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Faunus who, however, only says that it was placed, not found, at the Ficus Ruminalis by the Comilium , by which he does not seem to allude to the church of Saint Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the mistake , and Winkelmann followed Rycquius.
Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and says he had heard the wolf with the twins was found * near the arch of Septimius Severus. The commentator on Winkelmann is of the same opinion with that learned person, and is incensed at Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero , in speaking of the wolf struck wilh lightning in the Capitol , makes use of the past tense, But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and , if he had, the assumption would not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate himself is obliged to own that there are marks very like the scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured.
Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems to particularize the Romulus and the Remus, especially the first, which his audience remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being struck with lightning. In his verses he records that the twins-and wolf both fell, and that the latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the wolf was consumed ; and Dion only mentions that it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore , of the Abate's argument hangs upon the past tense ; which, however, may be somewhat diminished by remarking that the phrase only shews that the statue was not then standing in its former position. Winkelmann has observed, that the present twins are modern; and it is equally clear that there are marks of gilding on the wolf, which might therefore be supposed to make part
*«Intesi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronzo, che oggi si trova nella sala di Campidoglio; fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio; e vi fu trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che allata Romolo e Remo, e stà nella Loggia de conservatori.» Flam. Vaoca. Memorie, num. iii. pag. i. ap. Montfaucon diar Ital. tom. i.
of the ancient group. It is known that the sacred images of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by time or accident, but were put into certain underground depositaries called favissce. * It may be thought possible that the wolf had been so depositedand had been replaced in some conspicuous situation when the Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian. Rycquius, without mentioning his authority , tells that it was transferred from the Comilum to the Lateran , and thence brought to the Capitol. If it was found near the arch of Severus, it may have been one of the images which Orosius ** says was thrown down in the Forum by lightning when Alaric took the city. That it is of very high antiquity the workmanship is a decisive proof; and that circumstance induced Winkelmann to believe it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitoline wolf, however, may have been of the same early date as that at the temple of Romulus. Lactantius *** asserts that in his time the Romans worhipped a wolf; and it is known that the Lupercalia held out to a very late period t after every other observance of the ancient superstition had totally expired. This may account for the preservation of the ancient image longer than tho other early symbols of Paganism.
It may be permitted , however, to remark that the wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the worship of that symbol is an inference
* Luc. Faun. ibid.
*** «Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta divinis, et ferrem si animal ipsum fuisset, cujus figuram gerit. » Lactant. de falsa religione. Lib. i. cap. 20. page 101. edit. varior. 1660 ; that is to say, he would rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. His commentator has observed that the opinion of Livy concerning Laurenlia being figured in this wolf was not universal. Strabo thought so. Rycqutus is wrong in saying that Lactantius mentions that the wolf was in the Capitol.
* To A. D. 496. Quis credere possit, says Baronius, [Am. Eccle. tom. viii. p. 602. in an. 496.] «viguisse adhuc Romæ ad Gelasii lempora, quæ fuere ante exordia urbis aliata in Italiam Lupercalia?» Gelasius wrole a letter which occupies four folio pages to Andromachus, the senator, and others, to shew that the rites should be given up.
drawn by the zeal of Lactantius. The early Christian writers are not to be trusted in the charges which they make against the Pagans. Eusebius accuted the Romans to their faces of worshipping Simon Magus, and raising a statue to him in the island of the Tyber. The Romans had probably never heard of such a person before, who came, however to play a considerable , though scandalous part in the church history, and has left several tokens of his aerial combat with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding that an inscription found in this very island of the Tyber shewed the Simon Magus of Eusebius to be a certain indigenal god , called Semo Sangus or Fidius. *
Even when the worship of the founder of Rome had been abandoned, it was thought expedient to humour the habits of the good matrons of the city by sending them with their sick infants to the church of Saint Theodore, as they had before carried them to the temple of Romulus. † The practice is continued to this day; and the site of the above church seems to be thereby identified with that of the temple : so that if the wolf had been really found there, as Winkelmann says there would be no doubt of the present statue being that seen by Dionysius S But Faunus , in saying that it was
* Eusebius has these words; rad av epocévto tue u peão as feos , TEτίμηται, εν τώ τίβερι ποταμό μεταξύ των δυο γεφυρών, ήχων επιγpac@ajo pa pecivojv taúruv Elpewus déw Edyxlw. Ecclesi. Hist. Lib. ii. cap. xiii. p. 40. Justin Martyr had told the story before; hut Baronius himself was obliged to detect this fable. See Nardini Roma Vet. lib. vii. cap. xii.
+ «In essa gli antichi pontefici per toglier la memoria de' giuochi Lupercali istituiti in onore di Romolo, introdussero l'uso di portarvi Bambini oppressi da infermità occulte, acciò si liberino per l'intercessione di questo Santo, come di continuo si sperimenta.» Rione xii. Ripa accurata e succinta descrizione, etc. di Roma Moderna dell'Ab. Ridolf. Venuti, 1966.
$ Nardini: lib. v. cap. 11. convicts Pomponius Lætus crassi erroris, in putting the Ruminal fig-tree at the church of Saint Theodore : but, as Livy says, the wolf was at the Ficus Rumialis, and Dionysius at the temple of Romulus, he is obliged, (cap. iv.) to own that the two were close together, as well as the Lupercal cave, shaded, as it were, by the fig-tree.
at The Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium , is only talking of ils ancient position as recorded by Pliny ; and even if he had been remarking where it was found , would not have alluded to the church of Saint Theodore , but to a very different place, near which it was then thought the Ficus Ruminalis had been , and also the Comitium; that is, the three columns by the church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, at the corner of the Palatine looking on the Forum.
It is in fact, a mere conjecture where the image was aclually dug up,* and perhaps, on the whole, the marks of the, gilding and of the lightning, are a better argument in favour of its being the Ciceronian wolf than any that can be adduced for the contrary opinion. At any rate, it is reasonably selected in the text of the poem as one of the most interesting relics of the ancient city , ** and is certainly the figure, if not the very animal to which Virgil alludes in his beautiful verses :
« Geminos huic ubera ciacum
For the Roman's mind
*« Ad comitium ficus olim Ruminalis germinabat, sub qua lupæ ruman, hoc est, mammam, docente Varrone, suxerant olim Romulus et Remus, non procul a templo hodie D. Mariæ Liberatricis appellato ubi forsan inventa nobilis illa ænea stalua lupæ geminos puerulos lactantis, quam hodie in capitolis videmus. » Olai Borrichii antiqua Urbis Romana facies, cap. x. See also cap xii. Borrichius 'wrole after Nardini in 1637. Ap. Græv. Antiq. Rom. tom. iv. p. 1522.
** Donalus, lib. xi. cap. 18. gives a medal representing on one side the wolf in the same position as that in the Capitol; and in the reverse the wolf with the head not reverted. It is of the time of Antoninus Pius.
*** AEn. viji. 631. Sec-Dr, Middleton, in his Letter from Rome,
. rior to Julius Cæsar, the most complete character, so Lord Bacon thought, of all antiquity. Nature seems incapable of such extraordinary combinations as composed his versatile capacity, which was the wonder even of the Romans themselves. The first general -the only triumphant politician-inferior to none in eloquencecomparable to any in the attainments of wisdom, in an age made up of the greatest commanders, statesmen, orators and philosophers that ever appeared in the world—an author who composed a perfect specimen of military annals in his travelling carriage at one time in a controversy with Cato, at another writing a treatise on punning, and collecting a set of good sayings — fighting * and making love at the same moment, and willing to abandon both his empire and his mistress for a sight of the Fountains of the Nile. Such did Julius Cæsar appear to his cotemperaries and to those of the subsequent ages, who were the most inclined to deplore and execrate his fatal genius.
who inclines to the Ciceronian wolf, but without examining the subject.
*In his tenth book, Lucan shews bim sprinkled with the blood of Pharsalia in the arms of Cleopatra,
Sanguine Thessalicæ cladis perfusus adulter
Admisit Venerem curis, et miscuit armis. After feasting with his mistress, he sits up all night to conyerse with the Ægyplian sages, and tells Achoreus,
Spes sit mihi certa videndi Niliacos fontes, bellum civile relinquam. « Sic velut in tuta securi pace trahebant
Noctis iter medium. » Immediately afterwards, he is fighting again and defending every position,
« Sed adest defensor ubique