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all in or about them their very movements in accordance with this style or character, and all bearing its impress strongly -make this Holland, to my eye, no dull, unimpressive land. There is soul in all you see; the strongly marked character about every thing Dutch pleases intellectually, as much as beauty of form itself. What else is the charm so universally felt, requiring so little to be acquired, of the paintings of the Dutch school? The objects or scenes painted are neither graceful, nor beautiful, nor sublime; but they are Dutch. They have a strongly marked mind and character impressed on them, and expresed by them; and every accompaniment in the picture has the same, and harmonises with all around it.

one.

The Hollander has a decided taste for the romantic: great amateurs are the Mynheers of the rural. Every Dutchman above the necessity of working to-day for the bread of to-morrow has his garden-house (Buyteplaats) in the suburbs of his town (for the Dutch population lives very much in towns surrounded by wet ditches), and repairs to it on Saturday evening with his family, to ruralise until Monday over his pipe of tobacco. Dirk Hatterick, we are told, did so. It is the main extravagance of the Dutch middle-class man, and it is often an expensive This garden-house is a wooden box gaily painted, of eight or ten feet square; its name, "My Delight," or "Rural Felicity," or " Sweet Solitude," stuck up in gilt tin letters on the front; and situated usually at the end of a narrow slip of ground inclosed on three sides with well-trimmed hedges and slimy ditches, and overhanging the canal, which forms the boundary of the garden plot on its fourth side. The slip of land is laid out in flower beds, all the flowers in one bed being generally of one kind and colour; and the brilliancy of these large masses of flowers the white and green paint work and the gilding about the garden houses and a row of those glittering fairy summer lodges, shining in the sun upon the side of the wide canal, and swimming in humid brilliancy in the midst of plots and parterres of splendid flowers, and with the accompaniments of gaily dressed

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ladies at the windows-swiftly passing pleasure boats with bright burnished sides below, and a whole city population afloat, or on foot, enjoying themselves in their holyday clothes-form, in truth, a summer evening scene which one dwells upon with much delight. I pity the taste which can stop to inquire if all this human enjoyment be in good taste or bad taste, vulgar or refined. I stuff my pipe, hire a boatman to row ine in his schuytje up the canal to a tea garden, and pass the evening as Dutchly and happily as my fellow-men.

Holland is the land of the chivalry of the middle classes. Here they may say in honest pride, to the hereditary lords and nobles of the earth in the other countries of Europe, See what we grocers, fishcurers, and shipowners have done in days of yore, in this little country! But, alas! this glory is faded. In the deserted streets of Delft, and Leyden, and Haarlem, the grass is growing through the seams of the brick pavements; the ragged petticoat flutters in the wind out of the drawingroom casements of a palace; the echo of wooden shoes clattering through empty saloons, tells of past magnificence of actual indigence. This has been a land of warlike deed, of high and independent feeling; the home of patriots, of heroes, of scholars, of philosophers, of men of science, of artists, of the persecuted for religious or political opinions from every country, and of the generous spirits who patronised and protected them. Why is the Holland of our times no longer that old Holland of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Why are her streets silent, her canals green with undisturbed slime?

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The greatness of Holland was founded upon commercial prosperity and capital, not upon productive industry. Her capital and industry were not em

* The herring fishery of Holland has usually been represented as the branch of productive industry from which her wealth was drawn. Amsterdam is founded, we are told, on herring bones. Sir William Temple, and all political economists since his day, have indulged in gross exaggerations of the importance and value of this branch of productive industry; and our government has scarcely

ployed in producing what ministers to human wants and gratifications; but in transmitting what other

yet thrown off the mania of legislating, by bounties, boards, and regulations, for an unnatural extension of the British herring fishery — unnatural because it is production beyond consumption, and is forced by bounties beyond the demand for the article. The following is the present state of the Dutch herring fishery; viz. In 1841

Flardingen has fitted out. 79 busses.

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Now suppose each buss to stow 400 barrels-and they are not vessels which can stow more, being small, and lumbered with their nets and provisions - and suppose each to make two trips, and to be a full ship each trip; this outfit will produce, after all, only 98,400 barrels of herrings, or about double of the quantity usually cured in the county of Caithness. We have no reason to suppose that the real effective market for herrings was ever more extensive than it is now. By dint of bounties, no doubt, the Dutch may have sent out more busses, and cured more fish formerly; but if this increased production was forced beyond the demand and consumption, and the loss made good by the bounty to the producer, which is precisely the working of our bounty system, in all things as well as in herrings, the country was no gainer by this surplus of production beyond a consumption at a reproductive price. Suppose, in the highest state of prosperity of the Dutch herring fishery, that they had the number of busses at sea which flourish before our eyes in the pamphlets innumerable on the Dutch herring fishery-say that they had 600 or 800, say 1200 sail in any one year, and all full ships; this gives us but 960,000 barrels of herrings, worth about as many pounds sterling. This is probably one third more of this kind of food than all the markets, including the Russian and West Indian, ever consumed in one year; but throw it all to the credit of the Dutch herring fishery as clear gain, still it is no great item of national wealth and production, It is at best a small thing magnified by bounty-fishers into a source of great national wealth.

countries produced, or manufactured, from one country to another. She was their broker. When their capitals, applied at first more beneficially to productive industry, had grown large enough to enter also into the business of circulation, as well as into that of production into commerce, properly so called-the prosperity of Holland, founded upon commerce alone, unsupported by a basis of productive industry within herself, and among the mass of her own population, fell to the ground. This is the history of Holland. It speaks an important lesson to nations.

The world has witnessed the decline of commercial greatness in Venice, in Genoa, in Florence, in the Hans Towns, in Holland-of military greatness in Rome, France, Sweden, Prussia; but has yet to learn whether productive greatness, that which is founded upon the manufacturing industry of a people in all the useful arts, be equally fleeting. It seems to rest upon principles in political philosophy of a more stable nature. It is more bound to soil and locality by natural circumstances. The useful metals, coals, fire-power, waterpower, harbours, easy transport by sea and land, a climate favourable to outdoor labour in winter and summer, are advantages peculiar to certain districts of the earth, and are not to be forced by the power of capital into new localities. Markets may be established any where, but not manufactures. Human character also, in the large, is formed by human employment, and is only removable with it. The busy, active, industrious spirit of a population trained to quick work, and energetic exertion of every power, in the competition of a manufacturing country, is an unchangeable moral element in its national prosperity, founded upon productive industry. Look at an Englishman at his work, and at one of these Dutchmen, or at any other European man. It is no exaggeration to say, that one million of our working men do more work in a twelvemonth, act more, think more, get through more, pro

than any three millions in Europe, in the same space of time; and in this sense I hold it to be no vulgar exaggeration that the Englishman is equal to three or to four of the men of any other country. Transplant these men to England; and under the same impulse to exertion, and expeditious working habits, which quickens the English working class, they also would exceed their countrymen at home in productiveness. It is not in the human animal, but in the circumstances in which he is placed, that this most important element of national prosperity, this general habit of quick, energetic, persevering activity, resides; and these circumstances, formed by nature, are not to be forced into any country, independently of natural agency, by mere dint of capital.

How little the mass of the people of the Seven United Provinces, the boors or peasants, or even the burgesses of the middle and lower classes, had been acted upon by the wealth and prosperity of the commercial class in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, may be seen in their dwellings, furniture, clothing, and enjoyments and habits of civilised life. These are all of the make, material, and age prior to the rise of the opulence and power of Holland-of the age of Queen Elizabeth-and have remained, unchanged and unimproved, until that power and opulence have fallen again to the level from which they rose. A commercial class, an aristocracy of capitalists, numerous perhaps as a moneyed body, but nothing as a national mass, were alone acted upon by this commercial prosperity; and when trade gradually removed to other countries, the Dutch capitalist, without changing his domicile, easily transferred his capital to where the use of it was wanted and profitable. Holland remains a country full of capitalists and paupers; her wealth giving little employment, comparatively, to her own population in productive industry, and adding little to their prosperity, wellbeing, and habits of activity in producing and enjoying the objects of civilised life.

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