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make known to all whom it may con- on any satisfactory grounds. The re. cern, that the privilege of the writ of moval of Gen. Schofield was demand. habeas corpus is suspended throughout ed, and the appointment of Gen. Butler the United States, in the several cases in his place; the delegation also re before-mentioned, and that this suspen. quired the breaking up of the system sion will continue throughout the du- of enrolled militia, and the substitution ration of the said rebellion, or until for it of national forces in the state. this proclamation shall, by a subsequent A few passages may here be quoted one, to be issued by the President of from Mr. Lincoln's letter :—“We are the United States, be modified and re- in civil war. In such cases there al. voked. And I do hereby require all ways is a main question; but in this magistrates, attorneys, and other civil case that question is a perplexing com officers within the United States, and pound-union and slavery. It thus all officers and others in the military becomes a question not of two sides and naval services of the United States, merely, but of at least four sides, even to take distinct notice of this suspen- among those who are for the Union, sion and give it full effect, and all citi. saying nothing of those who are against zens of the United States to conduct it. Thus, those who are for the Union and govern themselves accordingly, and with, but not without slavery-those in conformity with the Constitution of for it without, but not withthose for the United States, and the laws of it with or without, but prefer it with, Congress in such cases made and pro- and those for it with or without, but vided."*

prefer it without. Among these, again, Early in October, the president ad. is a subdivision of those who are for dressed a letter to the Hon. C. D. gradual but not for immediate, and Drake, and others, members of a Mis- those who are for immediate but not souri delegation sent to Washington for gradual extinction of slavery. It to urge changes in the military con- is casy to conceive that all these shades duct of that department (see p. 246). of opinion, and even more, may be sin. It is interesting as showing the pecu- cerely entertained by honest and truth. liar difficulties which he was called | ful men. Yet, all being for the Union, upon to encounter, especially in the by reason of these differences each will questions which arose in the border prefer a different way of sustaining the states, and which were so hard to settle Union. ... The evils now com.

* In connection with this subject of arbitrary arrests, plained of were quite as prevalent and what was termed the despotic use made of the under Fremont, Hunter, Halleck, and suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, which were strongly denounced by the democratic party, see Pre

Curtis, as under Schofield. Without sident Lincoln's letter to the Hon. Erastus Corning, of disparaging any, I affirm with confi. New York, under date of June 13th, 1863, and also his reply to a committee of the Ohio Democratic State

dence that no commander of that deConvention, under date of June 20th, 1863.- Raymond's partment has, in proportion to his Life of Lincoln," pp. 386–398; Duyckinck’s “ War

means, done better than Gen. Schofield. for the Union," vol. iii. pp. 270-273 ; Appleton's "Amer. || ican Annual Cyclopædiafor 1863, pp. 799–807.

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CH. V.]



venting of the threatened remedial raid On the 17th of October, in anticipainto Missouri was the only safe way to tion of the term of service of part of the avoid an indiscriminate massacre there, volunteer troops expiring, and to provide including probably more innocent than for the probable demands of the cam. guilty. Instead of condemning, I there-paign in the following spring, the presi. fore approve what I understand Gen. dent issued a proclamation, calling out Schofield did in that respect. . . . 300,000 volunteers to serve for three From time to time I have done and years or the war, not, however, exceedsaid what appeared to me proper to do ing three years. The governors of the

and say. The public knows it several states were required to raise 1863. * well. It obliges nobody to fol their respective quotas, and, in .

1863. low me, and I trust it obliges me to case of any deficiency, a draft. follow nobody. The radicals and con- was ordered to be made in the states or servatives each agree with me in some districts, to commence on the 5th day things and disagree in others. I could of January, 1864. Active measures wish both to agree with me in all were taken to forward recruiting; the things; for then they would agree with volunteers whose term of service was each other, and would be too strong about to expire generally re-enlisted ; for any foe from any quarter. They, and when the day arrived which was however, choose to do otherwise, and I appointed for the draft, it was deemed do not question their right. I, too, expedient that the drawing be furtber shall do what seems to be my duty. | postponed.* I hold whoever commands in Missouri On previous pages we have given the or elsewhere responsible to me, and not substance and tolerably full details of to either radicals or conservatives. It army operations and success, in the is my duty to hear all; but at last, I West and South, during the latter part must, within my sphere, judge what to of 1863. We purpose closing the predo and what to forbear." *

sent chapter with succinct notices of The condition of affairs in this de- the position and movements of the partment, it may here be mentioned, Army of the Potomac, and of some few continued to be greatly disturbed by other events which may properly claim political agitations, and the personal to be placed on the record. Lee, it will controversies to which they gave rise. be remembered, after his defeat at GetSome months later, the president deem- tysburg (p. 333), retreated into Virgi. ed it expedient to relieve Gen. Scho- nia, and was pursued by Meade, withfield from further command in the de.

* The conscription act was brought up in the Thirtypartment of Missouri; and on the 24th

eighth Congress and earnestly discussed. The chief of January, 1864, Gen. Rosecrans was point in the debates on the act was in reference to the appointed in his place.

propriety or necessity of retaining the $300 exemption clause. It was finally concluded to retain this, with

the important restriction, that the exemption thus * For the letter in full, and for the special instruc- l purchased should not continue beyond a single year, tions sent to Gen. Schofield, see Raymond'g“ Life of | when the person relieved would again be subject to Abraham Lincoln,” pp. 432–437.

| draft.


out, however, any special result. Lee found that our army had passed over retired in safety across the Rapidan, the river some hours before. On the and Meade, with his army, took up the 12th, Lee adv&aced in two columns, old line on the Rappahannock. For with the design of reaching the Orange some time the Army of the Potomac and Alexandria Railroad, north of the was enjoying needed rest and an op- river, and cutting off Meade's retreat. portunity for recruiting and prepar- On the afternoon of the same day, Lee ing for future operations. A consider crossed his columns at Warrenton able portion of Lee's force was sent, Springs, to the north bank of the Rapunder Longstreet, to aid the rebel cause, pahannock, and advanced rapidly, purjust then in a rather critical condition, posing to strike Meade's line of retreat in Tennessee, where Bragg was in com- | by the railroad. The commander of mand. This was in September, 1863; the Army of the Potomac immediately and Meade, having become aware of began a retrograde movement, so as to the fact, made an advance movement, escape the consequences of the rebel and had matured a plan, which promis- attempt. It now became a sort of race ed well, for attacking Lee on the flank. between the two armies, and Tuesday Before, however, he could carry out his and Wednesday, the 13th and 14th of plan, the Army of the Potomac was October, were spent in determining largely depleted by the sending of the which should first reach the heights of 11th and 12th corps, under Hooker's Centreville, and gain the race. The 2d command, to the aid of our army in corps, under Warren, marched all MonTennessee (see pp. 353, 358). This re- day night up to Fayetteville, to guard duced Meade to the necessity of acting the road, and remained there till the on the defensive simply, until he could whole army passed. On Tuesday, Lee be supplied again with reinforcements. as well as Meade, was pushing forward

Early in October, Lee resolved upon rapidly, by parallel roads, only six or an offensive movement, for the purpose eight miles apart. At Warrenton, Lee of driving Meade back from the line of formed the bold design of sending Hill's the Rapidan, and, by a decisive flank corps, by a rapid détour, to seize the march, get between Meade and his heights of Centreville, while Ewell's communications with Washington. On corps should fall upon Meade's flank Friday, October 9th, Lee crossed the and rear. Rapidan, and moved northwardly by It was on Wednesday, the 14th Oc. way of Madison Court House, so as to tober, when our whole army passed turn Meade's right, in which movement Cedar Run at Auburn, Warren's corps he was quite successful. Meade, on bringing up the rear. To this comascertaining the rebel purpose, immedi mander was assigned the duty of coverately fell back from the Rapidan and ing the trains of the army, which were crossed the Rappahannock without mo. much delayed in the crossing

1863. lestation, and when Lee reached Cul. I by the pontoons. The posi pepper, on the 11th of October, he was now an extremely critical one. CH. V.]





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Ewell had begun pressing severely on embankment of the railroad, on the in. the rear, and already, on Wednesday stant jumped his men, unseen, into it. morning, at Auburn, the rear-guard be. This sagacious movement was admircame engaged with a portion of his ably timed, and it enabled Warren to force. Meade, it will be noted, was repulse Hill's corps with severe loss, obliged to move with the utmost celerity and to secure about 450 prisoners. It in order to reach Centreville in advance was well, however, for Warren's safety of Hill, who had the start of him, and that night soon after came on; for about was on the shortest line; he was under sunset Ewell's corps joined Hill, and the necessity also of keeping back the nothing but the darkness prevented an enemy from his trains in the rear. The overwhelming assault. During the army having passed Auburn, pushed night, Warren retired, and the next rapidly on toward Catlett's. A couple morning came up with the main body of miles beyond Auburn, Warren re- of the army at Centreville. ceived a message from Meade, directing This repulse at Bristoe Station, and him to hold on, so as to give sufficient the strong position now held by Meade, time for the trains. The 2d corps, ac- put an end to Lee's further advance. cordingly, for two hours, exhausted all After a few demonstrations of no great the resources of tactics to keep back the moment, and after destroying the railenemy, by forming line of battle, skir- road from Cub Run southwardly to the misbing, shelling the woods, etc., the Rappabannock, Lee began his retreat, enemy making vigorous demonstrations Sunday, October 18th, and the next day all the while. The task was bravely passed through Warrenton, and thence and effectually performed by Warren. across the river, leaving his cavalry in About coon, he reached Catlett's, and front of Meade. Troops, sent out from began his retreat toward Bristoe Sta. Harper's Ferry, forced him immedition. The latter place was reached ately to retreat. On the 7th of Noabout three o'clock in the afternoon of vember, Gens. Sedgwick and French October 14th. The rebel corps, under attacked the enemy at Rappahanpock Hill, arrived at Bristoe shortly before Station and Kelly's Ford, capturing Warren, and found that the whole several redoubts, four guns, eight flags, army, excepting Warren, had just pass- and about 2,000 prisoners. The enemy ed beyond that point; whereupon, Hill now retreated to his old position on the arranged a line of battle perpendicular Rapidan, and Meade, having followed to the railroad. The position was per- in pursuit, took up nearly the same ilous, but Warren was equal to the ground which he had previously held. emergency. The troops were brought Lee states, in his report, that the whole up at the run; those wbich had been number of prisoners captured by him marching on the left of the railroad was 2,436, of whom forty-one were com. were brought quickly over to the right; missioned officers. and Warren, observing that the rebels Meade, anxious to accomplish somehad neglected to occupy the cut and thing before going into winter quarters,

VOL. IV.-49.


planned an operation known as the rill attacked a rebel force under Gen. Mine Run Move. The intention was, Sam. Jones at Rocky Gap, in Greenby a rapid and vigorous movement, to brier County, capturing one gun, 150 get between the forces under Ewell and prisoners, and killing and wounding Hill, and destroy them in detail. The some 200. On the 11th of September, march was begun at dawn, on Novem. Imboden attacked a small force of our ber 26th, and had it not been for vexa- troops at Moorfield, wounding fifteen tious delays, and consequent destroying and capturing about 150. On the 5th the combinations relied upon by Gen. of November, Averill attacked and de Meade, there is every reason to believe feated the enemy near Lewisburg, capthat he would have met with success. turing three pieces of artillery, 100 pri

The attack on Lee was fixed for the soners, and a large number of small morning of November 30th, but that arms, wagons and camp equipage. commander having strongly entrenched About the middle of December, Ave himself behind Mine Run, south-west rill's famous raid took place on the of Chancellorsville, the assault was communications of Longstreet, on the deemed too hazardous, in fact hopeless, Tennessee Railroad. Averill's own acso far as victory was concerned.* There count is given with soldier-like brevity being no alternative, Gen. Meade with and point, and is well worth consulting drew across the Rapidan, and the army by the reader. It is under date of De returned to its former quarters. cember 21st, and reports the cutting of

During the period of these campaigns the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, of the Army of the Potomac, the forces at Salem, on the 16th; the destroying in Western Virginia had been gene three depots, containing 2,000 barrels rally employed on the defensive, with of flour, 10,000 bushels of wheat, 50, occasional encounters with the enemy. 000 bushels of oats, and 2,000 barrels

Gen. Kelly, near Clear Springs, of meat, and numerous other valuable 1863.

08. in July, concentrated his force stores; the cutting and destroying the on the enemy's flank, and was of much telegraph line; the burning of bridges service to Meade's operations. On the in connection with conflicts with the 24th of July, Col. Toland attacked the enemy; the crossing the Alleghanies enemy at Wytheville, on the East Ten by a road thought to be impassable; nessee and Virginia Railroad, capturing etc. Averill sums up with stating his two pieces of artillery, 700 muskets and loss to have been six men drowned and 125 prisoners. In August, Gen. Ave- nineteen wounded and missing. “We

captured," are his concluding words, * Mr. Swinton relates a touching instance of the mode and spirit in which the soldiers prepared for the "about 200 prisoners, but have expected fight : “Recognizing that the task now be- retained but forty officers and

1863. fore them was of the character of a forlorn hope, know ing well that no man could here count on escaping

eighty men, on account of their inadeath, the soldiers, without sign of shrinking from the bility to walk. We took also about sacrifice, were seen quictly pinning on the breast of

| 150 horses. My horses have subsisted their blouses of blue, slips of paper on which each had written his name.”—“ Army of the Potomac," p. 397. l entirely upon a very poor country, and

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