4. 1948-Mar. 28. 1.981-April 19. 1815-Mar. 26. 1849-April 8. 1883-Mar. 25. 1916--April 23. 1949-April 17. 1982-April 11. 1816-April 14, 1850-Mar, 31.

1884-April 13

1917- April 8. 1950-April 9. 1983-April 3. 1817-April 6. 1851-April 20. 1885-April 5. 1918-Mar. 31. 1951-Mar. 25. 1984-April 22. 1818-Mar. 22. 1852-April 11. 1886-April 25. 1919-April 20. 1952-April 13. 1985-April 7. 1819-April 11. 1853–Mar. 27. 1887-April 10. 1920-April 4. 1953-April 5. 1986-Mar. 30. 1820-April,2 1854-April 16. 1888-April 1. 1921-Mar. 27. 1954-April 18. 1987-April 19. 1821-April 22. 1855-April 8. 1889-April 21. 1922-April 16, 1955-April 10. 1988-April 3. 1822-April 7. 1856-Mar. 23. 1890–April 6. 1923-April 1. 1956-April 1. 1989–Mar. 26. 1823-Mar. 30. 1857-April 12. 1891–Mar. 29. 1924-April 20. 1957-April 21. 1990-April 15. 1824-April 18 1858-April 4. 1892-April 17. 1925-April 12. 1958-April 6 1991-Mar, 31. 1825-April 3. 1859-April 24. 1893-April 2. 1926-April 4. 1959-Mar. 29. 1992-April 19. 1826-Mar. 26. 1860-April 8. 1894-Mar. 25. 1927-April 17. 1960-April 17. 1993-April 11. 1827-April 15. 1861–Mar. 31. 1895- April 14. 1928-April 8. 1961-April 2. 1994- April 3. 1828-April 6. 1862-April 20. 1896- April 5. 1929-Mar. 31. 1962-April 22. 1995-April 16. 1829-April 19. 1863-April 5. 1897-April 18. 1930-April 20. 1963-April 14. 1996-April 7. 1830-April 11. 1864-Mar. 27. 1898-April 10. 1931-April 5, 1964-Mar. 29. 1997-Mar. 30. 1831-April 3. 1865-April 16. 1899-April 2. 1932-Mar. 27. 1965- April 18. 1998-April 12. 1832-April 22 1866-April 1. 1900--April 15. 1933-April 16. 1966-April 10. 1999-April 4 1833-April 7. 1867-April 21. 1901-April 7. 1934-April 1. 1967-Mar. 26. 2000-April 23. 1834-Mar. 30.) 1868-April 12.

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