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denounced them as base forgeries.* tion for the attack by citizens, claiming The results of the expedition, although to be non-combatants, upon Col. Dahl. not what was hoped for, were substan. gren, Butler, a few days after, sent a tially as follows: the breaking up of cavalry force, under Col. Onder several miles of railroad of great im- donk and Col. Spear, to King portance to the rebels, the destroying and Queen Court House, where was a of several million dollars' worth of camp of the enemy, which was destroy. stores, and the capturing between 300 ed and a number killed. A large quan. and 400 prisoners.

tity of grain, and several mills and As a kind of well-deserved retalia- store houses were burnt.

These operations, of which we have * For the papers referred to above, see Appleton's given an account in the present chapAmerican Annual Cyclopædia" for 1864, pp. 66, 67. Pollard gives an account of what he calls Dahlgren's ter, were of no great moment, and on raid around Richmond, and is perfectly furious in the the whole, being more favorable to the language he uses. “Savage and atrocious," " brazen rebels than usual afforded them onnor lies, audacious recrimination, and the stereotypes of Yankee hypocrisy," "ludicrous cowardice," and the

tunity of self-laudation and boasting to like, form a part of his stock-in-trade. He is ready to a considerable extent. The main cur swear to the authenticity of the papers, which “show the fiendish purpose of Dahlgren's expectation, and rent

rent of the war, however, was very revealed to the startled sensibilities of the people of slightly affected by what bad taken Richmond the horrors which they had narrowly escap place, and it became evident to the cd.” They who place any value upon Pollard's oath in the present case, respecting the “Yankee plot of careful observer, that other and far incendiarism and murder, challenging comparison with weightier trials of strength must be the atrocities of the darkest ages," may consult this fire-eating writer's Third Year of the War,” pp.

had, before results of any decisive cha288-245.

| racter could be attained.

CH. VIII.]

GEN. BANKS'S MOVEMENT.

409

CHAPTER VIII.

1864.

DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF: FORREST'S RAID AND FORT PILLOW MASSACRE.

Measures taken to organize a state government for Louisiana — Proclamation of Gen. Banks - Election of

governor, etc. — Joint military and naval operations in Western Louisiana - Porter and the gun boats Gen. A. J. Smith and his force - Fort De Russy taken - Alexandria occupied - Natchitoches taken Advance upon Shreveport - Battle at Pleasant Hill — The rebels at Sabine Cross Roads - Our forces badly repulsed - Banks falls back — The struggle the next day -- Retreat ordered to Alexandria - Gen. Steele and campaign in Arkansas - Porter and the gun boats at the falls of Alexandria — Successful engineering - Banks returns to New Orleans - Forrest and his raiders — Union City surrendered by Haw. kins - Paducah attacked — Rebels driven off — Forrest's assault on Fort Pillow — Condition of the fort and garrison - Narrative of the assault – Shocking murders — Quotation from report of investigating committee sent by Congress — Infamous conduct of the rebels -- Plymouth, North Carolina, captured by Hoke and his men – Washington evacuated — Ram Albemarle attacked by our gun boats -- The result.

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GEN. BANKS, who was in command must be suspended, and they are hereby of the department of the Gulf, gave declared to be inoperative and void.” earnest attention, at the beginning of The oath of allegiance required by Prethe year, to the movement which consident Lincoln's proclamation, with the templated the formation of a state gov- condition affixed to the elective fran

e rnment for Louisiana. On the chise by the constitution of Louisiana, 1864.

** 8th of January, a Free State were prescribed as the qualifications Convention was held at New Orleans, of voters. The officers elected were to which both endorsed the course of the be installed on the 4th of Marcb; and president, and urged the immediate another election was appointed for adoption of measures for restoring the delegates to a convention to revise the state to its old place in the Union. constitution of the state, on the first Banks thereupon, on the 11th of Janu. Monday in April. ary, issued a proclamation, providing On the 3d of February, Banks is for the election, on the 22d of February, sued an important order relative to the of a governor and other state officers, enforcement and compensation of negro who were to “constitute the civil gov. labor on the plantations. The matter ernment of the state, under the Consti- was placed under the direction of the tution and laws of Louisiana, except so provost-marshals in the several par. much of the said Constitution and laws ishes; hours of labor were prescribed, as recognize, regulate, or relate to slav. just and equitable treatment required; cry, which being inconsistent with the flogging and cruel punishments interpresent condition of public affairs, and dicted, etc. A passage or two towards prainly inapplicable to any class of the close of this order may here be quopersons now existing within its limits, I ted: “It is a solemn duty resting upon

VOL. IV.–52.

OU

all persons to assist in the earliest pos- stitution was prepared, by a clause of sible restoration of civil government. which slavery was forever abolished in Let them participate in the measures the state; the convention adjourned in suggested for this purpose. Opinion July; and the constitution was adoptis free, and candidates are numerous. ed by the people on the 5th of SeptemOpen hostility cannot be permitted. ber, by a vote of 6,836 to 1,566. Four Indifference will be treated as crime, persons as members of Congress and a and faction as treason. ...i. The legislature were chosen at the same oath of allegiance, administered and re- time, who were mostly in favor of a free ceived in good faith, is the test of un- state. The authority, however, of the conditional fealty to the government re-organized state was very limited; and and all its measures, and cannot be ma. President Lincoln was censured by poterially strengthened or impaired by litical opponents, on the charge of unthe language in which it is clothed. | justifiable interference with the affairs The amnesty offered for the past is con. of the people of Louisiana.* ditioned upon an unreserved loyalty for Early in the year, a joint military and the future, and this condition will be naval expedition was planned, in order, enforced with an iron hand. Whoever by a vigorous effort, to open Western is indifferent or hostile must choose be- Louisiana to trade, and to sweep away tween the liberty which foreign lands all rebel opposition in that part of the afford, the poverty of the rebel states, state, and if possible in Texas likewise. and the innumerable and inappreciable All the available force of the army and blessings which our government confers navy in this department was put in reupon its people. May God preserve quisition, and the purpose was to move the Union of the States !”

up the Red River as far as Shreveport, The election for state officers was where the rebels had concentrated large held on the 22d of February; over supplies, and where it was intended 10,000 votes were cast within those Gen. Steele should unite with the expe. parishes guarded by our troops; and dition with all the forces he could colthe Hon. Michael Hahn was elected lect in Arkansas. In the beginning of governor on the free state ticket. The March, during which and the following inauguration took place on the 4th of month the Red River had sufficient wa March, in New Orleans, amid imposing ter to float the largest class of vesseis, ceremonies and public rejoicing. Gov. the troops advanced from New Orleans Ilahn was also invested, on the 15th through the Teche country to Alexanof March, by President Lincoln, with dria.t Meanwhile, Admiral Porter had the powers exercised hitherto by the military governor of Louisiana. We * Mr. Raymond, in his “ Life of Abraham Lincoln,"

p. 490, repels this charge as unfounded. may also mention, in this connection, +Gen. Grant, who had assumed the position of comthat nearly 100 delegates baving been mander-in-chief of all the armies of the l'nited States, elected, the convention met in New Or

subsequent to the organization of this Red River ex.

pedition, sent Banks various instructions, etc., hog'ing leans, on the 6th of April; a new con- | that he might be successful, and might be a ble speeli'y

In the beginnin

The

act in Arkansas.

e free state ticket.

CH. VIII.

THE RED RIVER EXPEDITION.

411

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collected, at the mouth of the Red then given to charge, which was sucRiver, the most formidable fleet of gun cessfully accomplished. Between 200 hoats ever seen in the western waters. and 300 prisoners were made, including There were twenty powerfully armed twenty-four commissioned officers. Ten steamers of all classes, from the light to guns were taken, beside 2,000 barrels the beaviest draft.

of powder, 1,000 muskets, etc., with a On the 10th of March, Gen. A. J. loss, on our part, of only four killed Smith left Vicksburg, with about 10,- and thirty wounded. Several of the 000 men, in twenty transports, and the gun boats arrived just after the surren next day joined Porter and his fleet at der of the fort. the mouth of the Red River. The day. The way was now open to Alexan 1864. e following, Saturday the 12th, dria, 145 miles from the Mississippi,

be moved up the river into the which was immediately occupied, the Atcbafalaya, and anchored in the after-advance of Smith's forces, under Mower, noon at Semmesport, which was now in accompanied by Admiral Porter, with ruins. Not having heard as yet from his fleet of gun boats, taking possession Banks, Smith, on the 13th, landed a on the evening of the 16th of

1864. portion of his troops, and sent forward March. A large quantity of Gen. Mower, with a brigade, to recon. cotton, more than 4,000 bales, was capnoitre the enemy's position at Bayou tured, and brought in by the gun boats, Glace, where they occupied a fortified aided by the negroes. Fort De Russy camp. On his approach, the enemy fell was stripped, and its works blown up. back toward Fort De Russy, a formid- A few days after, Banks, with the reable fortification which they had erect-mainder of his forces, under Gen. Frank. ed with great skill and labor to com- lin, arrived at Alexandria, and having mand the Red River. Smith, seizing taken command, preparations were his opportunity, pushed rapidly for made for the advance upon Shreveport. ward by forced marches the intervening On the 21st of March, our cavalry distance of about thirty miles to a land advance marched upon Natchitoches, attack upon the fort, before it could be eighty miles from Alexandria, and gain. l'einforced. By a.strenuous effort, he ed possession of it without loss. Two reached the vicinity on the afternoon hundred prisoners and four pieces of of Monday, March 14th. An immedi. artillery were taken, the rebels as here. ate attack was determined upon, which tofore retiring as our troops advanced. was commenced by our skirmishers, and On the 26th, Smith left Alexandria for a sharp cannonade was kept up for Shreveport, to be followed directly by some two hours, the rebels replying the troops of Banks. This place in the with the two guns which they had north-western corner of Louisiana, was brought into position. The order was at the head of navigation on the Red

River, about 450 miles above the Misto co-oporate with Admiral Farragut in an attack sissippi, and was reported to be strongly upon Mobile.-See Report of Licutenant General !'.$. Grant, pp. 6, 7, 37, 38,

fortified and held by a rebel force un

der Gen Dick Taylor. Cotton and of Sabine Cross Roads, concealed in the military stores in great abundance edge of a dense wood, with an open would br taken there, it was supposed, field in front, the Shreveport road pass. by our army. Banks's column now ing through their lines. Gen. Ransom marched to Natchitoches, which was arriving on the field with his command, reached on the 4th of April, the fleet formed his line as well as circumstances under Porter accompanying it to Grand would permit. Col. Emerson's

1864 Ecore, the river station in that vicinity. brigade, of the 13th corps, was

Thus far success had attended the stationed on the left of the line, with expedition; but thenceforth it met with Nim's Massachusetts battery; Col. Lan serious reverses. On Wednesday morn- drum's forces, parts of two brigades, ing, the army moved from Natchitoches were placed on the right and centre, on the Shreveport road, the cavalry be with two batteries. Col. Dudley's briing in advance. Crump's Hill was gade of cavalry supported the left, and

by the cavalry that night, the held itself in readiness to repel any atinfantry, which had marched seventeen tempt to flank; while Lucas protected miles, halting four miles in their rear. the right flank. Col. Robinson, with At daybreak, the cavalry again started, his brigade, was in the rear of the cenkeeping up a constant and sharp skir-tre, protecting the wagon train which mishing with the enemy, until they ar. was on the Shreveport road. Gen. rived at a position two miles beyond Banks and staff rode upon the field by Pleasant Hill. Here, Col. Robinson, the time this disposition of our forces in command of the cavalry advance, was effected, and couriers were sent met the rebel troopers, some 2,500 in back, about nine miles, to Gen. Franknumber, and an engagement ensued di. lin to make all speed for the scene of rectly. It lasted about two hours and the momentarily expected battle. a half, when the enemy gave way, and At five o'clock, P.M., heavy firing retreated to Bayou du Paul, where they commenced; our skirmish line was were strongly reinforced. Col. Robin- quickly drawn back, and the engageson not deeming it prudent to make an ment became general on the right and attack, halted for the night, and await. centre. The left baring been weakened, ed the coming up of our forces. During in order to sustain the other portion of the night a brigade of infantry under the line, the enemy massed against the Col. Landrum arrived, and early on left, dashed furiously upon it, and the Friday morning, April 8th, the march horses having been killed, captured four was resumed, and the rebels were push- guns of Nim's battery. The battle was ed forward seven miles. This was about hotly contested; but soon after, the two o'clock P.M.

centre was pressed back, ar d the right The main force of the rebels now ap- also gave way. A fresh brigade came peared, Taylor in command. They far up; Franklin rode on the field in adoutnumbered our men, and were occu-vance of his division; and Banks pying a strong position, in the vicinity all that a brave commander could do:

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