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position, and having left New Orleans, where he had been suffering from an injury occasioned by a fall from his horse, he reached Louisville on the 18th of October. The same day, he issued a general order, assuming command of the new "Military Division of the Mississippi, embracing the Departments of the Ohio, of the Cumberland, and of the Tennessee." He also gave a stirring notice that "the headquarters of the division will be in the field." Rose
crans was relieved of his command, and Gen. Thomas was put in his place, in charge of the Army of the Cumberland; Sherman was assigned to the command of the Army of the Tennessee; and Burnside, (who was soon after succeeded by Foster), to that of the Army of the Ohio. The narrative of further op erations against the rebels, as carried forward vigorously and successfully unGen. Grant's direction, we defer to the following chapter.
GRANT'S CAMPAIGN: BATTLE OP CHATTANOOGA: SIEGE OF KNOXVTLUS.
Bragg's investment of Chattanooga — Holds Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge — Expects to starve out our men — Sherman's advance and Grant's orders — Plan to seize the hills in Lookout Valley — Success ful — Supplies obtained — Hooker and his force — Attacked by the enemy — Grant's plans against Bragg — Bragg's blunder in detaching Longstreet — Position of Grant's army and preliminary arrangements — The battle begun, November 33d, in fine style — Carried forward the next day with spirit and success — Various details— Grant's activity — The struggle of November 25th — Successes I thus far — In the afternoon, the Ridge carried by storm — Extreme daring and gallantry of our men — Rebel panic — Bragg decamps hastily in the night — Retreats to Dalton — Losses, etc. — Grant's dispatches characteristic — Burnside in East Tennessee — Longstreet's march against him — Contests at several points — Burnside bosieged at Knoxville — Scarcity of supplies — Longstreet makes an assault, November 29th — Failure and consequent retreat — Sherman's advance — Burnside relieved of command — Gon. Grant's congratulatory order.
The rebel commander, Bragg, after Rosecrans's retreat to Chattanooga, followed closely on his steps, and investing the place, thought that his best plan was to starve Rosecrans out. Communication by the river, and by the railroad on the southern bank to the camp of Thomas, twenty-eight miles distant, was interrupted by the position of Bragg's force; and hence it became necessary to send supplies to Chat
tanooga by a circuitous and difficult road, over two ranges of mountain sv by wagon transportation, upon which route the rebel cavalry had opportunity to operate with advantage. Chattanooga itself was well fortified and protected from a direct assault, but the river below was commanded by Bragg's troops at Lookout Mountain and its vicinity. Bragg occupied not only the mountain just named, but also the adjacent one,
connecting Missionary Ridge, running in a south-westerly direction directly in front of Rosecrans's camps, which were thus freely exposed to view from the heights. A battery of rifle 24-pounders was placed at a commanding point of Lookout Mountain, from which, at a distance between two and three miles, shells were thrown into Chattanooga, without, however, doing any material damage. The rebels also held Lookout Valley on the westerly side of the mountains, where a creek of the same name runs into the Tennessee. Bragg, looking to a speedy evacuation of Chattanooga, for the want of food and forage> was so confident of success in the starving out process, as to declare that he "held the enemy at his mercy, and that his destruction was only a question of time." But the result showed, as Pollard phrases it, " how vain were the sanguine expectations and the swollen boast of this ill-starred and unfortunate commander."
Gen. Sherman, previous to this, had been engaged in opening the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad eastward towards Huntsville, with the design of effecting a communication
1863 v/l^x Chattanooga. He was employed on this task, working resolutely in the face of the enemy eastwardly from Corinth, through Iuka; but when Grant took command, Sherman, in accordance with orders received from Grant, abandoned the railroad, crossed the Tennessee at Eastport, moved by the north bank to Stevenson, where he united with the right wing of the Army of the Cumberland. Hooker was ordered to move to Bridgeport,
on the right bank of the Tennessee thirty miles below Chattanooga, and crossing at that point, he was to march by the main wagon road through Whitesides to Wauhatchie. Palmer, with the 14th corps, was ordered to move to a point on the north bank opposite Whitesides. Then he was to cross, and follow in Hooker's track, holding and guarding the road in his rear. Grant, who had reached Chattanooga on the 23d of October, and ascertained the critical condition of affairs there in regard to supplies, saw plainly that the rebels must be dislodged, and communications opened, or disastrous consequences would follow. Hence the movements, above noted, were urged forward, and an excellently contrived plan of Gen. W. F. Smith, chief engineer of Grant's army, having been adopted, speedy relief was looked for. The plan was to take a force of about 4,000 men, proceed down the river to Brown's Ferry, and seize the range of steep hills at the mouth of Lookout Valley; in this way, if the expedition were successful, Hooker's and Palmer's movements would be facilitated and rendered more secure, and the river would be open for steamboats to Brown's Ferry.
On the night of the 2Gth of October, 1,800 men, under Gen. Hazen, were embarked at Chattanooga, in sixty pontoon boats, in which they floated down the Tennessee with the current, round the sharp bend of the river below Look out Mountain, unobserved by three miles of pickets, until they reached the point proposed, Brown's Ferry, six miles by the river from Chattanooga. Landing at two points, they seized the pick
ets, and obtained possession of the spurs near the river. The remainder of the force, under Smith, who had marched by the north bank, were ferried over before daylight, strengthening the party under Hazen. By ten o'clock, A.m., the pontoon bridge, 900 feet long, was completed; the points occupied were well entrenched; the artillery was put in position so as to command the main road from Chattanooga Valley to Lookout Valley; and the rebel force between Lookout and Shell Mound, finding themselves in a critical position, hastily retreated behind the creek. Thus, Smith's plan was thoroughly carried out, and henceforth Chattanooga was relieved of all fears of starvation.
Hooker, on the '26th of October, crossed the Tennessee, and occupied Lookout Valley, Geary holding the advance at Wauhatchie; while Palmer, following in Hooker's rear as above noted, formed a strong moving base for that general's operations. The rebels were chagrined at the success of the expedition under Smith, and were determined if possible to retrieve their loss. Accordingly, on the night of the 28th and morning of the 29th of October, an attack was made upon Geary's division by two brigades, under Hood, of Longstreet's corps, and a desperate effort was made to cut off and capture Geary. Not only was the attack a failure, but Howard's corps being moved rapidly to the right, both the rebels were repulsed and the remaining crests lying west of Lookout Creek were seized and held by our troops*
* Gen. Thomas, in congratulating Hooker and his troops on the " brilliant success gained over his old od
Our loss, in these operations of the 27th, 28th, and 29th of October, in opening communications on the south side of the Tennessee, from Chattanooga to Bridgeport, was reported to be—76 killed, 339 wounded, and 22 missing; that of the enemy was supposed to be about 1,500.
In carrying out his plans, Grant's next effort was to see if he could not drive out Bragg and the rebels entirely from the position they held on Lookout Mountain. He was not content with simply relieving Chattanooga; a much greater work was before him, and he devoted all his energies to its accomplishment. Happily, Bragg made a great blunder, which proved of essential advantage to Grant's purposes. The rebel general, thinking it good policy to cut off Burnside in East Tennessee, detached Longstreet from his army, early in November, to attack Burnside and take Knoxville. This, of course, weakened Bragg materially, and enabled Grant so to arrange his movements as to be almost certain of victory. Sherman, with his corps, was at Bridgeport on the 14th of November, and was quite ready to take his part in the work to be done. Grant sent word to Burnside, explaining his purpose, and urging him to occupy Longstreet at various points, and to draw him further and further away from Bragg, only taking
versary, Longstreet," on this occasion, gave it as his opinion, that' the bayonet,charge of Howard's troops, made up the side of a steep and difficult hill, over two hundred feet high, completely routing and driving the enemy from his barricades on its top, and the repulse by Geary's division, of greatly superior numbers, who attempted to surprise him, will rank among the most distinguished feats of arms of this war."