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KENNEDY, J., dissenting
maries by preventing sore loser candidacies during the general election. As the majority points out, we have acknowledged the State's interest in avoiding party factionalism. A write-in ban does serve this interest to some degree by eliminating one mechanism which could be used by sore loser candidates. But I do not agree that this interest provides “adequate justification” for the ban. Ante, at 439. As an initial matter, the interest can at best justify the write-in prohibition for general elections; it cannot justify Hawaii's complete ban in both the primary and the general election. And with respect to general elections, a write-in ban is a very overinclusive means of addressing the problem; it bars legitimate candidacies as well as undesirable sore loser candidacies. If the State desires to prevent sore loser candidacies, it can implement a narrow provision aimed at that particular problem.
The second interest advanced by the State is enforcing its policy of permitting the unopposed victors in certain primaries to be designated as officeholders without having to go through the general election. The majority states that "[t]his would not be possible, absent the write-in voting ban.” Ibid. This makes no sense. As petitioner's counsel acknowledged during oral argument, “[t]o the degree that Hawaii has abolished general elections in these circumstances, there is no occasion to cast a write-in ballot.” Tr. of Oral Arg. 14. If anything, the argument cuts the other way because this provision makes it all the more important to allow write-in voting in the primary elections because primaries are often dispositive.
Hawaii justifies its write-in ban in primary elections as a way to prevent party raiding. Petitioner argues that this alleged interest is suspect because the State created the party raiding problem in the first place by allowing open primaries. I agree. It is ironic for the State to raise this concern when the risk of party raiding is a feature of the open primary system the State has chosen. The majority
KENNEDY, J., dissenting
suggests that write-in voting presents a particular risk of circumventing the primary system because state law requires candidates in party primaries to be members of the party. Again, the majority's argument is not persuasive. If write-in voters mount a campaign for a candidate who does not meet state-law requirements, the candidate would be disqualified from the election.
The State also cites its interest in promoting the informed selection of candidates, an interest it claims is advanced by “flushing candidates into the open a reasonable time before the election.” Brief for Respondents 44. I think the State has it backwards. The fact that write-in candidates often do not conduct visible campaigns seems to me to make it more likely that voters who go to the trouble of seeking out these candidates and writing in their names are well informed. The state interest may well cut the other way.
The State cites interests in combating fraud and enforcing nomination requirements. But the State does not explain how write-in voting presents a risk of fraud in today's polling places. As to the State's interest in making sure that ineligible candidates are not elected, petitioner's counsel pointed out at argument that approximately 20 States require writein candidates to file a declaration of candidacy and verify that they are eligible to hold office a few days before the election. Tr. of Oral Arg. 13.
In sum, the State's proffered justifications for the write-in prohibition are not sufficient under any standard to justify the significant impairment of the constitutional rights of voters such as petitioner. I would grant him relief.
EASTMAN KODAK CO. v. IMAGE TECHNICAL SERV
ICES, INC., ET AL.
CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR
THE NINTH CIRCUIT
No. 90-1029. Argued December 10, 1991–Decided June 8, 1992 After respondent independent service organizations (ISO's) began servic
ing copying and micrographic equipment manufactured by petitioner Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak adopted policies to limit the availability to ISO's of replacement parts for its equipment and to make it more difficult for ISO's to compete with it in servicing such equipment. Respondents then filed this action, alleging, inter alia, that Kodak had unlawfully tied the sale of service for its machines to the sale of parts, in violation of § 1 of the Sherman Act, and had unlawfully monopolized and attempted to monopolize the sale of service and parts for such machines, in violation of $2 of that Act. The District Court granted summary judgment for Kodak, but the Court of Appeals reversed. Among other things, the appellate court found that respondents had presented sufficient evidence to raise a genuine issue concerning Kodak's market power in the service and parts markets, and rejected Kodak's contention that lack of market power in service and parts must be assumed when such
power is absent in the equipment market. Held:
1. Kodak has not met the requirements of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 56(c) for an award of summary judgment on the $1 claim. Pp. 461-479.
(a) A tying arrangement—i. e., an agreement by a party to sell one product on the condition that the buyer also purchases a different (or tied) product, or at least agrees that he will not purchase that product from any other supplier-violates $1 only if the seller has appreciable economic power in the tying product market. Pp. 461–462.
(b) Respondents have presented sufficient evidence of a tying arrangement to defeat a summary judgment motion. A reasonable trier of fact could find, first, that service and parts are two distinct products in light of evidence indicating that each has been, and continues in some circumstances to be, sold separately, and, second, that Kodak has tied the sale of the two products in light of evidence indicating that it would sell parts to third parties only if they agreed not to buy service from ISO's. Pp. 462-463.
(c) For purposes of determining appreciable economic power in the tying market, this Court's precedents have defined market power as the power to force a purchaser to do something that he would not do in a competitive market, and have ordinarily inferred the existence of such power from the seller's possession of a predominant share of the market. P. 464.
(d) Respondents would be entitled under such precedents to a trial on their claim that Kodak has sufficient power in the parts market to force unwanted purchases of the tied service market, based on evidence indicating that Kodak has control over the availability of parts and that such control has excluded service competition, boosted service prices, and forced unwilling consumption of Kodak service. Pp. 464-465.
(e) Kodak has not satisfied its substantial burden of showing that, despite such evidence, an inference of market power is unreasonable. Kodak's theory that its lack of market power in the primary equipment market precludes—as a matter of law—the possibility of market power in the derivative aftermarkets rests on the factual assumption that if it raised its parts or service prices above competitive levels, potential customers would simply stop buying its equipment. Kodak's theory does not accurately describe actual market behavior, since there is no evidence or assertion that its equipment sales dropped after it raised its service prices. Respondents offer a forceful reason for this discrepancy: the existence of significant information and switching costs that could create a less responsive connection between aftermarket prices and equipment sales. It is plausible to infer from respondents' evidence that Kodak chose to gain immediate profits by exerting market power where locked-in customers, high information costs, and discriminatory pricing limited, and perhaps eliminated, any long-term loss. Pp. 465–478.
(f) Nor is this Court persuaded by Kodak's contention that it is entitled to a legal presumption on the lack of market power because there is a significant risk of deterring procompetitive conduct. Because Kodak's service and parts policy is not one that appears always, or almost always, to enhance competition, the balance tips against summary judgment. Pp. 478–479.
2. Respondents have presented genuine issues for trial as to whether Kodak has monopolized, or attempted to monopolize, the service and parts markets in violation of $2. Pp. 480-486.
(a) Respondents' evidence that Kodak controls nearly 100% of the parts market and 80% to 95% of the service market, with no readily available substitutes, is sufficient to survive summary judgment on the first element of the monopoly offense, the possession of monopoly power. Kodak's contention that, as a matter of law, a single brand of a product
or service can never be a relevant market contravenes cases of this Court indicating that one brand of a product can constitute a separate market in some instances. The proper market definition in this case can be determined only after a factual inquiry into the commercial realities faced by Kodak equipment owners. Pp. 481-482.
(b) As to the second element of a $2 claim, the willful use of monopoly power, respondents have presented evidence that Kodak took exclusionary action to maintain its parts monopoly and used its control over parts to strengthen its monopoly share of the service market. Thus, liability turns on whether valid business reasons can explain Kodak's actions. However, none of its asserted business justifications—a commitment to quality service, a need to control inventory costs, and a desire to prevent ISO's from free-riding on its capital investment—are sufficient to prove that it is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law.
Pp. 482-486. 903 F. 2d 612, affirmed.
BLACKMUN, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which REHNQUIST, C. J., and WHITE, STEVENS, KENNEDY, and SOUTER, JJ., joined. SCALIA, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which O'CONNOR and THOMAS, JJ., joined, post, p. 486.
Donn P. Pickett argued the cause for petitioner. With him on the briefs were Daniel M. Wall, Alfred C. Pfeiffer, Jr., and Jonathan W. Romeyn.
Assistant Attorney General Rill argued the cause for the United States as amicus curiae urging reversal. With him on the brief were Solicitor General Starr, Deputy Solicitor General Wallace, Christopher J. Wright, Catherine G. O'Sullivan, and Robert B. Nicholson.
James A. Hennefer argued the cause for respondents. With him on the brief were A. Kirk McKenzie, Douglas E. Rosenthal, Jonathan M. Jacobson, and Elinor R. Hoffmann.*
*Briefs of amici curiae urging reversal were filed for the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association by Simon Lazarus III; for Digital Equipment Corp. et al. by Kurt W. Melchior, Robert A. Skitol, James A. Meyers, Marcia Howe Adams, Ivor Cary Armistead III, Ronald A. Stern, Stephen Wasinger, James W. Olson, Carter G. Phillips, Ralph I. Miller, and Florinda J. Iascone; for the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the United States, Inc., by Thomas B. Leary, William H.