« 上一頁繼續 »
country and of popular government." At the same time it was announced, that the resignation tendered by Gen. Burnside was not accepted by the president.
Apart from the repulse and the heavy loss in officers and men of the battle of Fredericksburg, there was a serious depreciation produced by it in the morale of the Army of the Potomac. Necessity enforced rest, the repairing of losses, the care of the wounded and the burial of the dead, which follow, to a greater or less extent, every great battle; but in addition, there grew up a spirit of discontent at the barren results attained, and a disposition not only sharply to criticise the commanding general, but also to distrust him and his capacity to guide and direct the army's efforts. Burnside could not count on the hearty co-operation of his chief officers, or the full confidence of the rank and file; desertions were frequent, and affairs in general presented a gloomy appearance. Burnside proposed again, towards the close of December, to cross the Rappahannock seven miles below Fredericksburg, but was prevented by the president, on the remonstrance of several general officers who had gone to see him on the subject. The commander of the army felt all this very keenly, and he resolved to try again the fortune of battle, which, thus far, had proved so injurious to his good name in the army.
Accordingly, the army being now
sufficiently recruited, a movement was made, early in January, 1863, for crossing the Rappahannock above Fredericksburg, with feints of crossing at other points. The weather, during the first half of the month, had been excellent, and the roads were in good condition. The columns were put in motion, as secretly as possible, on the 19th of January. Everything was got in readiness for crossing during the 20th of January, and it was determined to make the passage the following morning. But, most unfortunately, there came on that night a fearful storm, which, by its effects upon the roads, virtually nullified the entire movement. Efforts were made to bring pontoons enough into position to build a bridge or two at least; but the struggle was unavailing. The next day the storm continued, and the roads grew worse and worse. The scene was deplorable, and glad enough were the troops to come to an end of the weary "mud march," and stagger back to the old camps whence they had set out.
A few days later, Gen. Burnside, at his own request, was relieved of the command of the Armv of the Potomac, and Gen. Hooker was appointed by the president as his successor.*
* Burnside, it appears, was so sure that the leading generals lacked confidence in him, that he demanded of the president either to dismiss from the service Hooker and a number of others, or to accept hie resignation. Of course, so sweeping a measure could not be approved; Burnside was relieved of his command, and Hooker, apparently the head and front of all the offending, instead of being dismissed tho service, was made commander of the Army of the Potomac.
AFFAIRS IN THE SOUTHWEST: SHERMAN AT VICKSBURG : BATTLE OF MURFREESBOROUGH:
FOSTER IN NORTH CAROLINA.
Schofield in Missouri — Troops under his command — Guerrilla bands—Militia called out — Course pursued towards secessionists — Contests with guerrillas under Porter, Cobb, Poindexter, etc. — McNeil's victory at Kirkville— Poindexter routed — Independence lost — Foster's battle with Coffee—Rebels in Arkansas under Hindman—Schofield's plans — Porter's guerrillas — McNeil's doings — Blunt routs Marmaduke at Cane Hill, Arkansas — Hindman attacks Herron'— Result.— Hindman defeated at Van Buren — Massacre of the whites by the Sioux — Punishment — Sherman's plan against Vicksburg — Fortifications—Attack upon Haines' Bluff—Movement of Smith, Blair and Morgan —Conflict the next day — Attack on Monday — Difficulties and trials — Sherman gives up, Grant not being able to co-operate — Rosecrans in command of the Army of the Cumberland — The work before him — Advances to Nashville—Rebel movements—Rosecrans's plan of advance and attack — Success at Nolinsvillo — Movement, December 29th, near Murfreesborough — Plan of the battle — Attack of rebels on the right wing—Rebel success, December 31st — Terrible struggle on January 2d, 1863, at Stone River—Rebels repulsed — Bragg retreats to Tullahoma —Estimate as to numbers, losses, etc . — Carter's cavalry expedition into Tennessee — Foster in North Carolina—Expedition to destroy rebel railroad communication — Advance on Goldsborough—Success of Foster—Principal value of these expeditions.
Ik April, 1862, Missouri was in charge of Gen J. M. Scbofield, an officer of decided merit, who had served as chief of staff to the lamented Lyon, and had recently been promoted to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. All the militia of the 6tate was assigned to his command, and although raided and equipped under serious difficulties, it numbered, at this date, in the field, about 14,000 men, mostly cavalry. A still larger volunteer force of a similar character, was also attached to Schofield's command, which, at this time, embraced about three-fourths of the state, comprising the northern, central and eastern portions.
After the battle of Pea Ridge, in Northwestern Arkansas, under Gen. Curtis, March 5th, large numbers of
Missourians, who had joined the rebel army, were allowed to return to their homes, on taking the oath of allegiance, and the guerrilla bands were, for the time, virtually suppressed. In June, at Curtis's request, Missouri was erected into a separate military district, and Schofield was placed in command. The guerrillas began again to be very troublesome, and Schofield, on the 22d of June, issued, an order holding "rebels and rebel sympathizers responsible in their property, and, if need be, in their persons, for damages thereafter committed by guerrillas or marauding parties;" but his order produced very little effect towards putting a stop to the outrage and excess of these lawless freebooters.
Schofield's effective force consisted of about 17,000 men, volunteers and
militia, who were distributed through the stare in six divisions, under competent and energetic officers. The southein frontier having become exposed by Curtis's movement to Helena, Arkansas, a fresh attempt was made by the rebels to gain possession of the state and eject the Union troops. Numerous rebel emissaries, as Gen. Schofield stated, "spread themselves over the state, and while maintaining outwardly the character of loyal citizens, or evading our troops, secretly enrolled, organized and officered a very large number of men, estimated by their friends at from 30,000 to 50,000. Places of rendezvous \vere designated where all were to assemble at an ap pointed signal, and by a sudden coup de-main, seize the important points in the state, surprise and capture our small detachments guarding railroads, etc., thus securing arms and ammunition, and co-operate with an invading army from Arkansas."
As reinforcements in sufficient numbers for the protection of the state could not be obtained from outside of Missouri, Schofield called upon the governor for authority to organize and use j all the militia of the state. The govj ernor consented, and the measure was I carried into effect. As a consequence of the enrolment, the more desperate of the rebels joined the guerrilla bands, others hid themselves, while loyal citii zens, especially in those districts which had been harassed by the enemy, promptly obeyed the call. As it was not safe to place arms in the hands of the disaffected, and as it seemed unjust and unfair to others of the citizens to
excuse them from military duty, thus
A severe and sanguinary contest now 'i took place between the guerillas and the' loyal troops, extending over a period of two months. The principal theatre of operations was the north-eastern division, above the Missouri and bordering on the Mississippi, under the command of Col. McNeil. The guerrilla bands in this region, under Porter, Poindexter, Cobb, and others, amounted to more than 5,000 men, in parties or squads,
* Missouri, we are sorry to say, was greatly distressed by political dissensions and discords. The subject of emancipation and the mode of effecting it, came up, in June, 1862, in the state convention, and was warmly discussed, but led to no practical or beneficial result. At the state election in November, the same topic was in controversy, and a majority of the Assembly, favorable to emancipation, was elected. But divisions in their ranks and bitter contests still continued. Mr. Lincoln, on one occasion, wrote pointedly as follows: "It is painful to me that you, in Missouri, cannot, or will not, settle your factional quarrels among yourselves. I have been tormented with it beyond endurance, for months, by both sides. Neither side pay« the least respect to my appeals to your reason."
varying according to their good or ill fortune. On the 28th of July, Porter and Cobb were defeated in Calloway County, on the Missouri River; but three days after, Porter captured New| ark and two companies of Union I troops. Porter's band was pursued by our cavalry, almost without intermisj sion for twelve days, and driven hun| dreds of miles. On the 6th of August, lie was attacked by Col. McNeil, at [ Kirkville. After a severe battle Porter I was completely routed; some 700 were killed and wounded; and his influence and further power for mischief broken up.
Poindexter's gang had increased to i about 1,200 men before a sufficient !I force could be collected to disperse |! them. Early in August, Col. Guitar, ! with about 600 men, and two pieces of artillery, started in pursuit of the guerrilla captain, overtaking and attacking him while crossing the Chartain River, on the night of August 10th. A large number were killed, wounded j and drowned; and a considerable amount of supplies was captured. Poindexter hastened northwardly to effect a junction with Porter, but was driven back; his men were dispersed, and he was routed by Guitar and taken prisoner.
| The rebel bands having been thus i disposed of, that under Cobb soon I after dispersed, or formed itself into small parties to continue the plundering and murdering of loyal men. It was . a work of time effectually to put down these lawless bandits; but after a while, the activity and zeal of the troops and citizens of Missouri succeeded in hunt
ing them down and either killing, cap turing, or driving them out of the state. From April 1st to September 20th, as Schofield stated, there were more than 100 engagements, large and small, and in nearly all these the Union troops were victorious. The entire loss was about 300; the number of rebels killed, wounded, captured and driven out was not less than 10,000.
On the 11th of August, the garrison at Independence was compelled to surrender to a body of the enemy; and immediately after, the rebel Gen. Coffee, was found to be advancing with about 1,500 cavalry. Major Foster, with 800 men and two pieces of artillery, set out from Lexington to effect a junction with Col. Warren, in command of 1,500 men from Clinton. The intention was to attack Hughes and Quantrel, who had gathered a large force; but Foster, disappointed in effecting the junction with Warren, ventured an attack upon Coffee and Hughes at Lone Jack, Jackson County. After a severe conflict our men fell back to Lexington. Gen. Blunt, in Kansas, having •furnished timely aid, Coffee and the rebels were pursued to the Arkansas line.
The rebels, however, were strong in Arkansas, numbering, in September, about 50,000, under Hindman. Schofield took the field in person, and concentrating a large force at Springfield, called on Steele, at Helena, to co-operate with him. Curtis took charge of the department at the end of September, Schofield retaining command of the " army of the frontier," as it was called, in Southern Missouri. Schofield's force numbered aboui 11,000 in all, with sixteen pieces of artillery. On the 30th of September, Gen. Salomon, with some 4,500 troops, was defeated at Newtonia. Sehofield now hurried to Sarcoxie, and being joined by Blunt, October 3d, advanced against the rebels at Newtonia. Blunt, on the 22d, came upon Cooper in camp at old Fort Wayne, and routed him completely. Sehofield, with Herron's command, marched over the White River Mountains, but found the rebels running away. Sehofield resigned his command in November.*
A month later the contest was resumed in North-western Arkansas. Blunt, on the 27th of November, set out with 5,000 men and thirty pieces of artillery, to attack Marmaduke, at Cane Hill, whose force was some 8,000 in number. By a very rapid and unceasing march he came up with the enemy, and opened the attack upon their position on one of the heights of the Boston Mountains. Marmaduke was glad to make a retreat towards Van Buren, and Blunt returned to Cane Hill. Herron was now advancing from Missouri, with about 6,500 men and twenty-four pieces of artillery, to join Blunt. Hindman, the rebel commander, attacked Herron, December 7th, on Crawford's Prairie, not far from Fayetteville. The rebels num
• "The fearful story of the Palmyra massacre," as Pollard caUs it, may here be noted. It appears that McNeil, on the ground of the guerrilUs having carried off a citizen of Palmyra, and refused to restore him, gave notice, October 8th, that, within ten days, lie would shoot ten of their number. This he did, and his act was justified by many, as the only way in which to deal with ruffians of their class. Davis was fierce in denunciation, bul reserved his vengeance, much to Pollard's disgust, to i later season.
bered some 20,000, and the battle was severe and bloody. Blunt came up in the afternoon, and attacking the enemy in the rear, they were finally driven into flight across the mountains. Juat at the close of the year, Blunt defeated the rebels at Van Buren, on the Arkan sas River, and put an effectual stop tc Hindman's contemplated advance upon Missouri.
The Indian tribes on the remote frontier gave much trouble in 1862 and the Sioux, under Little Crow, perpetrated a horrible massacre in Minnesota, during the month of August Steps were taken immediately to punish these wretches; and after a month's pursuit of them, Col. Sibley routed them, September 23d, near Yellow Medicine River. About 500 prisoners were taken, and being tried by courtmartial, 300 were sentenced to be ex ecuted; but the president reduced tht number to thirty-nine, who were hung on a single scaffold, at Manhato, Minnesota, December 26 th.
At the close of the year 1862, active operations were resumed against Vicks burg (see p. 189). While Gen. Grant was with his army in Northern Mississippi, having his headquarters at Holly Springs, Gen. Wm. T. Sherman, who was in command of the army corps or. the Mississippi, collected a large num ber of transports at Memphis, wit! reference to a movement against Vicks burg. Having embarked his forct-fc here and at Helena, in number, it wat stated, some 40,000 men, Sherman en- . tered the Yazoo, December 26th, and effected a landing: a few miles above the mouth on the left bank, about six