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The advance of McDowell's corps occupied Warrenton on the night of the 23d of August, and on the morning of the 24th, Sigel, supported by Reno and Banks, crossed Great Run, and occupied Sulphur Springs, under a heavyfire from the enemy's batteries on the south side of the Rappahannock. The bridge was rebuilt as soon as possible, and Sigel pushed forward, with the force sustaining him, in the direction of Waterloo Bridge.
Jackson having been directed by Lee to get between Washington and Pope's army, and to break up his railroad communications with the capital, made a detour, on the 25th, for that purpose; he crossed the upper Rappahannock at Hinson's Ford, and after a forced inarch of thirty-five miles, bivouacked at Salem, on the Manassas Gap Railroad. The next day, passing through Thoroughfare Gap, he crossed Bull Run Mountain, and before night of the same day, reached Bristow Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. Having broken up the track as extensively as possible, he sent Stuart with a body of cavalry and infantry to Manassas Junction, seven miles nearer to Washington. Besides several hundred prisoners and eight guns, Stuart obtained possession of a very large amount of commissary and quartermaster's stores, there being at the Junction supplies ralued at not less than $1,000,000. Hie rebels set fire to the buildings, and the next day our men found only smoking ruins in place of the abundant sup. plies gathered there for the support of the army.
Pope, finding that his right was turn
ed by Jackson's movement, determined, on the 26th of August, to retire from Warrenton, abandon the line of the Rappahannock, and throw his whole force in the direction of Gainesville and Manassas Junction, in order to crush the enemy who had passed Thoroughfare Gap, and place his army between Lee and Jackson. Pope had received addi tional troops from the Army of the Poto mac, and was in a condition to strike a decisive blow. On the morning of the 27th, he ordered McDowell to move rapidly forward on Gainesville by the Warrenton turnpike, with the troops under Sigel and Reynolds, some 40,00C in all. Reno and Kearney were ordered to move on Greenwich to support McDowell; and Pope himself took the line of railroad towards Manassas, with Hooker's division. Porter's corps was also to follow from Warrenton, as soon as he was relieved by Banks, and to march on Gainesville.
On the afternoon of the 27th of August, a severe engagement occurred between Hooker's force and Ewell's division of Jackson's troops. It was fought near Kettle Run, a few miles west of Bristow Station. Ewell was driven back along the railroad, with a loss of 300 men in killed and wounded. During the night he moved off entirely, to rejoin Jackson at Manassas Junction.
McDowell's column reached Gainesville that night, the 27th; Reno and Kearney also arrived at Greenwich the same night. Apparently, there was now no escape for Jackson; Lee was two days' march distant; his position was critical and perilous ; and Pope exulted in the prospect of being able to catch and destroy that shrewd commander who had done so much injury to the Union cause. u If," Pope said to McDowell, in his order of the 27th, "you will march promptly and rapidly at the earliest dawn upon Manassas Junction, we shall bag the whole crowd." Jackson, fully alive to his danger, had his choice to retire by the same way by which he came, through Thoroughfare Gap and Gainesville, or northwardly by Centreville. He preferred the latter on every account, and during the night of the 27th, and morning of the 28th of August, he moved by Sudley Springs road across the Warrenton turnpike, and took position on the high timber land north and west of Groveton, in the neighborhood of the battle ground so famous at the opening of the rebellion.
Pope's order to McDowell, just spoken of, to move eastward upon Manassas Junction, was a positive blunder; for he ought to have held the line of the Warrenton turnpike at every hazard, and not by retiring from it to allow Jackson, by a move from Manassas Junction to the north of the turnpike, the opportunity of forming a junction with Lee's advance. Consequently, when Pope felt sure of catching Jackson, he found that the rebel chief had given him the slip; and Longstreet, on the evening of the 28th of August, reached Thoroughfare Gap, and the next day effected a junction with Jackson. Pope, in his report, lays the blame upon his officers, and accuses a number of them not only of negligence and want of activity and spirit, but of disobedience of orders, and he is confident
that if they had followed his directions, Jackson would have been utterly defeated.
On finding that Jackson had retreated from Manassas Junction, Pope, on the 28th of August, tried to correct his mis. take, by calling back McDowell and directing him to march on Centreville. But, unhappily, much time had been lost, and it was not till late in the afternoon that King, of McDowell's division, regained the Warrenton turnpike, and advanced toward Centreville. Jackson I attacked King on the flank with great impetuosity. The contest was sharp, severe and bloody, attended with heavy loss on both sides. During the night King withdrew his troops, by which course he left the Warrenton turnpike open for Jackson to retire, or Longstreet to advance. Ricketts's division also, i which had been detached to watch Thoroughfare Gap, withdrew to Manassas.
Sigel, who was in the neighborhood of Groveton, was ordered to attack Jackson at daylight on the 29th. Jackson was strongly posted, but Sigel began the attack with spirit and determination, and in the course of the 1SG% forenoon he was joined by Reno's, Hooker's and Kearney's troops. These latter arrived just in time, when both wings of our army were about to be turned, and Sigel's force had suffered very severely. The fight raged furiously, and continued through the day. At eight P.m., the larger portion of the field was occupied by our army, and night put an end to the battle.
Pope is unqualified in his condemna
j tion of Porter's course. He states, in his report, that he ordered Porter to advance upon Gainesville, early on the 29th of August, and turn Jackson's right, which was of the utmost importance in the plans of Pope. But, as it turned out, before this could be done, Longstreet's corps had come up, and as early as ten o'clock in the morning he had so arranged his troops as to stop I Porter's march upon Gainesville. Porter, as he affirms, acting under McDowell's order, remained for the rest of the day in the position he had taken. Morell's division being deployed against the foe, the other divisions being massed. At half-past four P.m., Pope states, that he sent express orders to Porter to as. sail the right flank and rear of the enemy. The order reached Porter about dusk; but it was then too late to attack, and, more than this, there was now no chance for a turning movement, since Longstreet had, as early as noon, taken position directly in Porter's front. The attack under such circumstances would have been futile, and was
i not attempted.
Pope, in his official report, made Jan. 27th, 1863, asserts, in the most positive manner, that there was no reason why Porter should not have turned Jacksou's right flank, and thus secured the victory. On the other hand, it is only fair to remind the reader that, the statements made above being correct, Pope labored under grave error, and has done great injustice to an officer who had always heretofore, as the record shows, been found active, diligent and faithful in the discharge of his duties.*
* We have neither lime nor space to enter into the
Pope, supposing that the rebels were retreating, determined, not very wisely, to try another day's struggle with Lee's forces, under the notion, as he phrases it, that "at least he would lay on such blows as would cripple the enemy as much as possible, and delay, as long as practicable, any further advance toward the capital." Estimating his available force at this time at 40,000 men, Pope undertook, on the afternoon of the 30th of August, to fight the second battle of Bull Run or Manassas. We need not enter into details. The rebels were superior in numbers and in the general effectiveness of their force; and the day's struggles and contendings resulted in fearful slaughter and vain efforts to drive back the foe. Hour after hour the battle raged. The rebels attacked Pope's left flank with tremendous force and effect,* intending to seize the Warquestions in dispute between Pope and Porter. Our aim is to give the narrative truthfully and accurately, and wo believe that we have done so, irrespective of persons or parties. Mr. Swinton, in a valuable note (see p. 186), quotes freely from rebel documents, published since the rebellion was put down, and establishes 1 the fact that, by noon, Longstreet had his forces in position so as completely to bar Porter's advance, as ordered by Pope. To obey such an order, at the time it was received, was virtually impossible. Gen. Porter, however, a number of months subsequent to this campaign, (in Jan. 1863), after having been in command of the defences of Washington, and sharing with his corps in the battle at Antietam, was tried by a court martial at Washington for alleged disobedience of Pope's orders while under his command. The court brought in a verdict of guilty, and Porter was dismissed from the service of the United Stat9s. See the record of this trial, and Porter's defence read to the court.
* Owing to a movement of Lee in making this at tack, Pope got the notion that the rebels were retreat ing from the field. He accordingly sent a telegram to Washington, announcing that Lee and his army were "retreating to the mountains;" this at once became public property, by means of the wires, throughout the loyal states; but the brief gratification was speedily followed by mortification and disappointment.
renton Turnpike and cut off our army's line of retreat. Towards the close of the afternoon, our troops began to give way, and only by the firmness and spirit of some battalions of regulars were they enabled to escape from rout and entire defeat. Night came on, welcome now more than ever, and under cover of the darkness the dispirited, half-starved troops made their way across Bull Run, by the Stone Bridge, and took up position on the high ground at Centreville. Lee did not attempt any pursuit that night.
As no official record was ever made of the killed, wounded and prisoners on the part of Gen. Pope in this campaign, or on that of the rebel commander, the severe losses on both sides can be estimated only approximately. Our loss was probably not short of 20,000 men, and it may be doubted whether the rebels did not suffer an equally heavy loss;—a sad commentary on the agonizing trial which rebellion had brought upon our native land.
The next day, Sunday, Aug. 31st, Pope asked for a truce to gather the wounded, which Lee refused. He was eager and anxious to follow up his present advantage, and accordingly sent Jackson forward toward Little River turnpike, to turn Pope's right and cut off his retreat. Pope, aware of this movement, fell back; and Jackson, delayed by a heavy storm, did not reach Pope's right till late in the afternoon of September 1st, at which time he made his appearance at Oxhill, near Germantown. Jackson immediately began an attack, despite the storm and approaching night; it was met by the troops under
Reno, Hooker and Kearney. The fight was not long, but while it lasted it was very sharp and fierce; the rebels , were finally driven back with severe loss. In this engagement Gen. Stevens was killed. Gen. Kearney also, by accident in the dark, when reconnoitring at a critical moment, came near the enemy's pickets and was shot. Both were brave and excellent officers; the latter especially was noted as one of the most chivalrous and effective in the whole army.
Fredericksburg was evacuated by Burnside on the 1st of September; Aquia Creek was also evacuated;* and the day following, by Halleck's orders, the army fell back within the defences at Washington. Pope's career in Virginia was ended, and Lee, giving up the direct pursuit, made preparations j for an invasion of Maryland.
Pope, unhappily, began his campaign by foolish boasting; he thought himself competent to meet and overcome the ablest generals of the rebels; and in his self-confidence, he imagined that he could sweep the whole field before him. But he failed to sustain his pretensions by the expected success; his campaign ended ingloriously, in loss and confusion. It would be unfair to lay the entire blame upon Pope himself. His officers, many of them at least, did not entertain that respect for him personally, or for his abilities, which was requisite to anything like zealous
• McClellan, in a telegram to Hallock, on the night of the 31st of August, uses very sharp language respecting Pope and his movements: "To speak frankly, and the occasion requires it, there appears to be a total absence of brains; and I fear the total destruction of the army."
CHAPTER X XI.
INVASION OF KENTUCKY BY THE REBELS: WESTERN TENNESSEE: BATTLES OP
1UKA AND CORINTH.
Position of our forces in department of the Mississippi — Guerrilla warfare — Murfreesborough captured by Forrest—Morgan's raid into Kentucky—Taking of Cynthiana—Pursuit of Morgan by G. C. Smith—Other places attacked—Kirby Smith enters Kentucky—Union defeat at Richmond—Legislature hastens to leave Frankfort—Gov. Robinson's proclamation—Kirby Smith's also—Excitement at Louisville and Cincinnati— Gen. Wallace and citizens of Cincinnati—Bragg's projected invasion of the North-west—Gen. Buell's movements and plans—McCook murdered by guerrillas—Clarksville and Gallatin—Morgan's victory—Guerrillas very bold—Instances—Bragg enters Kentucky—Affair at Munfordsville—Bragg's proclamation and address to the people of the North-west—Tone and effect of it—Gen. Morgan's retreat from Cumberland Gap—Gen. Buell at Louisville — Troops there — Buell sets out after Bragg — Battle at Perry ville—McCook's corps— Bragg retreats—Efforts to secure his large spoils—Fruitless pursuit of him—Invasion a failure—Gen. Grant and Western Tennessee—Attempts of the rebels—Plans of Price against Grant and Bnell—Iuka taken— Plan of attack by Grant and Rosecrans—How carried out — Battle of Iuka—Rebels defeated—Van Dorn's and Price's attack on Corinth — Bloody battle — Our victory—Washburn's cavalry expedition—Dickey's march and success—Rebel raids—Grant's position and public expectations.
In a preceding chapter (see p. 179), we gave an account of the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard and his 1862 forces, the capture of Memphis, and other operations in the South and West. The narrative was brought down to the close of the month of June and early part of July, when Gen. Pope was called to the East to take command of the "Army of Virginia," and Halleck was elevated to the position of general-in-chief of the armies of the United States. Following upon these changes, military affairs in the department of the Mississippi were so arranged as that Gen. Buell
was in command of the main body of the army, to the east of Corinth, moving towards Chattanooga; Gen. Grant held the line from Memphis to Iuka; Gen. Curtis commanded the forces in Arkansas, and Gen. Schofield in Southwestern Missouri. The rebels having largely increased their forces by conscription, were resolved not only to reoccupy Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky, but to invade Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, as their co-workers, under Lee, were doing in Maryland and Pennsylvania.
In carrying out their plans they purposed employing extensively the guer