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knowing what to expect, he instantly evacuated East Tennessee, and left in such a hurry as not to find time to apprize the rebels at Cumberland Gap of his movements, or to give them any orders as to the course they were now to pursue. Thus Burnside, after a very severe and trying march across the Cumberland Mountains, of some 250 miles in two weeks' time, found himself master of the situation.
The advance, under Col. Foster, entered Knoxville on the 1st of September, and two days later, Burnside was welcomed there with enthusiasm and joy rarely if ever equalled during the war. It was, in fact, a perfect ovation which met the deliverers upon their entrance. The town was decorated with flags, some of which had been hidden for more than two years; and the people, lining the roads and streets, cried out, "Welcome, Gen. Burnside, welcome to East Tennessee!" "Bless the Lord! The old flag's come back to Tennessee!" A public meeting was held, at which Burnside made some appropriate remarks, and the citizens congratulated themselves upon their deliverance from the grinding despotism under which they had so long groaned. A large amount of public property claimed by the rebel authorities, as machine shops, foundries, cars, locomotives, etc., fell into Burnside's hands. About 2,000,000 pounds of salt, a large quantity of wheat (the fruits of the tithe tax), and many thousand bags were also taken. "From that day," says "Woodbury, "the rebel rule in East Tennessee was ended, the great western line of rebel communica
tion was taken from the hands that had abused its facilities, and the power of the Union became supreme. The frantic and desperate efforts which the rebels subsequently made to regain their lost authority were all completely foiled. Their season of trinmph had passed. Their doom was sealed."
Just before leaving Kentucky, Burnside ordered Colonel De Courcy, with a brigade of infantry, to march upon Cumberland Gap by the direct rout* through London and Barboursville. Learning, on the 4th of September, that the rebel force defending the Gap was strong, and likely to offer resistance, he dispatched Shackelford, with his brigade, on the 5th, from Knoxville, with instructions to seize all avenues of escape to the south. He followed himself, with another body of infantry and cavalry, on the 7th, and arrived within four miles of the Gap on the 9th, after a forced march of sixty miles. De Courcy and Shackel ford had both demanded a surrender which Frazier, the rebel commander refused. On Burnside's arrival, the de mand was renewed, and after some par leying acceded to. In explanation of the extraordinary isolation in which Frazier was left, rebel officers asserted that Bragg had peremptorily ordered him to remain. Fourteen pieces of artillery and 2,000 prisoners were cap tured at Cumberland Gap, and its loss was pronounced, by a rebel journal, to be "one of the most disgraceful occur rences of the war." *
* Davis, in his message to ihe rebel Congress, subsequently spoke of this surrender in the following terms:—" The country was painfully surprised by the
Meantime, a column of cavalry asI cended the Valley to Bristol, driving [ the enemy across the Virginia line, and i destroyed the railroad bridges over I the Holston and Watauga Rivers, so I as to prevent the return of the rebels into East Tennessee. The main body of Burnside's army was now ordered by the general-in-chief to concentrate | on the Tennessee River, from Loudon west, in order to connect with Rose| crans's army, which reached Chattanooga on the 9th of September. BurnI side, not being in good health, wished to resign; but the president refused to accept his resignation at that date. 'He accordingly put his troops in motion to occupy the different points ne| cessary to guard .his line of defence, the j Holston River, and to hold the gaps of J the North Carolina mountains. The rebels under Gen. S. Jones, about 10,000 in number, were making all the resistance in their power, harassing our outposts and watching for opportunities of attack; but Burnside, by his activity and zeal, was fully equal to the
Intelligence that the officer in command of Cumberland Gap had surrendered that important and easily defensible pass, without firing a shot, upon the summons of a force still believed to have been inadequate to its reduction, and when reinforcements wore within supporting distance, and had been ordered to his aid. The entire garrison, including the commander, being 1 still held prisoners by the enemy, I am unablo to suggest any explanation of this disaster, which laid open Eastern Tennessee and South-western Virginia to hos'tile operations, and broke the line of communication | between the seat of government and Middle Tennessee."
emergency. By the middle of September, he had taken effectual steps to guard a line of 176 miles in length from the left of Rosecrans, with whom he was in direct communication, nearly to the Virginia boundary.
Gen. Halleck congratulated Burnside on his success, and went on to say: "It is important that all the available forces of your command be pushed forward into East Tennessee. All your scattered forces should be concentrated there. So long as we hold Tennessee, Kentucky is perfectly safe. Move down your infantry as rapidly as possible toward Chattanooga, to connect with Rosecrans. Bragg may merely hold the passes of the mountains to cover Atlanta, and move his main army through Northern Alabama, to reach the Tennessee River and turn Rosecrans's right, and cut off his supplies. In this case he will turn Chattanooga over to you, and move to intercept Bragg." On the 17th of September, Burnside received another dispatch from Halleck, at Washington, dated the 14th, which read thus: "There are several reasons why you should reinforce Rosecrans with all possible dispatch. It is believed that the enemy will concentrate to give him battle. You must be there to help him."
Leaving, for the present, Burnside and the operations required at his hands, we turn to the movements of Rosecrans and the important results consequent thereupon.
DEPARTMENT OP THE CUMBERLAND: ADVANCE TO CHATTANOOGA: BATTLE OF
Position of Rosecrans and hia army— Rebel attack on Fort Donelson repulsed — Colburn and his force captured by the rebels—Various skirmishes, raids and contests of minor importance — Rosecrans's preparations — Execution of spies — Army begins to advance in June — Position of Bragg and his forces — Rosecrans's plan successfully carried out—Advance on Chattanooga in August — Progress of the army across the Cum berland Mountains — Chattanooga evacuated by the rebels—I In 1 leek's fears — Rosecrans's reply — Reinforce ments called in from every direction — Hooker sent out with 11th and 12th corps — Scant supplies — Bragg's movements — Address to his soldiers — Rosecrans's position for battle — Bragg begins the battle—Description of the battle of Chickamauga — Heavy losses — Rosecrans falls back on Chattanooga — Bragg's movements to cut off supplies — The separate commands combined — Gen. Grant in charge of the Military Division of the Mississippi, embracing the departments of the Ohio, of the Cumberland, and of the Tennessee— Rosecrans relieved of his command — Gens. Thomas, Sherman, and Bumside in command of the several departments.
After the battle of Murfreesborough (see p. 253), several months were spent by Gen. Rosecrans and the Army of the Cumberland in bringing up supplies, opening lines of communication, and establishing a base of operations for an advance upon the rebels at Chattanooga. Various raids and skirmishes occurred in this interval,' the rebels manifesting much activity, and interfering seriously with Rosecrans's supplies, but not gaining any special or permanent advantages. Several of these assaults and engagements may properly here be noted.
On the 3d of February, an attack was made upon Fort Donelson by the rebels under Wheeler and Forrest, with about 4,000 men and eight pieces of artillery. Col. A. C. Harding was in command of the post, with about 500 available men of his regiment, one company of cavalry, and Floyd's battery of artillery. The ene
my began in the afternoon by throwing solid shot into the fort, and made several feints at storming the works. Forrest twice sent a flag of truce, urging his superior force and demanding a surrender, which Harding resolutely refused. At eight o'clock in the evening, the enemy had invested the work on three sides to the river above and below, and were about pressing the fmal attack which, as the defenders were nearly out of ammunition, promised to be successful. At this moment, however, a number of gunboats, under Capt. Fitch, which were convoying transports from below, opportunely arrived on the spot, and warned of the attack, skilfully opened fire upon the assailants. The gun boats, effectively placed, speedily drove off the enemy. Their loss in killed and wounded was not less than 900. Col. Harding's loss was thirteen killed and fifty-one wounded.
On the 4th of March, Col. Colburn, with some 1,800 men, attempted a reconnaissance from Franklin towards Springfield, encountering in his way Van Dorn's column of the rebel force, estimated to be over 7,000 men. The enemy retreated, drawing Colburn into a gorge, where he was surrounded, and nearly all his force captured. Two weeks later, on the 20th of March, Col. Hall, while on a reconnaissance, with about 1,400 men, met the famous raider J. H. Morgan, whose force was between 2,000 and 3,000. Hall succeeded in repulsing the enemy, after a sharp contest of three and a half hours. On the 25th of March, the rebel cavalry leader, Forrest, made a raid on the Nashville and Columbia Railroad, burning the bridge and capturing Col. Bloodgood's command at Brentwood. Gen. G. C. Smith, arriving opportunely with about 600 cavalry, attacked the enemy in the rear, and recovered a large portion of the property captured at Brentwood, pursuing the rebels to Little Harpeth, where they were reinforced. On the 10th of April, Van Dorn, with a large mounted force, attacked Franklin, but was repulsed by Gen. Granger, with a loss of nineteen killed, thirty-five wounded left on the field, and forty-eight prisoner.* Gen. J. J. Reynolds made a raid upon the Manchester and McMinnville Railroad, destroying the depot, roDing stock, supplies, and other property, and capturing 180 prisoners. Col. Streight, with about 1,800 men,
* This man Van Dorn, an unscrupulous debauchee, was shot in open daylight, at his quarters, early in May, by a Dr. Peters, with whose wife he had been guilty of adultery.
started, April 9th, on a raid into Georgia to cut the enemy's communication. After heavy losses in skirmishes with Forrest's cavalry, and when near its destination, he was forced to surrender. On the 22d of May, Gen. Stanley made a raid upon Middleton, capturing eighty prisoners and 200 horses, 600 stand of arms, and other property. On the 4th of June, Forrest made a raid upon Franklin, and on the 11th, attacked Trinne. His losses in these unsuccessful skirmishes were estimated at over 100, while ours were only seventeen killed and wounded.
During the months of preparation alluded to above, Rosecrans was actively and earnestly engaged in seeking to strengthen his army by a thorough system of discipline, and also to excite in the minds of his men a proper sense and appreciation of the nature of the conflict which was being carried on between law and order on the one hand, and wicked and causeless rebellion on the other. Writing at this date, Rosecrans characterized the "Confederacy " as kept alive by "an oligarchy of traitors to their friends, to civil liberty, and human freedom. Whereever they have the power, they drive before them into their ranks the southern people, and they would also drive us. Trust them not; were they able, they would invade and destroy us without mercy. Absolutely assured of these things, I am amazed that any one could think of peace on any terms. When the power of the unscrupulous rebel leaders is removed, and the people are free to consider and act for their own interests, which are common with ours under this government, there will be no difficulty in fraternization."*
Early in June, there was a military execution in this department, which attracted some attention from the audacity displayed by two rebel officers, L. A. Williams and W. J. Peter, in playing the parts of spies. Towards evening, on the 8th of June, it appears that two persons rode into Col. Baird's quarters at Franklin, Term., representing themselves to be Col. Austin and Major Dunlap, Inspectors-general of the United States Army. They had with them counterfeit official papers from Gen. Rosecrans, and told a well concocted story of their being plundered by the rebels on their way. They were admitted into camp, had an opportunity of noting its defences, and just before departing borrowed money of the officer in command. When they had left, en route for Nashville, as they said, the suspicion suddenly flashed upon Col. Baird that they were spies; and he immediately ordered them to be pursued and arrested. This was done; Rosecrans, in reply to a telegram, stated that no such persons were known to him; and on being searched, they were clearly proven to be spies. By Rosecrans's direction, they were tried by a court martial the same night, were found guilty, and the next morning, at nine o'clock, were hung in the presence of the garrison.
Although urged by the military authorities at Washington, and aware of the expectation of the public in regard
* Major-General Rosecrans in reply to a resolution of the Honourable the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February, 1863.
to his making an early advance, Rosecrans had not unduly hurried himself. He had taken time to recruit his army, to procure horses for his dismounted cavalry, and, as far as possible, to perfect all his arrangements, while he was carefully watching the dispositions of the enemy in his front. So that it was the month of June before the Army of the Cumberland was in motion.
The rebel Gen. Bragg, after the battle of Murfreesborough, (p. 253), withdrew his forces to Shelbyrille, Tullahoma, and the line of the Duck Biver, which crosses the state in a westerly direction to the Tennessee, at its nearest point, about thirty miles south of the line h eld by Rosecran s. Bragg's force was understood to be strongly entrenched in its main positions, while in front the occupation of the roads running south from Murfreesborough, with the natural features of the country, gave it additional security against attack. It was Rosecrans's plan, in his advance, to neutralize these advantages by turning Bragg's position and making a flank attack on his right, and thus to reach his immediate base of operations at Tullahoma, on the Chattanooga Railroad. In this way, he purposed compelling the enemy to an engagement on ground of his own choosing, or forcing him to a retreat.
On the 24th of June, the camps were broken up at Murfreesborough, and the army began its march in three corps, the right under McCook, the centre under Thomas, and the left under Crittenden. By an admirably combined movement, Rosecrans was able to deceive the rebels by threatening an ad