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Storytelling in the ForeignLanguage Classroom

Pilgrims Language Courses, Canterbury

2. Ask the students to discuss the meaning

of the sentence as it stands. After a while, ask them to reverse the underlined parts of the sentence, e.g., THE RICH PRODUCE THE POOR, and ask them to discuss the reversed sen

tence. 3. Feed in the second card, and so on. Hav

ing the sentences on cards allows each

group to work at their own pace. 4. Tell the story of Brontsha in your own

personal way from the plot outline below. Change and embellish it as much as you want. Don't read from the outlineabove all, don't do that.

When :anguage teachers tell their classes stories, the usual follow-up is either the asking of comprehension questions or a requirement that the students retell the story.

In the course of a winter's work on the art of storytelling, my colleague, John Morgan, and I have come up with a wide range of other things to be done before telling, during telling, and after telling, some of which I want to give you examples of below. Before telling

Preparation: Put each of the following sentences on separate cards. You will need a set of cards for every four students in the group.

Went to city-found work as a porter. Boss said I'll pay you next month'didn't. Brontsha showed no anger. Marriedwife ran off-Brontsha brought up child. When 40 Brontsha run over by rich man's carriage. In hospital full of groaning people he did not groanhe died. No one sad—ten people waiting for his bed-fifty for his place in the mortuary." Prosecuting angel stood to speak. Words dried on his tongue. Judge welcomed Brontsha to Heaven: “What reward do you desire—you can have anything you want." Brontsha: "Your excellency, could I have, each morning, a hot roll with butter for my breakfast?" Judge and angels hung their heads. They were ashamed to have created such meekness on earth.'

BRONTSHA THE SILENT Brontsha died silent—alone and unremembered. In Heaven they knew of him and waited. His trial was prepared in the great Hall of Heaven. Brontsha arriveddefending angel stood to speak: "On earth Brontsha never complained: Circumcising knife slipped he did not cry out. Mother died when he was eight-he said nothing Stepmother gave him moldy breadherself drank coffee with cream. Father made him chop wood barefoot in


In class:

(after Peretz)

1. EDITOR'S NOTE: Notice that the sentences in the outline of the plot are in telescoped or "headline" form. with many of the articles and other function words omitted (the, a, his, but, when, was, etc.) to show that these are not full. grammatical sentences, but rather a skeleton suggestion of facts for the storyteller to put into his own words in full. grammatical English.

1. Group the students in fours and give

each group the first card with the first sentence on it.


Brontsha never complained.

baby. Also ask them to decide which ad

jectives go with which character. 3. Pair the students and get them to explain

their choices to one another.

Mario Rinvolucri started out in post-college life
as a journalist and converted to teaching while

stationed in Greece.
Since then, he has
taught English in Chilc
and in Cambridge and
Canterbury, England.
His present job, which is
for Pilgrims Language
Courses, takes him hith-
er and thither in West-
ern Europe, directing
in-service training semi-

nars. He has coauthored
a number of books, the most recent of which is
Challenge to Think (Oxford University Press,

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During the work on the reversible sentences, the students become involved in some of the themes that they may later see in the story. The story comes as a gloss on the personal opinions the students have previously expressed on some of its themes. During telling

What follows is an idea for allowing each student individually to build his own story from a common skeleton supplied to the group by the teacher. This is how it works: Ask the students to prepare to take dictation. Then dictate:

The man went to the window and looked

our. Ask the students to write a couple of sentences of their own describing the man. Dictate:

Down in the garden he saw a unicorn

munching lilies. Ask them to describe the garden; as they write, go around the room, helping and correcting. Dictate:

He went back to his wife, woke her up and said: There's a unicorn in the garden munching lilies," to which she replied: There can't be, the unicorn is a mythical

beast." Ask them to describe the wife. Dictate:

The man went down to take a closer look at the unicorn, but when he got there it had vanished. He sat down on a bench and went

to sleep. He had a dream. Ask them to write his dream. Dictate:

His wife telephoned the psychiatrist and told him to come quickly with a straitjacket

and a policeman. Ask them to describe the psychiatrist. Dictate:

The psychiatrist came and asked the man: "Did you see a unicorn in the garden munching lilies?to which the man replied: Of course not, the unicorn is a mythical

beast.Ask the students to finish the story any way they like. (after Thurber, “The Unicorn in the Garden")

By this point, there is considerable curiosity to see what other people have written as they imagined the man, his wife, the psychiatrist, etc. Pair the students off and ask them to read their stories as feelingly as they can to each other. Let them re-pair several times.

Another way to achieve this collaborative telling is to do it in the lab. You speak the italicized sentences above onto the master tracks of the student machines; they speak their individual descriptions onto their student tracks. For the communicative phase, they play "musical booths," swapping positions and listening to each other's oral stories.

I have used this collaborative storytelling
a lot at the lower intermediate level, and it
is particularly rich with mixed-nationality

classes in an English-speaking environment. I
could analyze its richness at length, but the

innocent helpful stupid

boastful best way for you to find out more is to try it


worried with a group. Your subsequent analysis will


ridiculous astonished

scared rightly interest you a lot more than mine

terrified cruel would.


regal desperate

beautiful sleepless little After telling

strange motherly tearful
To have to retell a story you have just heard


to someone else who has also just heard it badly dressed surprised polite
simply because you are lower intermediate in hardworking unusual angry
the target language and because the teacher overjoyed odd

delighted wants you to practice common irregular verbs ambitious pregnant empty-handed is, from a communicational point of view, a Cross

enigmatic self-confident very odd undertaking. If you simply repeat the same form of words, more or less as you

(For features of this exercise we are indebted heard them, this denies the creative, interpre

to Gertrude Moskowitz and Lou Spaventa.) tive, additive work you did as you listened What happens when students do the work and made the story your own. As people lis- described above is that they refer back to the ten, they add all sorts of things that the story- story all the time as they explain the reasons teller has no chance of even guessing at, for their shape and adjective choices. In fact things drawn from their own perception, they get involved in explaining to others how memory, and subconscious. The storyteller they saw the story. From a language-practice mentions a cave, and one student sees a ca- point of view, they are working both with the thedral-like opening with a fir tree rising up language of the story and the adjectives, some before it, while another sees a badger hole of which may well be new to them. from the viewpoint of himself as a six-yearold.

How to tell a story I am here reporting student perceptions of So far I have dwelt on techniques around the word cave that I used in telling a group a storytelling, but the heart of this sort of exerparticular story. Had I asked these students to cise is the telling itself. Very few English simply retell my form of the story, they would


indeed, very few people—are good have failed to communicate what they had ac- at reading aloud in their own language. To do tually experienced in its real richness. this properly takes both acting talent and a

Follow-up exercises ought to draw the stu- fairly severe technical training. dents into exploring their relationship with Most of us, though, seem to be able to tell the substance of what they heard, as happens stories orally. Styles vary enormously from in the exercise below:

teller to teller, and they also depend on the In class:

sort of audience the teller has. Some people 1. Tell your group the story of Rumpel- will tell a story with riveting eye contact and stiltskin.

much gesture. Such tellings are halfway to be2. Give the students the geometric shapes coming one-person plays. Others will tell sto

and adjectives below and ask them to ries with no eye contact, very quietly, very indecide, working on their own, which wardly, as if they were telling the story in, shapes represent which characters-mil- rather than out. Such tellings, in which the auler, king, daughter, Rumpelstiltskin, dience seems to be looking over the teller's shoulder, rather than facing him, can be more powerful than the dramatic type.

Olga Julius tcaches English to ninth-grade girls, I find that when I tell a story like Goldilocks

in addition to being the chairman of thc En

glish Department at to a group of lower-intermediate German

Picrcc College in Athbusinessmen, they and I are sucked into roles,

cns. She presented an parental on my side and childhood-returning

EFL workshop at the on their side, which create a completely new

1979 NE/SA conference place out of the classroom for the duration of

held in Rhodes and was the activity

thc tcacher representaYou almost certainly have your own way of

tive from Picrcc College telling. Find stories you like—subconsciously

at the 1981 NE/SA conlike-interiorize them, don't word-for-word

ference in Crctc. Ms. Ju

lius rcccived a post-bacmemorize them, and tell them in the way that

calaurcate degree in comes most naturally. Once you have estab

cducation (1974) from Malonc College in Canlished your way, strike out and try other

ton, Ohio. She has also studiсd at the University styles. You can tell the same story in all sorts of Fribourg in Fribourg, Switzerland. of modes, drawing many different moods

Georgia Marketos Icaches English as a forcign from different members of your audience.?

language to seventh- and ninth-grade girls BIBLIOGRAPHY

and American literature

to advanccd tcnth-grade Bettelheim, Bruno. 1978. The uses of enchanımeni.

girls at Pierce College London: Penguin.

in Athens, Greccc. She Opie, lona and Peter. 1974. The classic fairy tales.

has had several EFL artiOxford: Oxford University Press.

cles published. In 1980, Propp, Vladimir. 1968. The morphology of the folk.

shc made a presentatale. London: Austin.

tion at the first TESOLRodari, Gianni. 1973. Grammatica della fantasia.

Grcccc convention, and Turin: Einaudi.

has presented work2. If you'd like a selection of seventy story outlines and a

shops in NE/SA conferwide range of new exercises to work on around storytelling,

cnccs held in Rhodes you could do worse than have a look at Once Upon a Time, and Crete. Ms. Markctos, a native of Ohio, rcavailable from Pilgrims. 8 Vernon Placc. Canterbury. ceived her M.A. in linguistics from the University

of Michigan in 1976. IATEFL Conference

gether. An approach which almost always

works satisfactorily is a thematic unit, based The 17th International Conference of the In

on a theme familiar to the student and "rele. ternational Association of Teachers of En- vant” to him, followed by a learner-oriented glish as a Foreign Language will be held 5-8 task which requires the student to produce April 1983 at St. Mary's College, Twicken- something. ham, Middlesex, England. The theme will be

We have had excellent results working with “Moties and Incentives for the Learning of ninth graders teaching a thematic unit on TEFL/TESL.” Accommodation is available in "Growing Up.” The literature includes two the Halls of Residence from 4-9 April. Regis- short stories, two poems, and a novel: tration forms and details are available from

"Sixteen," Maureen Daly the IATEFL Executive Officer, Mrs. B.I.

“Araby," James Joyce
Thomas, 87 Bennells Avenue, Tankerton,
Whitstable, Kent, England CT5 2HR.

“Little Black Boy," William Blake
“My Lost Youth," Henry Wadsworth


A Separate Peace, John Knowles.
The literature is varied, appeals to boys and

girls, and deals with the complex psychologiGrowing Up in English Class

cal stress involved in growing up as well as the

lighter and more enjoyable aspects. A fourOLGA JULIUS and GEORGIA MARKETOS

week period allotted to reading and discuss. Deree-Pierce Colleges

ing the literature in class was followed by a
two-week stretch for working on the assigned

Interest in literature these days seems to run The aims of our project were three:
far behind a more animated interest in disco

1. to have students use the knowledge they music, designer jeans, and the dernier cri in

acquired from the discussions and litera. sports for most junior-high-school students.

ture readings; English teachers are constantly searching for

2. to expand their understanding of poetry ways to bring students and literature closer to

and poetic analysis:

3. to further expose students to the library Reprinted from English Language Arts Bulletin. 22. (Winter 1981-82) by permission of the authors and the Ohio and its research facilities. Council of Teachers of English.

We prepared the students by giving them a

detailed handout on poetry analysis, which
we read, explained, and discussed with them
in class. The following day, students received
a list of American and British poets (partly to
quell the voices of those who “don't know any
poets"), and the assignment:
1. Each of you is required to find five po-

ems by five different poets dealing with
youth, growing up, or old age looking
back on youth. Try to limit the poems to

thirty lines. 2. Before you begin working with the po

ems, check with your teacher to make sure no classmate has chosen the same poems. (The teacher keeps a master list to avoid duplication—there are so many poems on this subject that it would be foolish to have two or more students

working with the same poem.) 3. Copy each poem neatly on a separate

piece of paper. 4. Under the poem (if it is short), or on the

back (if it is long), you will do two

a) In your own words, write a short
biography of the poet, highlighting
the important things in his life, both
personal and literary.
b) Write a good, coherent paragraph

analyzing the theme of the poem. 5. On

(a given date) you will hand in your five poems with

the supplementary material. This poetry project began as an individual effort, since each student worked by himself, but then became a class project. This came about when one student suggested that after each collection had been marked and graded by the teacher—and corrected and rewritten by the students-it could be assembled into a volume. A few class members worked on a title page, a table of contents, and a dedication. The entire collection was then xeroxed, so that each student could have his own copy.

This particular teaching unit has been very successful in our classes, because the theme is always fun to deal with and easy for juniorhigh students to relate to. Aside from that. the accumulation of everyone's work into a volume makes each student proud to see his own efforts included in the "published" work.



The Role of Literature in the Study
of Language
Krishnagar Government College,
West Bengal
Those who have been teaching English litera-
ture in schools and colleges have frequently
felt, as Dr. Helen W. Power did, that the stu-
dents seldom possess a clear idea of the rela-

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tionship between literature and language.' life" (Modern Eloquence, vol. XIV). It is the The fault lies with the teachers who do not careful study of literature that broadens the Rathindranath Chattopadhyay is an assistant take the trouble to explain that language is mind and enables one to formulate “the abili- professor and head of the Department of Ennot opposed to literature (in the way that sci- ty to investigate systematically."

glish at Krishnagar Gov. ence is) and that the study of language can Keeping in mind the fact that a knowledge

ernment College, West never be complete without a proper apprecia

Bengal. He obtained his of life is the aim of the study of literature, as tion of the literary works in that language.

M.A. degree in English well as of language, we must now try to un

literature from the UniThe same is true of literature: it is impossible derstand the implications of what the late Al

versity of Calcutta in to understand the literature of a country withbert Marckwardt, in his wonderful article

1960 and joined Barasat out having control over the language of that “What Literature to Teach: Principles of Se

Government College as country. lection and Class Treatment," regarded as

lecturer in English in Pope's famous couplet runs: “the broad goals of education." This eminent

1961. He is the author of True wit is Nature to advantage dressid, teacher wrote: “Indeed, the broad goals of

several books in English What oft was thought, but ne'er so well express'd. education are much the same, namely, a con

and Bengali, including

one on Dr. Martin LuAnd Hudson, in his popular book An Intro- cern for stimulating and feeding a life of the

ther King, Jr. duction to the Study of Literature, writes, intellect and for developing a humaneness "Literature is a vital record of what men have and sensitivity beyond purely practical and sion of the same book at the higher secondary seen in life, what they have experienced of it, vocational concerns."3 An echo of this senti- (classes XI-XII) level. If a boy of fifteen or sixwhat they have thought and felt about those ment can be found in Thomas Huxley: “Edu- teen cannot understand Macbeth, there is no aspects of it which have the most immediate cation promotes peace by teaching men the reason why he cannot be asked to study Tales and enduring interest for all of us. It is thus realities of life and the obligations which are from Shakespeare, by Charles and Mary fundamentally an expression of life through involved in the very existence of society; it Lamb. Contrary to what many scholars teach the medium of language" (6th Indian ed., promotes intellectual development, not only us, it is my firm belief that we should acquaint 1975).

by training intellect, but by sifting out from our children with the best books containing It is obvious from the above extracts that the masses of ordinary or inferior capacities, rich thoughts at an early age. Those who can the study of the language of a country is of those who are competent to increase the gen- understand stories by Enid Blyton and Alfred prime importance; unfortunately, however, eral welfare by occupying higher positions; Hitchcock can very well understand abridged what is not obvious to many teachers of lan- and lastly, it promotes morality and refine- versions of stories by Dickens, Scott, and guage is the fact that language is not an end ment, by teaching men to discipline them

Jane Austen. in itself, but a means which must lead the selves, and by leading them to see that the What kind of language? learner to the study of the literature written in highest, as it is the only permanent, content is that language. The reverse is also true, and to be attained, not by groveling in the rank

This brings me to the last point of my disone's literary appreciation can never be com

cussion—the question of the language. What and steaming valleys of sense, but by continplete without a thorough knowledge of the ual striving towards those high peaks, where,

sort of language should be helpful to a beginlanguage. resting in eternal calm, reason discerns the

ner? According to Marckwardt, “There is litThis must have been in the mind of Sonia undefined but bright ideal of the highest the student to archaic forms of the language,

tle or nothing to be gained from subjecting Zyngier when she asked, “How can your stu- good—'a cloud by day, a pillar of fire by

obsolescent meanings of words, and subject dents read and understand Shakespeare or night' ” (Modern Eloquence, vol. XIV). AcWordsworth, especially if they do not have cording to Huxley, that man alone has a liber

matter that requires historical interpretafull command of the language?"? In the same al education "whose mind is stored with the

tion." It is an acknowledged fact that there is manner, one may ask, “What is the use of knowledge of the great fundamental truths of nothing simpler and more beautiful than the learning a language without having the oppor- Nature and of the laws of her operations." It language of the English Bible, and the begintunity to appreciate the literary works in that is this "mind” that has to be explored, and

ner must gain a mastery over this kind of lanlanguage?" that cannot be done without the combined ef

guage. Teachers, at this stage, must avoid or

namental and bombastic language. Is there forts of language and literature. Education and life

any sense in asking a boy of thirteen or fourGeorge Eliot once said that art (and, of Is "bazaar language" enough?

teen to grasp the meaning of Sir Isaac Newton course, literature, which is a part of art) "is In many countries where English is taught

is the developer of the skies in their embodied the nearest thing to life; it is a mode of ampli- as a second language, the tendency appears to

movements or the proverbial oracles of our fying experience and extending our contact be to minimize the importance of literature. parsimonious ancestors? Nor should the stuwith our fellowmen beyond the bounds of our The result is pernicious. English in those

dents be asked to learn verbose expressions, personal lot.” This is one way of saying that a countries has come down to the level of “ba

known as "journalese"; it is useless to ask a careful study of literature will enable us to zaar language"—the language of the market.

child to understand The spirit quitted its earthknow life better. What, really, does a man I believe that the teachers themselves are re

ly habitation and winged its way to eternity. It know of life? He knows his own life, he may sponsible for this sad degradation of the rich

is, often, this sort of ridiculous language that know the lives of a hundred persons. But life est and most powerful language in the world.

frightens a child and makes him an enemy of is surely bigger and broader than that, and lit- It is their bounden duty to teach both the stu

the English language. erature helps a man to be acquainted with the dents and the formulators of the curricula that 4. Ibid., p. 2. broader perspective. Marcus Aurelius said, English literature is extremely varied and that “Nothing has such power to broaden the mind there are wonderful literary works suitable

31^2N S as the ability to investigate systematically and for students of all age groups and classes. We solution INIWvX13 truly all that comes under the observation in have been teaching Dickens' David Copper


H 1 field at the honors level, and an abridged ver- crossword


1 1. Helen W. Power. “Literature for Language Students."

puzzle V DE NO English Teaching Forum, 19. I (January 1981). 3. Albert H. Marckwardt. "What Literature to Teach:

2010 d01 2. Sonia Zyngier, “Teaching Literature to Undergraduate Principles of Selection and Class Treatment." English EFL Students." English Teaching Forum, 19. 1. p. 33.

INIONIS Teaching Forum. 19. 1. p. 4.



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Tomoo Tsukamoto received his undergraduate
degree from Meiji Gakuin University in To-

kyo and his M.S. in Reading a Story Aloud to a Class

Education at Indiana TOMOO TSUKAMOTO

University in Blooming

ton. He has been teachDokkyo University, Saitama

ing English at various

levels in Tokyo since If you sometimes have difficulty getting stu

he returned to Japan. dents' attention, I suggest that you read a sto

"Most of my college ry aloud to your class. This may not prove to

classes are general arts be a panacea, especially if carelessly done,

courses intended for but if you prepare conscientiously, I believe

non-English majors," you will find it useful.

he writes. "I wrote the In any language class, be it a reading or a

present article with this conversation class, the teacher must see that

in mind." his students have ample opportunity to develop balanced language skills. Reading a short couraged to speak English when they talk to story aloud to a class can help them develop the teacher feels it is fitting or necessary, the

each other, but in some situations in which the following:

use of the students' native language may be 1. Listening skills, as they listen to the story allowed. A variation is to have the students read by their teacher.

think of a number of questions in English and 2. Speaking skills, when they are engaged discuss them among themselves. in pre- and post-listening pair work.

3. The teacher reads Installment 1 aloud to 3. Writing skills, when they write down

the class. Some teachers may prefer to use rewhat they think will happen in the next corded material. My experience shows, howinstallment of the story.

ever, that it is much better for the teacher, na4. Rapid reading skills, when, after listen- tive or nonnative, to read the story himself

ing to the story, they are asked to read than to rely on the mechanical voice on the rapidly.

tape. It is far more interesting for students to 5. A positive attitude toward reading in listen to a live person than to a "dead" mageneral.

chine. They will enjoy listening to your story

if you read it with appropriate facial expresReading materials

sions, funny, sad, happy, or threatening, as From the many supplementary readers at the context demands. One caution: the teachhand, you should choose one for which the er must make the students feel as if they are original text is also readily available, so that being talked to rather than read to. An otheryou can use both the simplified version and wise fascinating story can become deadly borthe original text.

ing in the hands of a careless, unprepared preHandouts

senter. Concerning the technique of reading

aloud, Michael West has the following advice: For each class period there ought to be four "Glance down at the book, gather up an eyedifferent kinds of handouts: (1) basic facts ful' of six to ten words, then say them to the about each installment of the chosen story, class in such a way as to establish a rapport such as location, time and date, and main just as if one were talking to an audience" characters; (2) the text of each installment, to (West 1967:141). be given to the students after the first listen- 4. Post-listening questions are now given. ing; (3) pre-listening questions, to be passed

5. A second listening (or reading aloud). around before the students listen to the story;

6. The students now get a copy of the text (4) post-listening questions, to check their and are told to read it silently within a specigeneral comprehension.

fied amount of time. The objective is to help

them learn to read quickly. Day 1

7. A true-false quiz is given orally or in 1. Before giving the students a copy of the written form (see the Appendix). text, present the title of the story either orally

8. The students write down a few lines tellor in written form. Encourage them to make ing what they think will happen in the next inwild guesses about what the story will be like.

stallment. This may be done in class or as a You should solicit as many responses as possi- homework assignment. ble, for the important thing here is to put them into a state of anticipation before they Day 2 and onward actually listen to or read the story.

1. A brief review of the previous install2. The first handout gives the basic facts of ment, just to remind the students of its main Installment 1 of the story. Pre-listening ques- points. tions may be given at this point (see the Ap- 2. Before they listen to the new installment pendix). Students may consult each other the students discuss how this installment will about the questions so that they will be able to develop, using their notes from the previous make educated guesses. They should be en- lesson.

3. The other procedures are the same as on Day 1.

4. On the last day, the students read the original version of the story on which the simplified text is based. They should not have much difficulty in reading it, since they have listened to and read the story in a rewritten, easier form. You may want to give a written or oral final test to complete the activity.

APPENDIX I. Excerpts (first paragraphs) from the simplified text and the original text:

1. Easy text- "A Watcher by the Dead," in Short Stories by Ambrose Bierce:

In an upper room of an unoccupied dwelling in San Francisco lay the body of a man, under a sheet. The time was nearly nine in the evening: the room was dimly lighted by a single candle. Although the weather was warm, the two windows were closed. The furniture of the room consisted of a large chair, a small reading stand holding the candle, and a long table, supporting the body of the man. All these, including the body, seemed to have been recently brought in. An observer would have seen that all were free from dust, although everything else in the room was dusty.. 2. Original text—"A Watcher by the Dead” in In the Midst of Life: A Selection:

In an upper room of an unoccupied dwelling in the part of San Francisco known as North Beach lay the body of a man, under a sheet. The hour was near nine in the evening; the room was dimly lighted by a single candle. Although the weather was warm, the two windows, contrary to the custom which gives the dead plenty of air. were closed and the blinds drawn down. The furniture of the room consisted of but three pieces-an armchair, a small reading-stand supporting the candle, and a long kitchen table, supporting the body of the man. All these, also the corpse, seemed to have been recently brought in, for an observer, had there been one, would have seen that all were free from dust, whereas everything else in the room was pretty thickly coated with it, and there were cobwebs

in the angles of the walls. ...
II. Handouts: Installment 1
1. Basic facts of Installment 1:

Title: A Watcher by the Dead"
Location: An upper room of an unoccu-
pied dwelling in San Francisco
Scene: A dead body is in the center of the
room. A man enters.

Time: Nearly nine in the evening 2. Pre-listening questions:

Instruction: Use your imagination and try
to answer the following questions.
a. Who do you think is dead?
b. Is the body that of a man or a woman?
c. Does the man who enters the room

know the dead person? d. What does the man come into the

room for? 3. Post-listening questions:

a. Was the room bright?



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