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and danger to provide for this point. Something like a rushing whirlwind of men, artillery and wagons was sweeping down the road, and past headquarters, and on towards the fords of the Rappahannock. It seemed in vain to attempt to stop them; but fortunately, as it happened, Pleasanton came up with his cavalry at this moment; he moved forward rapidly, charged into the woods, and brought his artillery to bear upon the 'rebels with terrible effect. Hooker, also, called upon his old division, which he had commanded, and of which he entertained a very high opinion, to dash forward into the breach and receive the enemy on their bayonets. Gallantly did they obey the call, being now commanded by Gen. Berry, and, in perfect order, despite the herd of fugitives streaming past, they took position on a crest at the western end of the clearing around Chancellorsville. Other troops, with artillery, were brought forward, and by steadiness and determination the rebel advance was checked.
About this time, in the darkness of the night, Jackson, the leader of this movement, was stricken down, and, as it occurred, by the bullets of his own soldiers. Anxious to grasp all the results of his attack, he was pressing forward through the woods, and went even beyond his lines to reconnoitre, giving instructions to his troops not to fire, unless cavalry approached from the direction of the enemy. Turning with his staff to re-enter his own lines, his troops, it seems, mistaking them for a body of Union cavalry, fired a volley and killed and wounded a number.
Jackson received three balls, one in his left arm, near the shoulder, the others in the arm and right hand. On being removed to the rear his arm was am putated, and it was hoped that ho, might recover; but pneumonia having set in, he lived only a few days, expiring on the 10th of May.
Without dwelling upon Jackson's life and character, both of which were remarkable in several respects, and cause one to regret that a man like him was deluded to such an extent as to engage in rebellion and revolution, we give the summing up which Mr. Swinton presents respecting that commander whom he terms "the ablest of Lee's lieutenants. Jackson," he says, "was essentially an executive officer, and in this sphere he was incomparable. Devoid of high mental parts, and destitute of that power of planning and combination, and of that calm, broad, military intellect which distinguished Gen. Lee, whom he regarded with a childlike reverence, and whose desigus he loved to carry out, he had yet those elements of character that, above all else, inspire troops. A fanatic in religion, fully believing that he was destined by Heaven to beat his enemy whenever he encountered him, he infused something of his own fervent faith into his men, and at the time of his death had trained a corps whose attacks in column were unique and irresistible; and it was noticed that Lee ventured upon no strokes of audacity after Jackson had passed away."*
* "Army of tfie Potomac," p. 289. Esten Cooke's eulogy on Jackson is also worth consulting', and gives the southern estimate of his character, services and ability.
It was.evident, from the position of affairs on Saturday night, that a change of line was necessary, by which the enemy should be driven from the rear and brought into front again. Gen. Reynolds, with his corps, had been ordered by Gen. Hooker to join him, and arrived at United States Ford on Saturday afternoon. The troops were put into position at once on the right, which was withdrawn from the plank road to the Ely's Ford turnpike. This line was immediately formed by Generals Reynolds and Meade, the latter's position, on the left, having been relieved by General Howard's 11th corps, which, notwithstanding its disorganized condition, was so far re-organized during the night as to be fit for duty again. They were assigned the position on the left, where it was probable there would be little or no fighting, and were protected by the strong works built the day before by General Meade's corps. The new line now assumed the shape of a triangle, prolonged at the apex, the right of the line being somewhat longer than the left. As the portion of the line on the right was new, time was necessary to fortify and entrench it, and the work was carried on vigorously by the 5th and 1st army corps. The rebels had been reinforcing their line all night, and as Jackson was no longer able to lead his troops, they were placed under command of J. E. B. Stuart. Their intention was to fight for the possession of the plank road, which it was apparent they must have, as that portion of it which our troops held was subject to assaults in front and on both flanks.
At daylight, on Sunday morning, Stuart and his men seized the crest which the day before had been occupied by the left of the 11th corps, got thirty pieces of artillery into position thereon, and opened a heavy fire on the plain around Chancellor House. Hooker, still retaining this as his headquarters, formed the line of battle, with Berry's division on the right, Birney next to him, on the left, Whipple and Williams supporting. The advance speedily became engaged in the ravine, just beyond the ridge where Captain Best's guns had done such excellent service the night before. The contest was fiercely and energetically carried on. Berry's division, which had checked the enemy's advance before, displayed their bravery and spirit to a high degree. The rebels dashed forward, Avith the battle cry, "Charge, and remember Jackson!" and seemed determined to crush everything by their tremendous onslaught. But our men fought with equal determination, and resisted the advance of the rebels with steadfast and unconquerable spirit. The exploits of our soldiers in those tangled, gloomy woods may never be brought fully to light; but they would fill volumes. Not only Berry's, but Sickles's and French's troops, made good fight at their position, receiving Stuart's impetuous assaults; but, after a severe struggle, Sickles was forced from his front line. So also French was pressed back, and the attack was renewed on Sickles.
Lee meanwhile attacked the centre and left, where Slocum and Hancock were in command; but he was gallantly met by our men. An order was given to fall back to Chancellor House, which was done; and for an hour or more the battle raged at the angle of the roads. Our line, however, soon began to waver; Hooker abandoned his headquarters, now on fire, and retired to a new line, about a mile nearer to the river and covering the fords. The rebels made a dash, and between ten and eleven o'clock gained possession of Chancellorsville. The position taken by Hooker was a strong one, the right flank resting on the Rapidan and the left on the Rappahannock. The corps of Meade and Reynolds, which, as seems very singular, had not been called into action at any of those times when help was so greatly needed, were formed on the new lines, together with the troops falling back as above stated. Lee was preparing to make a vigorous assault with his entire force, when news from Fredericksburg compelled his attention in another direction.
Sedgwick, it will be remembered, had been left some three miles below Fredericksburg to await developments of the main army at Chancellorsville. The serious injury inflicted on Hooker by Jackson's bold movement, induced the former to send orders to Sedgwick to occupy Fredericksburg, seize the heights, gain the plank road towards Chancellorsville, and move out to join Hooker destroying any force he might meet, and reaching his assigned position by daylight, on Sunday morning. This was a movement which, if successfully carried out, was of great importance, but which also involved serious risk. Sedgwick received the order at
eleven o'clock on Saturday night, and immediately set about its execution. Some hours before daylight, after sharp skirmishing, he occupied the town, and soon after, Gibbon's division crossed from Falmouth io join him. Sedgwick concluded, under all the circumstances, to carry, by assault, the heights immediately in the rear of the town, including Marye's Hill and the stone wall at its base, where our troops had suffered so severely during Burnside's campaign. Much time had already been consumed; the forenoon was fast passing, when the deadly struggle began for driving the rebels out of their position; but it was executed with a gallantry unsurpassed at any time. A thousand of our men were killed, and the rebels made a hand-to-hand fight on the crest and over the guns. The rebel troops under Early retreated over the telegraph road, in a southwardly direction, leaving the plank road to Chancellorsville open and free for Sedgwick's forward movement. Gladly seizing the opportunity, he began his advance at once.
It was this position of affairs which demanded Lee's attention; for unless Sedgwick were checked, he would certainly prove a formidable foe in the rear, while Hooker with his army wa* in front. Lee promptly sent a portion of his troops to assail Sedgwick, not being apprehensive, it seems, that Hooker would venture meanw bile any steps in the offensive. Sedgwick was moving as rapidly as was possible, when, being now about half way between Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, he was met by the rebel troops. A sharp