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took charge of the department of the Monongahela with his headquarters at Pittsburg. Gov. Curtin, of Pennsylvania, issued a proclamation, on the 12th of June, calling on the people to rouse themselves in the existing emergency. So soon as the attack on Winchester became known at Washington, Mr. Lincoln, on the 13th of June, issued a proclamation, in which he declared that "the armed insurrectionary combinations now existing in several of the states, are threatening to make inroads into the states of Maryland, West. era Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, requiring an additional military force for the service of the United States." He therefore called into the service 100,000 militia to serve for six months; from Maryland 10,000, Pennsylvania 50,000, Ohio 30,000, West Virginia 10,000; he also, with Gov. Seymour's prompt acquiescence, called for 20,000 men from New York Gov. Curtin issued another proclamation, on the same day that the president's was sent forth, appealing earnestly to those " who hate treason and its abettors, and invoking them to rise in their might and rush to the rescue in this hour of imminent peril." The governor's words hardly produced their proper effect, and in less than a week, he had to call upon the people again; but now, the rebels were actually in Pennsylvania, committing depredations very extensively, and as this was an argument they felt to the full, they bestirred themselves accordingly. The governors of West Virginia, Ohio, and Maryland, also issued spirit-stirring appeals to the people, and there was a

general disposition in all the states to furnish the necessary aid.

The rebel commander, inspirited by his success thus far, endeavored to entice Hooker further from his base, and thus gain an opportunity to strike a blow at Washington. With this object in view, Hill's corps having been sent to join Ewell's in the valley, Longstreet, with his corps augmented by three brigades of Pickett's division, moved from Culpepper along the eastern side of the Blue Ridge, and took position at Ashby's and Snickers Gaps. His front was secured by Stuart's cavalry, against whom Hooker sent Pleasanton with his energetic force. A sharp encounter occurred, on the 17th of June, at Aldie, which served in part to develop Lee's position; and again, on the 21st, our cavalry met Stuart's troopers on the road between Aldie and Ashby's Gap, and drove them through Middlebury and Upperville, and beyond. "It was a most disastrous day to the rebel cavalry," said Pleasanton, in a dispatch. "Our loss has been verv small, both in men and horses. I never saw the men and troops behave better, or under more difficult circumstances. Very heavy charges were made, and the sabre was used freely, but always with great advantage to us."

The great success of Ewell at Winchester, noted on a previous page (p. 322), was immediately followed up by the passage of a body of 1,500 rebel cavalry, under Jenkins, across the Potomac, who passed through Hagerstown and Greencastle, and then advanced to Chambersburg, which town they entered without opposition on the evening of the 15th of June. Horses, cattle, forage, goods (paid for in confederate scrip) were freely seized upon; the bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, from Harper's Ferry to Cumberland, a distance of a hundred miles, were destroyed by Imboden, and the road itself torn up to a considerable extent; and the rebels displayed the utmost activity in supplying their needs out of the property of the rich farmers of Pennsylvania. No wonder that an unparalleled excitement was roused in the loyal states, and intense interest manifested in the movements of that army on which rested the grave responsibility of repulsing and driving out the daring rebels.

As Hooker was not to be lured away from the direct defence of the capital in order to make an attack upon Longstreet, Lee resolved at once to carry out his original purpose of invasion, and to give up the hoped-for chance of any blow against Washington. Accordingly, Ewell, having been relieved by Hill and Longstreet, began to move with the advancing column on Sunday, June 21st. On the same day, Lee issued an order to his army, regulating the mode of procuring supplies "while in the enemy's country," as he phrased it. No private property was to be injured or destroyed. The chiefs of the commissary, quarter-master, ordnance, and medical departments were authorized to make requisitions upon the local authorities or inhabitants for the supplies they might need, payment for which should be tendered,


and if refused, receipts should be given for the property taken. If

property was withheld or concealed, it was liable to peremptory seizure*

The day following this order, June 2 2d, Ewell's corps crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, passed thence to Hagerstown, and entered Greencastle early in the afternoon. On the 23d, Chambersburg was re-occupied by I Rodes's division of Ewell's force. The j next day, Lee, with the main body of , i his army, crossed into Maryland at the | fords at Shepherdstown and Williams- j | port, and moved up the Cumberland! Valley on the west side of the Cotoctin !| Mountains. His advance was made in J1 two divisions, one by way of the Harrisburg and Chambersburg Railroad to- j i wards Harrisburg, and the other from Gettysburg eastward to the Northern j' Central Railroad from Baltimore to \ Harrisburg, and thence to York and i Lancaster, in Pennsylvania. On the | 25th of June, the enemy was at Car- j lisle, from which Gen. Knipe, who was stationed at the place with two New i' York militia regiments, retired to Har- j j risburg from the presence of a superior 11 force.

Ewell, on entering Chambersburg, h issued an order to the inhabitants, forbidding the sale of intoxicating liquors to his command, and admonishing all j j citizens of the country to abstain , from all acts of hostility, upon the pen- J | alty of " being dealt with in a summary |

* Pollard complains bitterly that Lee did not take occasion to retaliate "the ferocity of the enemy," bv laying waste and ravaging Pennsylvania while he hail an opportunity. "Such tenderness, the effect of i , weak and strained chivalry, or more probably that of deference to European opinion, is another of the many instances which the war has furnished of the simplicity and sentimental facility of the South."—"Thiri Year of the War," p. 23.

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manner." On the 27th of June, the main body of Ewell's, Longstreet's, and Hill's corps were encamped near Chambersburg.* Early's division was detached for the purpose of crossing South Mountain, and proceeded as far east as York, while the remainder of the corps proceeded to Carlisle. Imboden, in pursuance of his instructions, had been actively engaged on the left of Ewell during the progress of the latter into Maryland, in destroying railroad bridges, etc.

Several hundred of the enemy's advance guard of cavalry rode into Gettysburg, on the afternoon of June 26th, "shouting and yelling," says an observer, "like so many savages from the wilds of the Rocky Mountains; firing their pistols, not caring whether they killed or maimed man, woman or child; and rushing from stable to stable in search of horses." The same afternoon, Gordon's brigade, consisting of 5,000 men, of Early's division of Ewell's corps, entered Gettysburg, driving before them a Pennsylvania militia regiment, which had been stationed as an outpost of the town.f Early who accompanied this brigade, immediately demanded of the authorities a large amount of supplies, viz.:—1,200 pounds sugar, 600 pounds

* Stuart with his cavalry had been left east of the Blue Ridge, in order to harass Hooker in crossing the Potomac, after which, ho was ordered to pass into Maryland, and take position on the right of the advancing column. Not being able to effect anything, he crossed below the point where Hooker passed over the Potomac, and thus found the army between him i and Lee, which necessitated, on Stuart's part, a wide 'detour. He reached Carlisle on the 1st of July, after I Ewell had left the place.

I f From the appearance of the ragged, dirty, shoe'less, and hatl ess rebel troops, on the present occasion, j it appears that the "chivalry" had not improved since I the former invasion (sec p. 238).

of coffee, 60 barrels of flour, 1,000 pounds of salt, 7,000 pounds of bacon, 10 barrels of whiskey, 10 barrels of onions, 1,000 pairs of shoes, and 500 hats, amounting in value to $6,000; or in lieu thereof, $5,000 cash. On being assured, however, that the demand was entirely beyond any possibility of their meeting it, Early did not attempt any forcible requisition, and comparatively little damage was dont. to the town.

Hurrying forward, Early passed through Hanover the next morning, and on Sunday, June 28th, entered and occupied York. His headquarters were in the town, with the larger part of his force, and he made an immediate de- I mand for money and supplies. The authorities were called upon for $100,000 in United States Treasury notes, | 200 barrels of flour, 40,000 pounds of fresh beef, 30,000 bushels of corn, 1,000 pairs of shoes, 1,000 pairs of stockings, and 1,000 coats and caps, beside various I other articles, amounting in value to not j less than $150,000; but the rebels did not get more than $30,000 in cash and subsistence. At Wrightsville, on the Susquehanna, our troops there retreated across the river, and the bridge having been fired, the rebels were prevented from ravaging east of the Susquehanna* Early retreated from York on the 30th of June, and in doing so took great credit to himself and his men for

* The same day, a train of 178 wagons was captured by the rebels between Eockville and Tenallytowh; a number of army officers were taken prisoners near Rockville by some of Stuart's cavalry; and at Edwards' Ferry fifteen barges, loaded with government stores, were burnt by Stuart's men. A raid, of no great moment, was made in several directions by Stuart, almost to the capital; he then marched through Westminister to Carlisle.

their excellent conduct: "Had I applied the torch without regard to consequences, I would have pursued a course that would have been fully vindicated as an act of just retaliation for the unparalleled acts of brutality perpetrated by your own army on our soil. But we do not war upon women and children, and I trust the treatment you have met with at the hands of my soldiers will open your eyes to the odious tyranny under which it is apparent to all you are groaning."

The Army of the Potomac, meanwhile, was slowly advancing to its work. Having crossed the Potomac, on the 25th and 26th of June, at Edwards' Ferry, the army advanced to Frederick, Maryland, where Hooker established his headquarters, and whence he might move upon Lee in the direction which seemed most advantageous. It appears to have been his purpose to menace the rebel rear by a movement towards Chambersburg, and he ordered Slocum to march with the 12th corps to Harper's Ferry, and taking with him the garrison there, under French, 11,000 strong, to push forward the proposed demonstration; but Halleck interfered. Hooker remonstrated, in earnest terms, and pointed out that the garrison at the Ferry was of no earthly use in the present state of affairs; but the generalin-chief was not to be moved; Maryland Heights must be held; "much expense and labor had been incurred in fortifying them." Hooker, indignant at having his plans interfered with, and probably not altogether comfortable in other respects, determined to throw up his command. On the 27th of June, he

requested to be relieved, and the next morning an order came from Washington, acceding to his request, and appointing Gen. George G. Meade to the command of the Army of the Potomac*

The appointment was an excellent one, probably the best that could have been made, and both the officers and the army felt every confidence in the judgment, courage, and skill of their new commander. Warned by what had taken place on previous occasions, Meade's address to the army, June 28th, was simple, unadorned by rhetorical flourishes, and straightforward :—" By direction of the President of the United States, I hereby assume command of the Army of the Potomac. As a soldier, in obeying this order, an order lg(J3 totally unexpected and unsolicited, I have no promises or pledges to make. The country looks to this army to relieve it from the devastation and disgrace of a hostile invasion. Whatever fatigues and sacrifices we may be called upon to undergo, let us have in view constantly the magnitude of the interests involved, and let each man determine to do his duty, leaving to an all-controlling Providence the decision of the contest."

At this date, Lee was preparing to cross the Susquehanna and strike Harrisburg, but having received information from a scout that Meade's army , I

* Mr. Swinton, who does not spare Halleck for his vexatious interference, thinks that "the conduct of Gen. Hooker cannot be accounted noble or highminded. A truly lofty sense of duty would havo dictated much long suffering, in a conjuncture of circumstances, amid which the success of the campaign might be seriously compromised by the sudden change of commanders.' See Swinton's "Army of the Potomac" pr. 321-323.

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was advancing northward, and that the head of the column had reached South Mountain, he was compelled, by this rapid gathering on his flank, to concentrate his forces on the east side of the mountain, in order to preserve his communications with the Potomac. Accordingly, Longstreet and Hill were ordered to proceed from Chambersburg towards Gettysburg, about twenty miles eastward, to which point Ewell also was directed to countermarch from York and Carlisle.

It was evident, from the state of things, that a collision between the two armies could not be far distant. Meade, having compelled Lee to loose his hold upon the Susquehanna, was carefully considering where to select a position in which to receive battle on advantageous terms* The line of Pipe Creek, on the ridge between the Monocacy and the waters running into Chesapeake Bay, seemed adapted to his purpose; but no decision was yet formed, and various circumstances soon after occurring, led, providentially, to the making choice of Gettysburg as the point where the rebels were to be signally repulsed. On the 29 th of June, Meade's army was in motion, and at night was in position, the left at Emmittsburg and the light at New Windsor. Buford's division of cavalry was on the left flank, with its advance at Gettysburg; Kilpatrick's division was in front at Hanover. The next day, in view of the approaching

* Gen. French, who was in command at Harper's Ferry, was ordered, on the 28th of June, to leave that post, which was represented, incorrectly, however, as destitute of supplies ; to occupy Frederick with 7,000 of his men, and with the remaining 4,000 to remove and escort the public property to Washington.

deadly struggle, Meade issued an address to the army, in which, with the utmost earnestness, he besought the officers and soldiers to bear in mind what vast interests depended on their steadiness and good conduct. "Homes, firesides, and do mestic altars are involved. The army haa fought well heretofore. It is believed that it will fight more desperately and bravely than ever, if it is addressed in fitting terms. Corps and other commanders are authorized to order the instant death of any soldier who fails to do his duty at this hour."

On the night of June 30thj the right wing of the army was ordered to Manchester, in rear of Pipe Creek, the centre was directed towards Two Taverns and Hancock, while the left wing, consisting of the 1st, 11th, and 3d corps, under Gen. Reynolds, moved forward to occupy Gettysburg the next morning. Buford, with his cavalry, passing through the town, pushed out reconnaissances west and north, to ascertain, if possible, the movements of Lee's army. On the morning of Tuesday, June 30th, a portion of Hill's corps advanced on the Chambersburg road as far as the crest of Seminary Hill, half a mile north-west of the village, but did not remain, retiring towards Cashtown. About nine o'clock, the next morning, July 1st, Buford found himself engaged, rather unexpectedly, with the van of Hill's force, about a mile west of the town. Aware of the importance of retarding Hill's advance, Buford skilfully arranged his* men and used his artillery to good effect. In less than an hour, Reynolds reached Gettysburg, and dashing

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