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heretofore effected so much mischief. The legislature declined any such measure, and refused to sanction the governor's views, as set forth in his proclamation, May 20th. In this document, he speaks of "standing aloof from an unnatural, horrid and lamentable strife," of "resisting and preventing encroachment on the soil, rights, honor and sovereignty of Kentucky," and goes on to declare: "I hereby notify and warn all other states, separated or united, especially the United and Confederate States, that I solemnly forbid any movement upon Kentucky soil, or occupation of any post or place therein for any purpose whatever, until authorized by invitation or permission of the legislative and executive authorities. I especially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, whether incorporated in the State Guard or otherwise, making an)' hostile demonstrations against any of the aforesaid sovereignties, to be obedient to the orders of lawful authorities, to remain quietly and peaceably at home, when off military duty, and refrain from all words and acts likely to provoke a collision, and so otherwise conduct themselves that the deplorable calamity of invasion may be averted; but meanwhile to make prompt and efficient preparation to assume the paramount and supreme law of self-defence, and strictly of self-defence alone."

As might have been foreseen, the attempted neutrality of Kentucky could not be maintained for any length of time. Volunteers entered the Union service, and others took positions in the confederate armies.* The authorities of

* "Men. munitions, and supplies were openly, and

Tennessee interfered with the operations of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and prevented traffic over it for general purposes of commerce, especially for provisions and supplies. This roused the Union men to greater efforts, and a small encampment of Federal troops under General Nelson was formed in Garrard county. This was denounced by Governor Magoffin as a violation of the neutrality of the state, and he sent by the hands of two "commissioners " a letter to President Lincoln, demanding the withdrawal of the troops. This was under date of August 19th; a few days afterwards the president, in pretty sharp terms, declined of course to have anything to do with the Kentucky governor's commissioners, and refused to order the Union troops to leave the state. Jefferson Davis also was addressed and asked to do the same thing with the rebel troops; but Davis replied, that he was sorry to say that he was compelled by necessity to seize upon points of moment to prevent their being taken possession of by the Union forces. Previous to this, Tennessee troops had invaded Kentucky, and carried off six cannons and 1,000 stand of arms.

The legislature met, September 2d; it was very decidedly Union in its composition, and not at all disposed to favor Magoffin's views; on the contrary, the legislature resolved, Sept. 9th, that the

almost daily, dispatched to the mustering rebel hosts in the South and South-east; while for months, nothing was done by Kentucky for the cause of the Union. The first regiment of Eentuckians raised for the Union armies was encamped on the free side of the river, in deference to urgent representations from professed Unionists and to Kentucky's proclaimed neutrality."— Greeley's "American Conflict," vol. L, p. 493.

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invading secession forces should be expelled by calling out all the troops of the state, that aid be asked from the United States, and that Gen. R. Anderson be requested to enter upon his command immediately. Hickman and Chalk Bluffs had been seized upon and fortified by the confederates. General Grant, alive to the importance of prompt action, marched a force from Cairo, Sept. 6th, and took possession of Paducah,where he found everything prepared for rebel arrival instead of for him and his men. He issued a proclamation, simple and straightforward in its terms, stating that his business was to deal with armed rebellion, and nothing else would be interfered with. Columbus was occupied by the rebel General (Bishop) Polk, Sept. 7th. Zollicoffer, in the eastern part of the state, had some days before seized upon Cumberland Gap, on the same plea of military necessity, and he further said he meant to hold it for the rebels.

Gen. Anderson assumed command of the district allotted him, on Sept. 20th. Union volunteers were called for to drive out the invaders and support the cause of our common country. Zollicoffer advanced to Barboursville, and captured a Union camp. A month later, October 21st, he marched upon Camp Wild Cat, where Gen. Schoepf, in command of the forces, repulsed him with severe loss. A rebel force at Piketown, in Eastern Kentucky, was gathered under Col. Williams. Gen. Nelson marched to disperse it, Nov. 8th, but Williams succeeded in getting off, and retreated to Pound Gap. Gen. Anderson, finding his health unequal to

the task of public service, resigned, and General W. T. Sherman, in October, took command. From henceforth Kentucky showed herself to be, and remained, heart and soul in the Union.

In regard to Missouri, it deserves to be noted, that her position and influence with reference both to the older states and the vast territory of the United States beyond her limits, were of prime importance to the cause of the Union. Elements of discord, it is true, existed in her midst, and there were not a few secession agitators in the state; but, on the other hand, there were noble and active loyal men in Missouri, able and ready to meet and counteract the plans of the governor and all his helpers. Governor Jackson tried to persuade the state to cast in her destiny with those who had seceded. He advocated an armed neutrality; got the police of St. Louis entirely under his control; and expected to be able to help disunion in this way, and sooner or later to get Missouri into the secession ranks. But, under the clear sighted intelligence and action of Col. F. P. Blair, in St. Louis, a volunteer military guard, largely composed of Germans, was raised, which became the nucleus of a national army on the soil of that city. Captain (afterwards General) N. Lyon was also an efficient helper in the good cause. He was in command at the arsenal in St. Louis, and during the absence of General Harney, was in charge of the entire department. He had. served under Gen. Scott in Mexico, and was a fine specimen of a loyal, brave, and energetic soldier. Acting under instructions from Washington, Captain Lyon delivered, on the 25th of April, a large quantity of arms, some 20,000 or more, to Captain Stokes of Chicago, who had been sent with a requisition from the secretary of war to convey these arms to Springfield, Illinois. The transfer was not effected without considerable danger from the excited crowd of secessionists in St. Louis; but, by zeal and courage combined, the arms were saved from falling into the hands of those who did not scruple to steal United States property, as in Virginia, North Carolina, and other states.

Being entrusted with further powers by the president, to enrol 10,000 loyal men if needed for the maintenance of the authority of the United States in St. Louis and Missouri generally, Captain Lyon proceeded to vigorous measures. He resolved, with Colonel Blair's help, to break up Camp Jackson, as it was called, where the State Guard were gathered, waiting their opportunity to give help to secession and rebellion. Early on the morning of May 10th, with some 6,000 men and artillery, Lyon appeared, wholly unexpectedly, at the camp. He demanded its immediate surrender, as being made up of elements hostile to the government and in open communication with the southern confederacy. General Frost, who was in command of the state troops, had no alternative. Lyon was resolute and peremptory. Everything was surrendered; 20 cannon, 1,200 new rifles, a large amount of ammunition, etc. On the return to St. Louis with the prisoners, the troops were mobbed and grossly insulted by

the enraged secessionists; shots were fired; and the soldiers returning the fire at last, killed and wounded some forty to fifty persons. Great excitement was produced, and threats of vengeance made; but it was evident, that the United States commander was in earnest and not to be trifled with. Capt. Lyon's course was highly approv ed at Washington, and he was at once raised to the rank of brigadier-general of the first brigade of Missouri Volunteers.

General Harney returned from the east on the 12th of May, and resumed command in Missouri. He issued two proclamations, giving the governor and legislature to understand that he would maintain the authority of the United States against all secessionary movements. A week or so later, however, Gen. Harney entered into a sort of truce or compact with Gen. Sterling Price, who had been placed by Governoi Jackson in command of all the state militia. The professed object of this arrangement was to restore peace and good order, and to put a stop to military movements of various kinds in the state. "We do, therefore, mutually enjoin upon the people of the state to attend to their civil business, of whatever sort it may be; and it is to be hoped that the unquiet elements which have threatened so seriously to disturb the public peace, may soon subside, and be remembered only to be deplored." But, as notwithstanding this so-called truce, Union men in Missouri were hunted down and maltreated, and as it was evident the compact was, as it was meant to be, by secessionists, of service

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and protection to treason only, General Harney's course was promptly repudiated at Washington, and General Lyon, on the 1st of June, was placed in command of the department. This active and energetic officer, at an interview with Governor Jackson and General Price, on the 11th, positively refused to agree to any measures other than those which he had thus far steadily been carrying out. He put no faith in the professions of the governor and his sympathizers, .and he would not listen for a moment to any proposal which looked towards giving up the vantage ground alreadv held by the government. He further demanded the disarming of the state militia and the rejection of the obnoxious militia bill, and insisted upon the full and unrestricted right of the government to take any steps it deemed necessary, in order to protect Union men and repress insurrection.

Governor Jackson, thinking these terms to be "degrading," as he phrased it, issued a proclamation, calling for 50,000 state militia to repel federal invasion, and to protect lite, liberty and property in Missouri. He acknowledged that the state was still one of the United States, and to a certain extent bound to obey the government; but he closed in the following words, which show plainly the animus at the bottom:—" It is my duty to advise yuu that your first allegiance is due to your own state, and that you are under no obligation whatever to obey the unconstitutional edicts of the military despotism which has enthroned itself at Washington, nor to submit to the

VOL. IV.—6.

infamous and degrading sway of its wicked minions in this state. No brave and true-hearted Missourian will obey the one or submit to the other. Hise, then, and drive out ignominiously the invaders, who have dared to desecrate the soil which your labors have made fruitful, and which is consecrated by your homes."

Gen. Lyon, in carrying out his instructions from headquarters, not only issued a proclamation, denouncing the action of the governor as set

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ting at defiance the authorities of the United States and consummating his treasonable purposes, but he also resolved to arrest the rebel authorities and break up their military preparations. He moved at once on Jefferson City, which was reached on the 15th of June; but he found that Jackson had retreated some forty miles above, to Booneville, cutting off the telegraph and destroying the railroad bridges on the route. Gen. Lyon followed him, and two days afterwards defeated and dispersed the hostile forces. At the same time, in a proclamation the next day, he avowed the most liberal and conciliatory policy towards all quiet and orderly persons in Missouri.

It is interesting, in this connection, to take note of the position of affairs in Western Virginia and Eastern Tennessee. Virginia, as previously related, (see p. 22) had, through its unscrupulous governor and legislature, been carried into the arms of secession. But there was, notwithstanding, a large portion of the people who abhorred the course which had been forced upon the state, and who resolved to resist to the utmost the designs of the rebels, and to stand by the Union in its integrity. Especially was this the case in Western Virginia. In the counties west of the Blue Ridge there were some 10,000 slaves, while in those on the east the number reached to nearly half a million. The white population was decidedly more numerous in the western part of the state than elsewhere, and rapid advances were being made in the development of its agricultural and industrial resources, in comparison with the stagnation in the counties more favored in many respects on the seaboard. That extensive western region, bounded by the Alleghany Mountains and the Ohio River, and bordering on the north upon Penns3-lvania, had little indeed in common with the slave-holding, slave-trading interests and southern sympathies of the eastern division. Thus socially and industrially, as well as geographically, situated, they felt the pressure of taxation to be very unequal as compared with the more favored slave-holders, and they were not prepared to give themselves up to joining the secessionists in their mad and wicked purposes against the very life of the Republic.

Acting on their convictions, these patriotic Virginians denounced the proceedings of Governor Letcher and the secession leaders. A meeting was held at Clarksburg, in Harrison county, on the 2 2d of April, and the initial step was taken to separate Western Virginia from any part or lot in the evil counsels prevailing throughout the rest of the state. Delegates were chosen from the various

1801.

counties west of the Alleghanies, and a convention was held at Wheeling, May 13th, to consider and determine upon the action requisite in the existing crisis. Resolutions were passed, condemning the ordinance of secession, as "unconstitutional, null and void," and declaring the annexation to the southern confederacy "a plain and palpable violation of the constitution of the state, and utterly subversive of the rights and liberties of the good people thereof." Provision was also made for a convention of representatives of the people, to be held at Wheeling, June 11th, in case the ordinance of secession should be ratified, as was proposed, on the 23d of May, (see p. 23).

On the day appointed the convention assembled. Forty counties (five to the east of the Alleghanies) were represented, and the delegates entered upon their work, first taking an oath to sup port the Constitution and laws of the United States. It was maintained, that the government at Richmond, having violated the constitution of the state, its authority was thereby annulled, and that the offices of all who adhered to the usurping convention and executive were, ipso facto, vacant. After a few days' discussion, this view was found to prevail, and a declaration, setting forth the motives of the decision, and an ordinance for the reorganization of the state government, were passed by a nearly unanimous vote. The declaration was forcible and clear in its statements as to the necessity of energetic action. The ordinance, reorganizing the state government, provided for the

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