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arrived was, that as Captain Wilkes key of the blockade had at last been had proceeded on his own convictions lost. These prospects were disappointof duty without instructions from the ed by the weakness of the government government, as he had not brought the at Washington, in surrendering the Trent in as a prize and to be judged of commissioners and returning them to by the proper court, and as what was the British flag. The surrender was claimed by England was precisely what an exhibition of meanness and cowarthe United States had always been dice unparalleled in the political hiscontending for, the rebel ambassadors tory of the civilized world, but strongly would be placed at once at the disposal characteristic of the policy and mind of the British minister. This was done of the North.”* This same writer inat the close of the month, and the great dulges in various other paragraphs on and formidable difficulty arising out this subject, berating Secretary Seward of the Trent affair was settled without for his “unexampled shamelessness," resort to hostilities between England his contemptible affectation of alacand the United States.

rity,” etc.; but we need not quote The disappointment to the rebels further. There can be no doubt that was extreme. They had exulted in the the course pursued by the government prospective advantages sure to come to grievously disappointed our country's them in case war were to break out enemies at home and abroad. between the two countries.* “This! The language of the London Times (January 11, outrage," says Pollard, “when it was 1862), as illustrating to some extent the prevailing

tone of feeling in England in regard to these rebel learned in the South, was welcome

commissioners, may fitly be given in closing the news, as it was thought certain that the present chapter:-“We do sincerely hope that our British government would resent the countrymen will not give these fellows anything in

the shape of an ovation. The civility that is due insult, and as the boastful and exultant

to a foe in distress is all that they can claim. We tone in the North, over the capture of have returned them good for evil, and, sooth to say, the commissioners, appeared to make we should be exceedingly sorry that they should it equally certain that the government will make for the good we have now done them.

ever be in a situation to choose what return they at Washington would not surrender its They are here for their own interest, in order, if posbooty. War between England and the sible, to drag us into their own quarrel, and, but for

the unpleasant contingencies of a prison, rather disNorth was thought to be imminent.

appointed, perhaps, that their detention has not Providence was declared to be in our

provoked a new war. When they stepped on board favor; the incident of the Trent was the Trent they did not trouble themselves with the looked upon almost as a special dispen

thought of the mischief they might be doing an un

offending neutral; and if now, by any less perilous sation, and it was said, in fond imagi.

devices, they could entangle us in the war, no doubt pation, that on its deck, and in the they would be only too happy. We trust there is

no chance of their doing this, for impartial as the trough of the weltering Atlantic, the

British public is in the matter, it certainly has no

" The bubblo has burst. The rage of the friends of never expected anything better from the cowardly and compromise, and of the South, who saw in a war with braggart statesmen who now rule in Washington."Great Britain the complete success of the confederacy, Russell's “ My Diary North and South," p. 593. is deep and burning, if not loud ; but they all say they *First Year of the War,” p. 208.

1. VI.J

IMPORTANCE OF THE NAVY.

75

prejudice in favor of slavery, which, if anything, commissioners come up quietly to town and have these gentlemen represent. What they and their their say with anybody who may have time to listen secretaries are to do here passes our conjecture. to them. For our part, we cannot see how anything They are personally nothing to us. They must not they have to tell can turn the scale of British duty suppose, because we have gone to the verge of a and deliberation. There have been so many cases great war to rescue them, that therefore they are of people and nations establishing an actual indeprecious in our eyes. We should have done just as pendence, and compelling the recognition of the much to rescue two of their own degroes; and had world, that all we have to do is what we have dono that been the object of the rescue, the swarthy Pom- before, up to the very last year. This is now a simpey and Cæsar would have had just the same right ple matter of precedent. Our statesmen and lawto triumphal arches and municipal addresses as yers know quite as much on the subject as Messrs. Messrs. Mason and Slidell. So, please, British Mason and Slidell, and are in no need of their inforpublic, let's have none of these things. Let the mation or arlvice."*

CHAPTER VI.

1861.

NAVAL AND MILITARY OPERATIONS DURING LATTER HALF OF THE YEAR.

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The Navy - Expedition to Hatteras Inlet under Stringham and Butler - Its importance — Reduction of the forts

- Valuable results of the victory gained — Repression here of blockade running - Fort Pickens — Rebels at Pensacola -- Operations there — Wilson's Zouaves attacked — The rebel batteries and works bombarded - Result -- Mouth of the Mississippi - Semmes and the Sumter — Ram Manassas — Attack on our ships — Capt. Hollins' report - Great preparations for another expedition - Sails under Dupont and Sherman for Port Royal — Bombardment of the forts at Hilton Head - Tremendous force and effect of our firing - Com. plete success — The “stone fleet" - Gen. T. W. Sherman in South Carolina – Efforts to secure the cotton Negroes and plans for their improvement - Sherman's expedition against Port Royal Ferry – Affairs in Missouri - Colonel Sigel - Battle near Carthage — Result - Sigel retreats before Price to Springfield — Gen. Lyon determines to meet Price — Insufficiency of his force — Rebels driven at Dug Springs — Return to Springfield — Plans of the generals — Sigel's movement - Lyon fights battle of Wilson's Creek or Oak Hill — Lyon killed - Severe loss — Gen. Fremont in Missouri — Activity and zeal - Cairo and Bird's Point reinforced — Fremont's proclamation and course - Battle of Lexington -- Fremont marches after Price Superseded by Hunter - No battle – Pursuit abandoned — Retreat - Halleck in command - Proclamation - Success of our troops — Gen. Grant and Belmont - The attack and result — Rebel success and boasting - General effect beneficial to cause of the Union.

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THE navy of the United States, which / and for recovering, so soon as might had become already quite numerous be, the several points of importance and formidable, was increased as rapid-along the coast, which had been seized ly as possible, and was henceforth des- upon or occupied by secessionists, fitted tined to exercise a powerful influence in out expeditions, at an early period, the great struggle for national preserva- which, in their results, were of the tion.t The government, in carrying greatest service to the cause of the out its plans for crushing the rebellion, Union. This service was not only in

* See McPherson's History of the Rebellion,” pp. + See Dr. Boynton's "History of the Navy during the 338-343.

| Rebellion,” vol. i., p. 89, etc.

what was actually accomplished against essential articles of foreign production the rebels, but also in demonstrating and utility. the power of our ships in operations. The expedition sailed from Hampton against forts ... the land, as well as the Roads, August 26th, and the next afterexcellent general efficiency of the navy. noon anchored off the Inlet. At day

During the month of August, an ex- light, on the 28th, arrangements were pedition, partiy military and partly made for landing che troops and for atnaval, was fitted out at Fortress Mon- tacking the forts by the fleet. A heavy

roe, the destination of which, swell upon the beach prevented the 1861.

• for obvious reasons, was kept landing of any number of the soldiers secret. It consisted of nearly 900 that day. About ten A.M., the fleet troops, well supplied and under com- opened fire on Fort Hatteras and maud of General Butler, who had, on continued it till half past one, P.M., the 13th, been relieved at the fort by when both forts hauled down their General Wool; the naval portion of flags, and the rebels deserted Fort Clark, the expedition was three large steam- which was taken possession of by our frigates and some eight or ten other men and the Union flag raised. Later vessels, with Commodore Stringham in in the day and early the next morning, command. Its destination, as it turned the bombardment was resumed, and out, was Hatteras Inlet, one of the told fearfully upon Hatteras. The rebel most important entrances to the exten- firing was of no great account, most of sive series of navigable waters on the their shot falling short, and the gun river coast of North Carolina, through ners being evidently wanting in skill. the long range of sand islands which | About eleven o'clock, a white flag was here serve as a barrier against the wild raised from the fort, and Capt. Barron, waves of the Atlantic. There were at the time in command, though formseveral of these passages-a sballow erly an officer in our navy, offered to one above at New Inlet, a near ap- surrender on condition of being allowed proach to Albemarle Sound; another of to retire with the garrison. Such terms more consequence below at Ocracoke; were of course refused, and as the case but this at Hatteras, bard by the light. was hopeless, Barron concluded to sur. house at the Cape, was of most value. render on Gen. Butler's propositiou, It was guarded by two protecting forts which was to give up everything and -Hatteras and Clark-recently erected be treated as prisoners of war. The by the rebels, and its deep harbor had result was, the capturing of 615 men, become notorious as a refuge for priva- with Barron, at that date acting secreteers, and an entrance for various trad. tary of the confederate navy, and ing vessels running the blockade. Major Bradford, chief of the confederate Evidently, it was necessary to deprive ordnance department; also, 1,000 stand the rebels, as soon as possible, of so of arms, 31 pieces of cannon, and a convenient a place for trade and supply. large quantity of provisions and stores, ing North Carolina and Virginia with Our loss was trifling; and so well bad

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Cu. VI.]

REDUCTION OF FORTS HATTERAS AND CLARK.

77

the secret of the expedition been kept, The government speedily sent 500 that, for several days thereafter, block- additional troops to Hatteras, under ade runners from various quarters came Gen. Mansfield, who, soon after, was into the Inlet, and were readily taken succeeded by Gen. Thomas Williams. by our vessels.

Excellent services were rendered to the The success of this expedition was blockading squadron ; the illicit comcheering in the extreme to the friends merce of the enemy was checked, and of the Union. The secretary of the an occasional prize taken. But the navy, under date of September 2d, most prominent, if not the most im. congratulated the officers and men on portant event at Hatteras, was the their gallantry; and it was universally political assembly of the loyal inbabitfelt that the naval arm of the service ants of the island. Though necessarily was about to be, as it proved to be, of but a limited demonstration, and quite the utmost importance and efficiency in insignificant as an encroachment upon putting an end to the rebellion. the vast area which secession had gotten

The forts were held and garrisoned hold of, yet it attracted attention, a by our troops, the steamer Monticello was the means of arousing the sym: and the steam-tug Fanny being retained pathies of the North. We may menat the Inlet to keep off the rebel gun. tion, that a convention of delegates asboats, and capture vessels attempting sembled and proclaimed their loyalty to run the blockade. Fort Ocracoke, to the Union; and some 4,000 of the on Beacon Island, having been aban. poorer people, mostly fishermen, on the doned by the rebels, was destroyed narrow strip of land on the coast, claim. entirely by our men, September 16th. ed the aid and comfort of Union men Colonel Hawkins, then in command, at the North. In November, a provi. having been reinforced, sent a body of sional government was formed, and a men to break up the works of the enemy representative to Congress elected. at a point about twenty miles north- That body, however, did not see fit to east of the Inlet, and to afford protec- admit him among its members. tion to the professed Unionists in that. The importance of Fort Pickens to quarter. The Fanny, on her way with the cause of the Union, and the gallansupplies, was attacked and taken by try by which it had been preserved from rebel vessels, October 2d. It was then falling into rebel hands, we have already determined to try and capture the noted. (See vol. iii., p. 563.) Colonel troops under Colonel Brown, who made Harvey Brown, an excellent and exa hasty retreat, losing some fifty strag-perienced officer, arrived, April 16th, glers on the road. This was on the with reinforcements, and by the close 4th of October; but the next day the of the month, the fort was garrisoned Monticello came upon the rebels, who with about 900 men. Diligent and were severely punished by the shells persevering labor was bestowed upon thrown among them and into their ves strengthening the works in every respect sels for several hours in succession. possible. New reinforcements arrived

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at the end of June, consisting of “ Billy something at least. Accordingly, on Wilson's” Zouaves ; so that, with seve. the night of the 8th of October, they ral vessels of the blockading squadron started with 1,200 men to make an atat hand, the fort was in such a state tack on the camp of Wilson's Zouaves, of readiness as to meet any attack situate about two miles from Fort the rebels might venture upon. They Pickens. The attack was well planned, had gathered a formidable force of some and they came upon the camp long beeight thousand men at Pensacola, under fore daylight, and roused the sleeping Gen. B. Bragg, and apparently, were Zouaves out of their apparent security. only waiting an opportunity to drive | The rebel force succeeded in burning out or capture our troops. Weeks and nearly all the tents; but the Zou months, however, slipped by, and en-speedily rallied, and with the aid of tertaining a salutary apprehension of some companies from the fort, soon the ability of Fort Pickens, the rebels drove the rebels back in great confuundertook almost nothing offensive; sion. At daylight, the pursuit was and, in due time, abandoned Pensacola continued, and the invading force, in entirely.

fearful disorder and consequent loss On the part of our officers and men, from the well-directed attacks of our there was a strong desire to do some men, skillfully taking advantage of the thing more than merely act on the de protecting sand hills, and familiar in. fensive, which latter was ordered by equalities of the ground, was driven the government. Early in September, off to their landing place, where, emthe dry dock, which had been placed barking in their boats they were further by the rebels so as to obstruct the pursued by the rifle shots of the regu. channel, was set fire to by a small but lars, thrown among their solid masses. resolute force and completely destroyed. The enemy's loss was severe, a hundred Soon after, Lieutenant Russell with a or more being killed and wounded; on picked force of a hundred men, at half. our side, the loss was about fifty, 14 past three A.M., made an attack upon being killed and the rest wounded. the Judah which lay off the navy yard Colonel Brown, indignant at the atand was being fitted out as a privateer. tack recently made, and feeling assured Proceeding in four boats, they boarded of his ability to assault the enemy to the schooner, set her on fire, and escap. good purpose, called upon Flag-Officer ed with a loss of three killed and twelve McKean to co-operate, and determined wounded. This successful feat, occupy- to open fire on the 22d of November. ing only a quarter of an hour, was pro- | The flag-ship Niagara and the sloop of nounced by the rebels themselves, a war Richmond took part in the bom thousand of whom were quartered at bardment, although owing to want of the navy yard, as the most daring and sufficient depth of water they were not well-executed achievement of the year. able to render all the service otherwise The gallantıy of our men seems to in their power. A few minutes before bave stirred up the rebels to attempt ten, on the day appointed, Col. Brown

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