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W.

yowself, see self.

ger, n., year: 494, 1286; pl. -ez, 426, yre, n., ire, 775, 1240, 1503. OF. ire. 526; zer, 1192; zere, 1453. OE. ybe, n., wave: pl. *yþez, 430. OE. gēar, gēr. ӯр. .

gerne', v. tr., desire: 2 sg. -Z, 758;

pp. 66. OE. giernan, gernan. 3.

gerne”, v. intr., run: pret. 3 sg. gark, v. tr., prepare, make ready,

zornen, 881.

OE. geiernan. 652; set up, 1708; grant, 758:

zestande, part. adj., frothing, 846. I sg. şark, 758; pp. *652, 1708.

Cf. OE. gist, yeast. OE. gearcian.

3et, adv., yet, hitherto, 197, 815, 867, zarm, n., outcry, 971. Cf. ON. 1312; w. future, 517, 648; still, jarmr.

847, 984, 1021, 1049, 1158; gat, see get.

further, besides, 1232, 1525, 1803; zate, n., gate, entrance, 796: pl. -s, even, even now, 754, 758; 785, 854, 884, 1188, 1263; -2, 837,

comparatives, 50, 96, 97; never938, 941. OE. geat, gæt.

theless, 120, 230, 450, 664, etc. gederly, adv., entirely, 463. Cf.

(14 times): zette, 867. OE. OE. *geædre.

giet, gēt.

gete, see get. 3e, adv., yea, yes, 347. OE. gēa.

gif, see if. 3e, see bou.

zis, adv., yes, truly, 1113. OE. gise. gede, see go.

zisterday, n., yesterday, as gen., 463. 3eze, v. intr., cry: pret. 3 pl. 846.

OE. gistrandæg. Cf. ON. geyja.

gokke, n., yoke: pl. -Z, 66. OE. gelde, v. tr., give, 665; restore,

geoc. 1708; inf. pp. 3olden, 1708. OE.

golden, see zelde. gieldan, geldan.

golped, see zelpe. gellyng, vbl. n., yelling, 971. OE.

zomerly, adj., lamentable, 971. OE. giellan, gellan.

gēomerlic. zelpe, v. intr., boast: pret. 3 pl. gon, adj., yon, 751, 772. OE. geon.

golped, 846. OE. gielpan, gelpan. zonde, adj., yon, 721. Cf. OE. geme, v. tr., guard, rule over: 3 sg. geond, adv.

-S, 1493; pret. 3 sg. 464, 1242. gonge, adj., young, 783, 881; 3ong, OE. gieman, gēman.

842. OE. geong. gender, adv., yonder, 1617. OE. gore-whyle, adv., a short time ago,

geon + suffix -der; cf. Goth. 842. OE. gēara + hwil. jaindre.

zornen, see gerne'. gepe, adj., alert, prompt, bold, 881 ; as n. zep, 796. OE. gēap, gēp.

Z. geply, adv., quickly, soon, 665, 1708. *Zedechyas, prop.

*Zedechyas, prop. n., Zedekiah, OE. gēaplice.

1169. Lat. Sedecias.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography is select, containing only the more important works on each subject.

I. EDITIONS Early English Alliterative Poems, in the West-Midland Dialect of the

Fourteenth Century. Edited by Richard Morris (Early English Text

Society, Vol. 1). London, 1864; revised edition, 1869. Cited as M. Selections from Purity, comprising lines 235-544, 947-72, 1009-51, in

Morris's Specimens of Early English. Oxford, 1867, and in Morris and Skeat’s Specimens of Early English, Part II, Oxford, 1872, revised 1884, 1894.

II. TRANSLATIONS I. GOLLANCZ, edition of Pearl (see below under VIII), pp. xxviii-xxx.

Paraphrases of Purity, lines 361-70, 381-3, 414-24, 551-6, 1110-32. JESSIE L. Weston, Romance, Vision, and Satire, pp. 153-70. Boston, 1912.

Poetic rendering of lines 1357-1812 (Belshazzar's Feast).

III. DATE, AUTHORSHIP, AND RELATIONSHIP TO

OTHER POEMS MORRIS, Preface to Early English Alliterative Poems (see above under I). M. TRAUTMANN, Über Verfasser und Entstehungszeit einiger Alliter

ierender Gedichte des Altenglischen. Halle, 1876. Also published

with sub-title Habilitationsschrift, by which name it is often cited. M. TRAUTMANN, Der Dichter Huchown und seine Werke (Anglia

I. 109-49). TEN BRINK (see below under VII). M. C. THOMAS, Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight. A Comparison with

the French Perceval, preceded by an Investigation of the Author's

Other Works. Zürich, 1883. KNIGGE (see below under V), pp. I-10. HENRY BRADLEY, Academy, Jan. 14, 1888. J. B. HENNEMAN, Untersuchungen über das Mittelenglische Gedicht ‘Wars

of Alexander,' pp. 30-5. Berlin, 1889. GOLLANCZ, Introduction to edition of Pearl (see below under VIII). G. NELSON, 'Huchown of the Awle Ryale,' the Alliterative Poet. A

Historical Criticism of Fourteenth Century Poems ascribed to Sir Hew of Eglintoun. Glasgow, 1902.

J. T. T. Brown, Huchown of the Awle Ryale and his Poems, examined

in the Light of Recent Criticism. Glasgow, 1902. C. F. Brown, The Author of the Pearl, considered in the Light of Theo

logical Opinions (Publications of the Modern Language Association

19. 146-8). C. G. OSGOOD, Introduction to edition of Pearl (see below under VIII). C. REICKE, Untersuchungen über den Stil der Mittelenglischen Alliter

ierenden Gedichte Morte Arthure, The Destruction of Troy, The Wars of Alexander, The Siege of Jerusalem, Sir Gawayn and the Green Knight: ein Beitrag zur Lösung der Huchown-Frage. Königs

berg i. Pr., 1906.
H. N. MacCRACKEN, Concerning Huchown (Publications of the Modern

Language Association 25. 507-34).
H. BATESON, Introduction to edition of Patience (see below under VIII).
J. E. Wells' Manual of the Writings of Middle English 1050-1400, New

Haven, 1916, should be consulted for further bibliography of the
Huchown question and of the separate alliterative poems.

IV. SOURCES
C. F. Brown, Note on the Dependence of 'Cleanness' on the 'Book of

Mandeville' (Publications of the Modern Language Association

19. 149-53). O. F. EMERSON, A Parallel between the Middle English Poem Patience

and an Early Latin Poem attributed to Tertullian (Publications of

the Modern Language Association 10. 242-8).
O. F. EMERSON, A Note on the M. E. 'Cleanness' (Modern Language

Review 10. 373-5).
S. B. LILJEGREN, Has the Poet of 'Patience' read 'De Jona'? (Englische

Studien 48. 337-41).

V. METRE AND ALLITERATION

F. ROSENTHAL, Die Alliterierende Englische Langzeile im 14. Jahrhundert

(Anglia 1. 414-59). J. SCHIPPER, Englische Metrik 1. 195-212. Bonn, 1881. J. FUHRMANN, Die Alliterierenden Sprachformelm in Morris' Early Eng

lish Alliterative Poems und in Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight.

Hamburg, 1886.
K. LUICK, Die Englische Stabreimzeile im XIV., XV., und XVI. Jahr-

hundert (Anglia 11. 392-443, 553-618; esp. 572-85).
Max Kaluza, Strophische Gliederung in der Mittelenglischen rein Alliter-

irenden Dichtung (Englische Studien 16. 169-80).

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J. LAWRENCE, Chapters on Alliterative Verse, pp. 89-99. London, 1893. M. TRAUTMANN, Zur Kenntniss und Geschichte der Mittelenglischen

Stabzeile (Anglia 18. 83-100). B. KUHNKE, Die alliterierenden Langzeile in der Mittelenglischen Romanze

Sir Gawayn and the Green Knight (Studien zum Germanischen Alliterationsvers, Vol. 4). Berlin, 1900. Reviewed by Fischer, Anglia

Beiblatt 12. 65-76, and Luick, ibid. pp. 33 ff. J. FISCHER, Die Stabende Langzeile in den Werken des Gawaindichters

(Bonner Beiträge zur Anglistik 11. 1-64). Bonn, 1901. Reviewed by Luick, Anglia Beiblatt 12. 33-49. Compare further Fischer and Mennicken, Zur Mittelenglischen Stabzeile (a reply to Luick), pp.

139-54 of Bonner Beiträge 11. M. DEUTSCHBEIN, Zur Entwicklung des Englischen Alliterationsverses.

Halle, 1902. K. Luick, in Paul's Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, 2d ed.,

2. 2. 160-8. Strassburg, 1905. J. THOMAS, Die Alliterierende Langzeile des Gawayn-Dichters. Coburg,

1908. K. SCHUMACHER, Studien über den Stabreim in der Mittelenglischen

Alliterationsdichtung (Bonner Studien zur Englischen Philologie, Vol. II). Bonn, 1914.

VI. LANGUAGE

MORRIS, Preface to Early English Alliterative Poems (see above under I),

pp. xxi-xl.

F. SCHWAHN, Die Conjugation in Sir Gawayn and the Green Knight und

den Sogenannten Early English Alliterative Poems. Strassburg, 1884. W. FICK, Zum Mittelenglischen Gedicht von der Perle: eine Lautunter

suchung. Kiel, 1885. F. KNIGGE, Die Sprache des Dichters von Sir Gawain and the Green

Knight, der Sogenannten Early English Alliterative Poems, und De

Erkenwalde. Marburg, 1885. J. FISCHER, Die Stabende Langzeile (see above under V), pp. 48-61. M. KULLNICK, Studien über den Wortschatz in Sir Gawayne and the Grene

Knygt. Berlin, 1902. K. SCHMITTBETZ, Das Adjektiv in 'Sir Gawayn and the Grene Knygt

(Anglia 32. 1-60, 163-89, 359-83). H. BATESON, Introduction to Patience (see below under VIII), pp.

xxxii-vii. H. BATESON, The Text of Cleanness (Modern Language Review 13. 377-86). I. GOLLANCZ, The Text of Cleanness (ibid. 14. 152-62).

O. F. EMERSON, Middle English Clannesse (Publications of the Modern

Language Association 34. 494-522). MABEL Day, The Weak Verb in the Works of the Gawain-Poet (Modern

Language Review 14. 413-5).

VII. GENERAL TEN BRINK, Early English Literature (translated by Kennedy) 1. 337-51.

New York, 1883. I. GOLLANCZ, Introduction to Pearl (see below under VIII). A. BRANDL, in Paul's Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, ist ed.,

2. 661-3. Strassburg, 1893. C. B. Brown, The Author of the Pearl, considered in the Light of his

Theological Opinions (Publications of the Modern Language Asso

ciation 19. 115-53). W. H. SCHOFIELD, The Nature and Fabric of The Pearl. Ibid. 19. 154-203. W. H. SCHOFIELD, Symbolism, Allegory, and Autobiography in The Pearl

(ibid. 24. 585-675). C. G. OSGOOD, Introduction to Pearl (see below under VIII). I. GOLLANCZ, Cambridge History of English Literature. Vol. I, chapter

15. London and New York, 1907. C. WEICHARDT, Die Entwicklung des Naturgefühls in der Mittelenglischen

Dichtung vor Chaucer (einschliesslich des Gawain-Dichters), pp.

79-92. Kiel, 1900. F. W. MOORMAN, The Interpretation of Nature in English Poetry from

Beowulf to Shakespeare (Quellen und Forschungen, Vol. 95). Chapter 7. Strassburg, 1905.

VIII. EDITIONS OF WORKS BY THE AUTHOR OF PURITY

AND OTHER ALLITERATIVE POEMS FREQUENTLY CITED Sir Gawayne, a Collection of Ancient Romance-Poems. Edited by Sir

Frederic Madden. London, 1839. Sir Gawayne and The Green Knight. Edited by Richard Morris (Early

English Text Society, Vol. 4). London, 1864. Revised by I. Gollancz

in 1897, and further in 1912. (Edition cited.) Pearl and Patience (see Early Engl. Allit. Poems under I). Pearl, an English Poem of the Fourteenth Century. Edited with a

Modern Rendering by I. Gollancz. London, 1891. The Pearl, a Middle English Poem. Edited by Charles G. Osgood.

Boston and London, 1906. (Edition cited.) Patience, a West Midland Poem of the Fourteenth Century. Edited by

Hartley Bateson. Manchester, 1912. Reviewed by Emerson, Mod.

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