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CH, VI.]

EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS.

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ampled in civilized warfare, the only diers and officers, who are not regarded apology or excuse was, that an equal hy them as prisoners of war, and there. 1o number of prisoners had been fore not entitled to the benefit of the

captured by the enemy; but on proposed exchange. As the matter calling for specifications in regard to now stands, we have over 40,000 pri these alleged prisoners, it was found soners of war ready at any moment to that a considerable number represented be exchanged, man for man, and officer as prisoners were not soldiers, but were for officer, to the number held by the non-combatants, citizens of towns and rebels," i.e., about 13,000, as above villages, farmers, travellers and others stated. Although the rebel prisoners in civil life, not captured in battle, but were treated with every kindness contaken at their homes, on their farms, sistent with security, yet, under exist or on the highway, by John Morgan ing circumstances, Mr. Stanton felt and other rebel raiders, who put them called upon to say, that “if it should under a sham parole.” Another cause become necessary for the protection of why exchanges were stopped was, the our men, strict retaliation will be re. declaration of Jeff. Davis that our black sorted to; but while the rebel authori. troops and their white officers would ties suffer this government to feed and not be recognized or treated as prison- clothe our troops held as prisoners, we ers of war, if they fell into his hands. shall be content to continue to their Our government had remonstrated, but prisoners in our hands the humane thus far to little or no effect. “Mean- treatment they have uniformly entime, well-authenticated statements joyed.” show that our troops held as prisoners. The report of the secretary of the of war were deprived of shelter, cloth. navy showed an increase of 161 vessels ing, and food, and some have perished and 1,175 guns during the year, which, from exposure and famine. This sav. with the vessels then under construcage barbarity could only have been tion, would make our naval force to practised in the hope that this govern consist of 583 vessels, carrying 4,443 ment would be compelled, by sympathy guns. Of these vessels forty-six were. for the suffering endured by our troops, iron-clad steamers for coast service, and to yield to the proposition of exchang. twenty-nine for inland service; 203 sideing all the prisoners of war on both wheel steamers; 193 screw-steamers, sides, paroling the excess not actually and 112 sailing vessels. The number exchanged, the effect of which opera of seamen in service, on the 1st of July, tion would be to enable the rebels to including the Mississippi squadput into the field a new army, 40,000 ron, was about 34,000. The

1863. strong, forcing the paroled prisoners average monthly enlistments d iring tho into the ranks without exchange, as was year were over 1,500. The number of done with those paroled at Vicksburg vessels captured by the squadrons and and Port Hudson, and also to leave in reported by the department, on the 1st the hands of the rebels the colored sol- of November, was, exclusive of a large number destroyed on the Mississippi States notes and fractional currency and other rivers, 1,045; of which 547 bore, of course, no interest. The aver. were schooners, 179 steamers, 131 age rate of interest on the whole debt sloops, thirty brigs, twenty-six barks, was, July 1st, 1862, 4.36 per cent.; fifteen ships, 117 yachts and small boats. January 1st, 1863, 4.02 per cent.; July The value of prizes sent to the courts 1st, 1863, 3.77 per cent.; and October for adjudication since the blockade was 1st, 1863, 3.95 per cent. In regard to established, was estimated at not less the “ general distribution" of the debt, than $15,000,000.

that “had been accomplished by the The report on the subject of our na- universal diffusion of the United States tional finances, from the secretary of notes and fractional currency, by the the treasury, which had been looked distribution of certificates among great for by the country at large with pro. numbers of contract creditors 16

1863 found interest, proved to be a clear, and temporary depositors, and well arranged document, and gave gen. by arrangements to popularize the loans eral satisfaction. The amount of debt by giving to the people everywhere ophad fallen short of the amount antici. portunities to subscribe for bonds." pated; while the receipts from all | Under this plan, nearly $400,000,000, sources of income, except internal reve. in five-twenty bonds in denominations nue, exceeded the estimates. The debt, of $50, $100, $500, and $1,000 were July 1st, 1863, was $1,098,793,181; distributed among all classes of the its estimated increase, it was now cal people. “The history of the world," culated, would raise it, on July 1st, Mr. Chase added with commendable 1864, to $1,686,956,641. Secretary pride, “ may be searched in vain for a Chase stated that he had, all along, parallel case of popular financial sup. “ kept four objects in view; moderate port to a national government." The interest, general distribution, future next point, the “controllability” of the controllability, and incidental utility.” debt, had been provided for by limiting In respect to the first, it was remarka- the periods and reserving certain times ble that our earliest negotiations had of payment of the honds issued. “In. been made at the highest rates of intercidental utility” had been secured by est, and that the public credit which receiving large sums on temporary de was at the lowest ebb just preceding posit, and maintaining a fund for their the breaking out of the rebellion, had reimbursement which had been used steadily improved in the midst of the for the convenience of the public. The terrible trials brought by it upon the latter had been further provided for in country. The first loans were negotia- the uniform currency secured by the ted at 7.30 per cent.; the next at 7 issue of United States notes, by which per cent., the next at 6 per cent.; more the government was also streugthened recently large sums were obtained at 5 in the general distribution of the debt. and 4 per cent.; and the whole of the As a further advantage in this direcdebt, which was represented by United | tion, the secretary urged anew his sys.

CHI. VI.]

PATRIOTIC RESOLUTIONS IN CONGRESS.

393

tem of national banking, its great fea- ious at the same time, not to “sub. ture being “to make use of a portion of jugate” any of the rebellious states, the national debt as security for the not to interfere with any of their “donational currency." In providing for mestic institutions," and to allow then, the needs of the treasury in the future, just so soon as they laid down their Mr. Chase looked to interest-paying arms, to send representatives to Con. loans, thinking it “clearly inexpedient” | gress, and enjoy all the privileges and to increase the present amount of Uni- advantages of loyal states. A number ted States notes or currency as tending of resolutions were introduced, avowing inevitably to ruinous depreciations.* these views and purposes; they were

Congress, as we have stated on a pre usually disposed of promptly, by being vious page, (p. 388), having completed laid on the table or rejected entirely. its organization, appointed the usual | On the other hand, strongly worded committees, etc., entered upon its work. resolutions were proposed, and adopted Public attention was very much en- by large majorities, in support of the gaged in watching the progress of mili. government and its policy. Thus, on tary and naval affairs; and during the the 17th of December, Mr. Smith of early part of the session there was no Kentucky, offered the following resooccasion for any action, nor any action lutions: of special interest or importance. Va “ Resolved, That as our country, and rious resolutions were introduced, some the very existence of the best govern. strongly condemnatory of the policy ment ever instituted by man, are imand course of the government, others of perilled by the most causeless and a negative, mixed character, and others wicked rebellion that the world has again highly approving the measures seen, and believing, as we do,

1863. of the president. The opponents of the that the only hope of saving administration, while urging forward this country and preserving this gov. the prosecution of the war, were anx ernment is by the power of the sword,

we are for the most vigorous prosecu. * Jeff. Davis, in a very long message to the rebel congress, which met early in December, 1863, indulged

tion of the war until the Constitution himself, as usual, in charges of "consistent perfidy," and laws shall be enforced and obeyed "savage ferocity,” “horrible barbarities," and such like, and in denouncing the plundering rullians" of l in all parts of the United States; and which the army of the United States was composed to that end we oppose any armistice, or He also enlarged upon the deplorable condition of the finances of the insurgent states. All efforts by taxa

| intervention, or mediation, or proposi. tion, imposts, etc., had failed, and “the issues of treation for peace, from any quarter, so long sury notes have been increased, until the currency in

as there shall be found a rebel in arms circulation amounts to more than $600,000,000, or more t'ian threefold the amount required by the business of against the government; and we ignore the country.” The rebel debt was stated by Mr. Mem- all party names, lines, and issues, and minger, secretary of the treasury, to be, in round numbers, 01,000,000,000, of which $800,000,000 were in

recognize but two parties in this wartreasury notes ; probably another year would raise the patriots and traitors.

500,000,000. For Davis's Resolved, That we hold it to be nuessage, the reader can refer to Appleton's " American Anual Cyclopædiafor 1893, pp. 788–799.

the duty of Congress to pass all necesVOL IV.-50.

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debt

re that

sary bills to supply men and money, Union, and no apology but that of con. and the duty of the people to render spiracy and treason for any assumption every aid in their power to the consti- of authority whatever; therefore, tuted authorities of the government in “ Resolved, That any proposition to the crushing out of the rebellion, and negotiate with the rebel leaders at Richin bringing the leaders thereof to con- mond (sometimes called 'the authorities dign punishment.

at Richmond') for a restoration of loy. “ Resolved, That our thanks are ten- alty and order in those portions of the dered to our soldiers in the field for Republic which have been disorganized their gallantry in defending and up by the rebellion, is, in effect, a proposiholding the flag of the Union, and de- tion to recognize the ringleaders of the fending the great principles dear to rebellion as entitled to represent and every American patriot.”

bind the loyal citizens of the United The first resolution was adopted by States whom they oppress, and to give a vote of 98 to 65; the second and countenance and support to the preten. third were also adopted by a vote of sions of conspiracy and treason; and, 152 and 166; a Mr. B. G. Harris of therefore, every such proposition should Maryland being the only negative.* be rejected without hesitation or delay;" |

On the 7th of January, 1864, Mr. The resolution was adopted, by a Baldwin of Massachusetts, offered the vote of ayes 88, nays 24. This and following preamble and resolution: the preceding resolutions furnish a !

Whereas, the organized treason hav. fair indication of the spirit and temper ing its headquarters at Richmond, ex- of Congress at the time, and also of the ists in defiant violation of the national probable course of legislation during Constitution, and has no claim to be its first session. At present, we need treated otherwise than as an outlaw; not dwell upon the subject, or attempt. and whereas, this Richmond combina- to go into details; on a subsequent tion of conspirators and traitors can page we shall have opportunity of giv. have no rightful authority over the ing the substance of the action of people of any portion of the national Congress, and the principal measures Union, and no warrant for assuming adopted. control of the political destiny of the Following the course pursued on a !! people of any state or section of this former occasion, in giving a résumé ot! * A resolution was subsequently offered to expel Mr.

matters of general interest at the terHarris for “ treasonable language and gross disrespect mination of 1862, we shall ask the to the House ;" but on the vote being taken, it lacked

he yote being taken, it lacked reader to pause here a moment, and noa few votes of the two-thirds required. Immediately another resolution was offered declaring him to bo“ an | tice briefly where the country stood, unworthy member of the House," and deserving its se- and what were its condition and prosverest censures, which passed by a vote of 93 to 18. A

pects at the close of 1863. In general, similar course was pursued in the case of Alexander pec Long, of Ohio. Speaker Colfax offered a resolution for as will have been gathered from prehis expulsion ; but failing a two-thirds vote, Mr. Long ceding pages, the state of affairs ivas was declared, by resolution, “to be an unworthy memLer of the House of Representatives.”

| encouraging and hopeful. Our armies

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