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reputation of its namesake and avenge his fall!* The loss in the fort was less than twenty. Burnside offered the rebels the privilege, between ten, A.m., and fiv of burying their dead

and removing the wounded, which was thankfully accepted. In a congratulatory order, on the 30th of November, Burnside highly praised his troops, "for their conduct through the severe experiences of the past seventeen days," and assured them "of the important bearing it had on the campaign in the West."

With this last effort, Longstreet felt it necessary to give up the siege of Knoxville. His position was now becoming perilous by the advance of Sherman, who, after the defeat of Bragg at Chattanooga, was sent with his own and Granger's forces into East Tennessee to cut off the rebel general and relieve Burnside. In anticipation of his arrival, Longstreet broke up his camps, and retreated on the line of the railroad toward Virginia. On the 4th of December, Sherman's advanced guard reached Knoxville, and the same night the rear guard of Longstreet's forces abandoned their works. Two days later, Sherman had an interview with Burnside in Knoxville, at which it was determined to be inexpedient to attempt any formal pursuit of Longstreet. Willcox, who was in charge of operations in the Upper Valley, did excellent service in holding Cumberland Gap and preventing troops from Vir

• For a more full account of the Siege and Defence of Knoxville, see Woodbury's "Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps," pp. 327—351

ginia joining the rebel commander; but Longstreet continued through the winter to annoy and harass our force in Tennessee, and in the spring joined | Lee for the campaign of 1864.

Sherman, having left Granger and I' his men at Knoxville, returned with the rest of his command to Chattanooga; and Burnside, at his own urgent request, was relieved from further duty | in Tennessee. On the 11th of Decernber, he formally transferred the command of the Ohio to Gen. J. G. Foster, j' a personal friend and brave and distinguished officer.

President Lincoln, in view of the . . . I1

brilliant success of the campaign, not

only sent Grant and the army his special thanks and congratulations, but also recommended a thanksgiving day! for the people's observance. Gen. 1 Grant issued a congratulatory order, December 10th, and bestowed upon the brave officers and men under his command the highest commendation in hia , power. "The loyal people of the United States thank and bless you," he said. "Their hopes and prayers for I your success against this unholy rebel- '' lion are daily with you. Their faith in you will not be in vain. Their i hopes will not be blasted. Their , prayers to Almighty God will be answered." *

* Mr. Lincoln also the next day sent Gen. Grant the following letter:—" Understanding that your lodgment at Chattanooga and Knoxville is now secure, I wish to tender you and all under your command my more than thanks—my profoundest gratitude for ths skill, courage and perseverance with which you ind they, over so great difficulties, have effected that important object. God bless you all' A Lincoln."

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CHAPTER IV,
1863.

DEPARTMENT OF THE SOUTH: SIEGE OF CHARLESTON

Admiral Foote's appointment and death — The rehel ram Atlanta attacked by the Weehawken, one of the monitors— Capture, after brief contest — Admiral Dahlgren appointed to command the South Atlantic fleet— Operations on Morris Island — Gen. Gillmore's dispatch on the subject — Alarm in Charleston, and strenuous efforts for defence — Gillmore pushes forward operations — Assault on Fort Wagner — Details — Heavy loss and failure — Conduct of rebel authorities as to exchange of negro prisoners — Gillmore's batteries — Tremendous force and power — Fort Sumter bombarded, August 17th-24th — Result — Beauregard and Gillmore — Fort Wagner pressed — Rebels evacuate Morris Island — Attempt to gain possession of Fort Sumter repulsed— Severity of the bombardment of Charleston — Its virtual reduction and non-impoitance — Rebel view — Other operations In the South and West — Expedition under Gen. Franklin to occupy Sabine City — Report of the expedition, which was unsuccessful—Gen. Banks sails for the mouth of the Rio Grande — Enters Brownsville—Gen. Steele in Arkansas—Takes Little Rock — Union strength in the state — Quantrell and his band of ruffians — Attack on Lawrence, Kansas — Murders and destruction of property — Cabell's force of guerrillas, Indians, etc. — Detachment under Coffey routed — Quantrell attempts to seize and murder Gen. Blunt— Prospect ahead.

With the appointment of Gen. Gillmore to succeed Gen. Hunter we closed, in a previous chapter, our record of affairs in the department of the South (see p. 297). We now resume the narrative at this point, and ask the reader's attention to the siege of Charleston, which was conducted with so great zeal and ability on the one hand, and resisted with so much stubbornness on the other. At this same date (June, 1863), RearAdmiral A. H. Foote was appointed to succeed Rear-Admiral Dupont in command of the South Atlantic blockading squadron; but, while on his way to enter upon his duties, while passing through New York, he was Beized with that fatal illness which resulted in his death a few days subsequently. He died on the 26th of June, and passed away acknowledged by all as a"gallant and self-sacrificing Christian sailor and gentleman."

Just before Admiral Dupont retired from his position as commander of the squadron, he was able to report the gratifying intelligence to the government of an achievement worthy of note by one of the monitor vessels in the department. This was the capture in Warsaw Sound, of the rebel ram Atlanta, formerly a Clyde-built steamer, and prepared with a ram and iron plating of the most formidable description. Having completed her arma- ISS9 ment, consisting of two 7-inch and two 6-inch rifled guns, and taken on board an ample supply of ammunition and stores for a regular cruise, with a complement, officers and men, of 165, the Atlanta left Savannah, on the even ing of the 16th of June, by way of Wilmington, for Warsaw Sound, fully prepared to attack the blockading squadron.

In anticipation of this attempt of

the rebel vessel to get to sea, Dupont had dispatched, some days before, the Weehawken, Capt. John Rodgers, from Port Royal, and the Nahant, Commander J. Downes, from North Edisto, to the assistance of Commander Drake, who, in the Cimerone, was maintaining the inside blockade at Warsaw Sound. At six o'clock on the morning of the 17th of June, the Atlanta came in sight, accompanied by two wooden steamers, filled, it was said, with spectators from Savannah who had come out to witness a certainly expected victory. As the Atlanta was bearing down, reserving her fire for close quarters, she was anticipated by Rodgers, who at once engaged her with the Weehawken. Eleven shots were fired in all—five by the Weehawken and six by the Atlauta. The first 15-inch shot fired by Capt. Rodgers took off the top of the Atlanta's pilot-house and wounded two of her three pilots. Another 15-inch shot struck half way up her roof, killing one and wounding seventeen men. In consequence of these injuries, the Atlanta grounded, and immediately after surrendered. The whole action occupied only about fifteen minutes, and the Weehawken sustained no injury of any sort. The Atlanta, not seriously damaged, was speedily brought, with her officers and crew, to Port Royal.*

* The secretary of the navy quoted "this most marked and extraordinary conflict" as an illustration of the value of the monitor vessels, and the new 15inch ordnance now first brought into use in naval warfare. "This remarkable result," he added, " was an additional testimony in favor of the monitor class of vessels for harbor defence and coast service against any naval vessels that have been, or are likely to be, constructed to visit our shores. It appears, also, to have extinguished whatever lingering hopes the rebels may

On the death of Admiral Foote (see' p. 365) Admiral J. A. Dahlgren was appointed to the command of the South Atlantic fleet. He was the inventor of I the gun which bears his name; and in' consequence of his scientific reputation, 1 it was deemed advisable to send him j to Charleston to co-operate with Gill- , more, and to bring all the resources of science to bear in order to reduce that rebellious city.. He proceeded at once to Port Royal, and on the 6th of July, took command of the squadron.

The attack by the fleet under Dupont, in April of this year, on the works in Charleston harbor, not having met with 1 the success which was expected, (seep. | 295), it was now deemed most advisa-! ble, as preliminary to further offensive movements, to effect a lodgment on Morris Island, on the northern side, where batteries might be erected of sufficient force, with the new ordnance, for battering down Fort Sumter, and thus opening a way for the operations of the fleet. Concealed batteries were erected by the troops, under Gen. Vodges, on Folly Island, adjoining Morris Island, on the south, which effectually commanded the entrance to the ship channel on that side. On the 10th of July, the needed force having arrived, the batteries opened upon the enemy, and when their guns were silenced, a charge was made by the infantry, who had crossed in boats, and the works were captured. Gillmore's | dispatch in regard to these matters was

as follows: "I have the honor to report j

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have had of withstanding our naval power by niTM 11 means." Rodgers was soon after raised to the rank of' commodore.

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1863.

that at five o'clock on the morning of the 10th inst., I made an attack on the enemy's fortified position on the south end of Morris Island, and after an engagement, lasting three hours and a quarter, captured all his strongholds on that part of the island, and pushed forward my infantry to within 600 yards of Fort Wagner. We now hold all the island except about one mile on the north end, which includes Fort Wagner and a battery on Cummings's Point, mounting at the present time fourteen or fifteen heavy

guns in the aggregate

On the morning of the 11th instant, at daybreak, an attempt was made to carry Fort Wagner by assault. The parapet was gained, but the supports recoiled under the fire to which they were exposed, and could not be got up. Our losses in both actions will not vary much from 150 in killed, wounded, and missing. We have taken eleven pieces of heavy ordnance and a large quantity of camp equipage. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded will not fall short of 200.

This attack, with the prospect which it held out for the future, caused much uneasiness and alarm in the city of Charleston. The mayor, on consulting with Beauregard, advised and earnestly requested all women and children, and other non-combatants, to leave the city as soon as possible; and the governor of the state issued a proclamation, calling for 3,000 negroes to work on the fortifications, urging the pressing need of increasing and strengthening the defences of Charleston. The newspapers of the city dilated upon the consequ

ences of the success of our army, giving it as their opinion that, "with the capture of Charleston, the whole state would soon be at the mercy of the foe, and the great cause of southern independence would be put in fearful jeopardy."* The portion of Morris Island not yet taken by Gillmore was well fortified. Fort Wagner was a very strong work; as were also Battery Gregg at Cummings's Point, Fort Moultrie, opposite Fort Sumter, on the north side of the harbor, Fort Ripley, Fort Johnson, Castle Pinckney, and numerous batteries at various points; the rebels, in fact, having in position and afloat, for the defence of Charleston, not less than 376 guns.

After the failure of the assault on Fort Wagner, above noted, Gillmore pushed forward operations with a vigorous hand. While congratulating his troops on their success thus far, he said, frankly and fairly, "our labors are not over. They are just begun; and while the spires of the rebel city still loom up in the dim distance, the hardships and privations must be endured before our hopes and expectations can find full fruition in victory." He now set to

* The Charleston Mercury remarked, truthfully enough: "It appears to us to be useless to attempt to disguise from ourselves the situation. The Yankees having gotten possession of the southern half of Morris Island, there is but one way to save the city of Charleston, and that is by the steady and unflinching use of the bayonet. If the fight on Morris Island Ib to be now a fight by engineering and cannon merely, the advantage is with the enemy. With their iron-clads on the water and their men in occupation of the land, it is likely to be a mere question of time. The fall of Fort Wagner ends in the fall of Charleston. Fort Sumter, like Fort Wagner, will then be assailable by both land and sea, and the fate of Fort Pulaski will be that of Sumter."

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work actively to bring his heavy guns into position, not only for an attack upon Wagner, but upon all the rebel works, ant also to throw shells into the city of CLarleston. The siege works were urged forward, and the enemy were annoyed in every way possible with sharpshooters and shells. In similar wise, the rebels threw shells, night and day, which exploded over the men at work in the trenches; and the guns of Gregg and Sumter were busily plied against the Ironsides and the monitors, which, by their steady firing, kept Fort Wagner silent.

On the 18th of July, Gillmore having placed a number of heavy guns and mortars in position, within 800 yards of Fort Wagner, determined on making another attack. The bombardment, which was to have opened at daylight, was delayed by a heavy thunderstorm during the night of the 17th, and it was not till about midday that the batteries, in concert with the fleet, opened a tremendous fire on the fort. This continued through the afternoon mto the evening, the fort making little reply during the whole time, and, whatever damage may have been sustained, showing no sign of surrender. The casualties, during these six hours, were few and unimportant on either side.

As the evening set in, and the impression gained ground that the works had been evacuated, another attempt to occupy them was determined upon. Two brigades, under Gen. Strong and Col. Putnam, were formed upon the beach, with the regiments disposed in column, the colored or negro regiment (54th Massachusetts) being in advance

'This movement of the troops was observed by the rebels in Sumter, and fire was at once opened upon them, happily without doing injury, as the shells went over the heads of the men. Strong's brigade, under this fire, moved along the beach, at slow time, for

1863

about three-quarters of a mile, when the men were ordered to lie down. In this position they remained half an hour, Sumter, meanwhile, being joined in the cannonade by the rebels in Battery Bee, but without effect upon our troops. It was now quite dark, and the order was given for both brigades to advance, General Strong's leading and Colonel Putnam's within supporting distance. The troops went forward at quick time and in deep silence, until, when within 200 yards of the work the negro troops gave a fierce yell and rushed up the glacis, closely followed by the other regiments of the brigade. The enemy met them with grape, canister, hand grenades, etc., and forced them back with severe loss. Other troops followed, but did not obtain any better success. Three companies of a New Hampshire regiment, led by Strong, in person, actually gained the ditch, and, wading through the water, found shelter against the embankment. Here was the critical point of the assault, and the second brigade, which should have been up and ready to support their comrades of the first, were unaccountably and unfortunately delayed. Strong then gave the order to fall back, and lie down on the glacis, which wa& obeyed without confusion. It was while waiting here, exposed to the heavy fire, that Strong was severely wounded. Finding that the

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