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contest ensued, when Van Cleve's division giving way, the enemy followed closely across the river. Crittenden immediately disposed his artillery so as to open on the rebels, while two brigades of Negley's division, from the reserve, and the pioneer brigade, were ordered up to meet the onset. The firing was terrific, and the havoc terrible. The enemy retreated more rapidly than they had advanced. In forty minutes they lost 2,000 men.*
Our troops pursued the flying enemy well across the field, capturing four pieces of artillery and a stand of colors. It was now after dark, and raining, or the enemy would have been pursued into Murfreesborough. As it was, Crittenden's corps passed over, and, with Davis, occupied the crests, which were entrenched in a few hours. Rosecrans thought it advisable to make a demonstration on the right, by a heavy division of camp fires, and by laying out a line of battle with torches.
The following day, January 3d, was very stormy; the ploughed ground over which the left would be obliged to advance,was impassable for artillery; and the ammunition train did not arrive until ten o'clock. It was not, therefore, deemed expedient to advance; but batteries were put in position on the left, by which the ground could be swept, and even Murfreesborough leached by the Parrott guns.
* Pollard and others censure Bragg for want of generalship in not securing the hillocks in the bend of Stone River, and in allowing the Union troops to occupy them. Breckenridge was here badly repulsed, and the vivid recollections of the " blood) crossing of Stone River " long survived in the memories of the rebel army.
The day passed off quietly, excepting a sharp contest, which resulted in putting a stop to the rebel picket firing, and in capturing a small breastwork together with some seventy or eighty prisoners.
Early on Sunday, January 4th, news was brought to Rosecrans that the enemy had fled from Murfreesborough. On Monday morning, Thomas advanced, driving the rear guard of rebel cavalry before him six or seven miles towards Manchester. McCook's and Crittenden's corps took position in front of the town, occupying Murfreesborough. Bragg took up his position at Tullahoma, a strong point thirty-two miles distant from Murfreesborough and seventy-one from Nashville.
In giving a summary of the operations and results of the series of skir-! mishes and encounters, closing with the battle of Stone River and occupation of Murfreesborough, Rosecrans stated, that the force he brought into battle numbered 43,400 men. Of these, there were killed 1,533, and wounded' 7,245; total, 8,778; the missing numbered between 3,000 and 4,000. He also estimated Bragg's force at 62,490 . | men, and his entire loss at 14,560. On the other hand, Bragg said in his report, that he learned from some captured papers of McCook's, that the Union army numbered 70,000 men, and therefore he did not deem it prudent or proper to continue the contest His own force in the field, he stated, was less than 35,000, and his loss in all about 10,000. He claimed to Lave taken more than 6,000 prisoners, over thirty pieces of artillery, 6,000 stand
of small arms, and a vast amount of other valuable property; in addition, Bragg stated that his force succeeded in destroying not less than 800 wagons, mostly laden with various articles, such as arms, ammunition, provisions, baggage, clothing, medicine and hospital stores*
Such, in substance, is the military narrative of the battle of Murfreesborouarh, one of the most determined and equally sustained battles of the war, and one which will be for ever memorable among the great conflicts of the struggle for the Union in the West. Although it fell short of a decisive victory, it was, nevertheless, a very serious blow to the rebels, and was justly and generally hailed as a trinmph to the North, securing, as it did, possession of a vast and important frontier, menaced by an active and resolute foe.
On receipt of the intelligence at Washington, the president expressed the sentiment of the loyal states in a brief telegram to Gen. Rosecrans: "God bless you, and all with you. Please tender to all, aud accept for yourself, the nation's gratitude for your and their skill, endurance, and dauntless courage."
During the latter part of December,
* Jeff. Davis v sited Mississippi at this date, reviewed the troops at Murfreesborough, and made a speech at Jackson, on the 26th of December. In this speech he indulged in unusual fierceness of language, spoke of " the malignant ferocity " of the northern and western people, scorned all "association with such miscreants," and poured forth a tirade so bitter and unscrupulous, that it was not only disgraceful to himself, but led one to suspect that disappointment and ill success had stricken deep into his very soul. If words coukl have destroyed his hated enemies, Davis would have annihilated them long before this date.
1862, Gen. Wright sent out from his department in Kentucky an expedition to cut off the rebel communications, and to prevent Bragg from being reinforced from Richmond, by destroying the East Tennessee Railroad. A force of about 1,000 men, all told, composed of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Michigan cavalry, was collected on the southeastern corner of Kentucky, and placed under the command of Gen. Carter. On the 28th of December they crossed the Cumberland Mountains into Virginia, and thence across Powell's Mountain into Tennessee. On the 30th, they reached Union Station, where they captured 150 prison ers and destroyed the railroad bridge over the Hoi ston River. They also de stroyed the bridge over the Watauga River, and nearly a hundred miles of rails, almost to Jonesborough, and then made their way back into Kentucky. Carter, in a congratulatory order issued a few days after his return, spoke in the highest terms of the courage, endurance, and uniformly good conduct of both officers and men in this daring expedition.
Gen. J. G. Foster, an able and energetic officer, in command of the department of North Carolina, undertook a movement having an object in view similar to that just described, viz, cutting the rebel line of com- ^ munication between Richmond and the south-western states. It was a highly important movement and was made simultaneously with the attack of Burnside upon Lee at Fredericksburg. Foster's force consisted of four brigades, four batteries aud the 3d New York cavalry, and left Newbern ou the llth of December, Laving Goldsborough, fifty miles northwest of Newbera, as the point aimed at. Fourteen miles were made the first day on the main road to Kinston, where further progress was found to be obstructed by felled trees for more than half a mile. At daylight, the next morning, an advance was made on the Vine Swamp road, and some sharp skirmishing took place. Some delay occurred in rebuilding the bridge over Beaver Creek, where a force sufficient to hold it was left; and the main column advanced four or five miles. The next day, Saturday, Foster continued his advance, turning to the left and leaving the road he was on to the right. Having reached South-west Creek, he found the rebels posted on the opposite bank,"some 400 strong, and with three pieces of artillery. The creek was not fordable, and ran at the foot of a deep ravine. Our troops, however, under the protection of a battery, swam the creek and drove the enemy from the ground, after some sharp skirmishing. An attack was made by Foster the next day, near Kinston, and after a brief struggle, the rebels retreated across the Neuse River, firing the bridge as they did so, and losing some 400 men as prisoners. The bridge was saved, and the column took possession of Kinston. The two following days
were occupied in continual skirmishing, driving the enemy from various points, destroying railroad and other property, etc.
On Wednesday, December 17th, Foster advanced upon and reached Golds- j borough. The enemy made every pos- I, sible resistance, but so skilfully were Foster's plans laid, and so successfully were they carried out, that he accomplished his purpose. Two trestlework culverts were burned, a train of four railroad cars, water station, depots, etc., were destroyed, the railroad bridge over the Neuse Avas fired by the gallant Lieut. Graham, and other bridges were burned. With a strong cavalry rear guard, Foster started on his return, and reached Newbern in safety. Oui entire loss in this expedition was less than 100 killed and nearly 500 wounded. The rebel loss was reported at j| about 700.
These expeditions under Carter and Foster, although successful in themselves, resulted in no special or lasting advantage, as the great movement upon Richmond had in the meantime been I suspended. The principal gain was the developing the importance to the rebel authorities of these great lines of communication, and what serious embarrassment would result to their plans and purposes, in case the railroads were effectively cut and secured by our troops.
Ch. XXV.] STATE OP AFFAIRS AT DATE. 25J
CLOSE OP 1863: HABEAS CORPUS: EMANCIPATION: MEETING. OP CONGRESS: FOREIGN
Position of affairs at this date— Call for additional troops — The draft unpopular — Number of troops in the service — Suspension of liabeas corpus — Orders in regard to state prisoners—Proclamation of the president — Public complaints — Order from the war department — Indemnity act — Avowed purpose of the war on the part of the government — Slavery question in this connection — Order of the president in July as to rebel property — Mr. Lincoln's policy as to emancipation — Emancipation proclamation — How received — Third session of the Thirty-seventh Congress — President's message — Course of the opposition — Resolution of Mr. Morrill — Action of Congress — Report of secretary of the treasury — Action in regard to the national finances — Condition of our foreign relations—Correspondence—Course pursued by the English government — Case of the pirate Oreto or Florida — The " 290," or Alabama — Efforts to arrest her departure from Liverpool — Her escape, and piratical career — Indignation in the United States — Public opinion in England — Mr. Gladstone's speech — London Timet — Sentiments of Mr. Cobden and Mr. Bright — Louis Napoleon's proposition for intervention — Declined by Russia and England — M Drouyn de 1'Huys' despatch — Reply by the secretary of state — Hopes and expectations at the close of the year.
Having carried forward the narrative of military and naval operations to the | close of 1862, we embrace the oppor!! tunity of devoting a chapter to several I1 matters of general interest which require notice in connection with our I country's history; and also—as was doue at the close of 1861—of giving a brief resume of the state and condition I of affairs at the opening of the new year.
We need not repeat what has been made evident on preceding pages, that, with the exception of the campaigns in Virginia, the national arms had, during j 1862, been attended by important and lasting success. Mill Spring, Kentucky, in January; Forts Henry and Donelson, Kentucky, and Nashville, Tennessee, in February; Pea Ridge, Arkansas, and Newbern, North Carolina, in March; Fort Pulaski, Georgia, New
Orleans and Island No. 10, on the Mississippi, in April; Norfolk^ Virginia, in May; Memphis, Tennessee, in June;—these, and other noted points in the West and Southwest, evidenced the steady progress of the Union armies towards breaking down the rebel organizations, and narrowing the area of the conflict. Missouri had been relieved from invasion; Arkansas, to a great extent, had been occupied; the rebels had lost all on the Mississippi, except Vicksburg and Port Hudson; the coast towns and cities of North Carolina had been taken possession of; and the rebel attempts at invasion of Maryland had been decidedly repulsed. It is true, that the virtual failure of McClellan in the campaign against Richmond, the disasters on the Chickahominy, the bunglings and misfortunes of Pope, and the ill success of Burn
side, had, in great measure, neutralized the effects of the brilliant victories in the Southwest and elsewhere, and prevented our securing several important advantages in various quarters. One thing became evident, and the people of the loyal states felt and acknowledged it, and that was, the necessity of increasing and rendering more effective our armies in the field. There had been great loss of life, not only in battle, but also by wounds, sickness, and other vicissitudes of war, and the territory in which operations were to be carried on, and points permanently occupied, was so vast in extent, that it was deemed not only prudent but almost imperative to call for volunteers, and add largely to the immense force already under arms.*
On the 1st of July, 1862, the president, in concert with the governors of the loyal states, called for 300,000 additional volunteers to serve for the war. The call was, on the whole, received with favor, and strenuous efforts were made by popular appeals, offers of large bounties, and other measures, to carry it into immediate effect. It was strongly urged, that the very life of our country was at stake. The rebels, especially the leaders, had ventured all upon the success of their wicked designs, and there was no other way of reducing them to submission and preserving the integrity of the nation, but by breaking down and effectually destroying their military power in the states over which they were exer
* For an interesting and valuable sketch of the army of the United States, with important details, statistics, etc., see Appleton's "American Annual Cyclopaedia" for 1803, pp. 18-23.
cising a usurped control. On the 4th of August, another order was issued, calling for 300,000 men to serve for nine months, unless sooner discharged; and it was announced that the draft would be put in force, unless volunteer ing was prompt and speedy. In case any state should not, by the 15th of August, have furnished its quota of the previous call, the deficiency was also to be made up by a special draft from the militia.
The secretary of war, a few days later, issued orders "to prevent the evasion of military duty and for the suppression of disloyal practices." Under these, persons liable to draft were not allowed to evade it by going out of the country; and persons attempting to discourage volunteer enlistments were ordered to be arrested and imprisoned. Under these orders various arrests were made, which excited not a little complaint, and brought upon the government charges of oppression and illegal procedure. An attempt was also made to put in force a passport system, which was found to be exceedingly annoying and vexatious, with small prospect of beneficial result. After a month's trial, the restrictions on travel were entirely rescinded, and it was directed that any arrests made under the orders just noted were to be made only upon the express warrant of the judge-advocate of the war department, or by the military com mander or governor of the particular state.
The draft was, in fact, iu all its aspects, thoroughly unpopular, and the government naturally hesitated in re