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this touched the old commodore to the parole the officers, and sent them to the quick, and he felt so outraged at the North as prisoners of war. The army conduct of the mayor and people that officers and men were paroled, and con he declared, if it were persisted in, it ducted themselves with a propriety in would subject the city to the fire of the striking contrast to the behavior of fleet at any moment. After receiving Mitchell and others in the rebel navy another insulting note, Farragut, on the on this occasion. Fort Jackson was 30th of April, declined all further in greatly injured by the bombardment, tercourse with J. T. Monroe and men nearly 2,000 shells having been thrown of his stamp.

into it, besides some 3,000 in the Porter, who had been left with his ditches and outer works.* Fort St. bomb vessels to secure the reduction of Philip was but little injured, as its fate the forts, proceeded actively with his depended on its companion across the work. A demand was made for their river; when Jackson surrendered, St. surrender, which at first was refused ; Philip fell as a matter of course. By Porter thereupon opened fire upon them order of Butler the forts were garrison. again, and sent six of his schooners and ed by the 26th Massachusetts, he him. cut off the supplies and means of escape self proceeding with the rest of his in the rear of Fort Jackson. Butler troops to take possession of New Or. also, having landed at Quarantine in leans; which, we may bere state, he did, the rear of Fort St. Philip, cut off rein. on the 1st of May. forcements from that quarter. The re- The entire casualties in the fleet dursult was, that the men in the forts ing the bombardment and ascent to the showed evident signs of mutiny, and city were 40 killed, and 177 wound Duncan, on a second demand, concluded ed. The rebels reported their loss to accept Porter's terms. This was on in Fort Jackson at 14 killed, 37 the 28th of April. Porter understood wounded; probably their loss as that the three steamers and the Loui- a whole was larger than was ever siana, an immense iron-clad battery of acknowledged. The rebels lost six 4,000 tons, which Farragut had unwit. forts, Jackson, St. Philip, and Chal. tingly left behind him, had also surren. mette, on the river; Livingston, on the dered, or were ready to surrender; but Gulf; and Pike and Morgan, on Lake instead of that, the person in command Pontchartrain; beside two large of the vessels, named Mitchell, behaved earth works above the city. most dishonorably, by setting fire to Some 1,200 prisoners were taken. the battery and sending it to explode

* Pollard, quoting Duncan's purposely exaggerated in the midst of our fleet. Providenti statement, says that 25,000 shells were thrown by our ally, the battery blew up when near

mortar boats without injuring Fort Jackson to any ex

tent. Duncan “had no alternative but to give up the Fort St. Philip, and our ships escaped

place. He surrendered in fact to his own garrison. without injury. Porter denounced the The post probably could have been held, if the men act of Mitchell as infamous, and on capoli

had stood to their guns. He stated this in an address

u n cap on the levee to the people, and while stating it, cried turing the rebel steamers, he refused to like a child.”—“ First Year of the War,” p. 319.

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1862. CE XIII.]

HEAVY BLOW TO THE REBELS.

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Eighteen gun boats, including three confesses, a disaster which astounded iron rams and other expensive works, the South, shook the confidence of the were taken or destroyed. The ram world in the boasting “confederacy," Mississippi, on which some $2,000,000 and led, by unavoidable steps, to the bad been spent, was blown up to pre abandonment of the great Valley of the vent its falling into our hands.

Mississippi. And though it is true The importance of this great victory that other strong points on the Mis over the rebels cannot be too highly sissippi, as Port Hudson, and especially estimated. Its effect was deeply felt in Vicksburg, were not taken for more the loyal states, as well as in those which than a year after the fall of were in arms against the government. New Orleans, yet this was the

1862. It taught a lesson to enemies as well as heaviest blow of all, and this defriends at home and abroad. The rebels monstrated both the energy and power were unwilling to credit, nay, had of the loyal states, and their settled descouted, the possibility of the capture termination to restore and preserve the of New Orleans. The supporters of integrity of the Union, at any and every the Union had hoped and wished for, cost.* rather than confidently expected suc. cess. On the one side were shame,

* New Orleans was “a city which was the com

mercial capital of the South, which contained a popula. mortification, rage, hatred; on the other

tion of 170,000 souls, and which was the largest exa lofty exhilaration, a deep and profound porting city in the world. The extent of the disaster assurance of the ultimate if not speedy

is not to be disguised. It was a heavy blow to the

confederacy; it annihilated us in Louisiana ; separated triumph of law and order. It was us from Texas and Arkansas ; diminished our resources breaking the back-bone of the rebellion,

and supplies by the loss of one of the greatest grain

and cattle countries within the limits of the confederacy, as Porter said. It was, as the London

gave to the enemy the Mississippi River, with all its Times phrased it, “ putting the tourni means of navigation, for a base of operations ; and finally

led, by plain and irresistible conclusion, to our virtual quet on the main artery of the confe

abandonment of the great and fruitful Valley of the deracy.” It was, as a southern writer | Mississippi.”—“ First Year of the War," p. 321.

CHAPTER XIV.

1862.

CAMPAIGN BEFORE RICHMOND: BATTLE OF SEVEN PINES.

The rebels retreat from Yorktown — Pursuit by our troops towards Williamsburg - Attack on the enemy

Victory over the enemy at Williamsburg - Advance towards Richmond - Rain and mud - Capture of Nor folk — Destruction of the Merrimac-Fortifications at Craney Island, and Gosport Navy Yard abandoned James River, and affair at Drury's Bluff -- The rebels, and line of the Chickahominy — Bottom's Bridge Importance of - Encampment at White House - Approach towards Richmond - Views of the rebels as to holding it-Chickahominy crossed by Keyes'-and Heintzelman's corps — Casey in advance at Seven PinesBridges to be built — Rise in the river - Porter's victory at Hanover Court House - Plans of Johnston to prevent McDowell joining McClellan – McDowell ordered to go to Banks's help — Very unfortunate for Me Clellan-Johnston's hopes in the attack — Violent storm — Attack, May 31st, at Seven Pines — Johnston's forces — Keyes and Casey's condition - Casey driven back-Fierce onslaught of the enemy – Sumner's opportune arrival — Night ends the conflict — Renewed early next morning, June 1st — Severe fighting for several hours — Rebels put to flight-Losses on both sides heavy-Pollard's statements – Prince de Joinville's remarks.

EARLY on Sunday morning, May 1 is also in our possession. I shall push 4th, 1862, McClellan entered Yorktown, the enemy to the wall."* and the flag of the Union was planted The retreating forces, it was found, upon the vast and formidable works had taken the direct road from Yorkjust abandoned by the rebels (see p. town to Williamsburg, some 12 miles 140). It was mortifying, certainly, to nearer Richmond. There was another have been thus kept at a stand-still for road on the left, which crossed Warwick a whole month, and to have been River at Lee's Mills, and unit.. so effectually deceived by the rebels, as ling with the former made a

1862. that they were allowed to escape with fork near Williamsburg. At this point out harm or loss, and to carry off with the rebels had erected a strong bastioned them everytning except such bulky articles as could not be moved. But * McClellan denounced the fiend-like behavior of

those who were so constantly asserting that the Union the commanding general did not waste

army was a horde of savages, and the like: “The time in useless complaining. He im rebels have been guilty of the most murderous and mediately sent off all his cavalry and

barbarous conduct, in placing torpedoes within the

abandoned works, near wells and springs, and near flag: horse artillery in pursuit, supported by staffs, magazines, telegraph offices, in carpet bags, barinfantry. “No time,” he said, in his rels of flour, etc. Fortunately, we have not lost many

men in this manner-some four or five killed, and perdispatch,“ shall be lost. The gun boats

haps a dozen wounded. I shall make the prisoners have gone up York River. Gloucester remove them at their own peril."

CR. XIV.]

VICTORY AT WILLIAMSBURG.

161

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earth-work, flanked by a line of re slowly, McClellan advanced towards doubts, protected in front by abattis; the capital of the “ confederacy." extending across the isthmus of dry land Franklin's division, with others, were to the swamps on either side. Here sent by water from Yorktown to the the enemny remained in force, evidently right bank of the Pamunkey, in the vi. determined to oppose, to the fullest ex cinity of West Point. Early on the tent, the advance of our troops. Stone- 7th of May, when Franklin had disem. mau, with the cavalry and four batter- barked, tbe rebels determined to attack ies of horse artillery, took the lead in him, in order to gain all the time posthe pursuit, the divisions of Hooker sible for retreat, and for the strengthand Kearney following as rapidly as ening the various works about Richpossible. Stoneman made an attack, mond. The action was continued for with no special result. Gen. Hooker several hours, and the rebels were fin. came up in the course of the night, and ally driven off the field. early the next morning, attacked the By the 16th of May, despite the rain rebel works, Fort Magruder and the and mud, the different divisions of the rest; but after a hard fight, was com army were concentrated at White pelled to give way. Kearney and his House, on the Pamunkey, a few miles division, having arrived on the field above West Point. A permanent depot about four P.M., dashed into the battle. was at once established at White The rifle pits were taken; the enemy's House, with reference to future and imrcar was gained; and they lost the portant operations. By the 26th of day. The victory was complete, the May, the railroad was in working order rebels retreating in great baste ; but as far as the Chickahominy, and the our loss was very heavy, there being railroad bridge across that stream was 456 killed, 1,400 wounded, 372 missing, nearly completed. total, 2,228. The committee on the Meanwhile, an important event in conduct of the war were rather tart in Eastern Virginia had occurred, in the speaking of this battle, asserting that capture of Norfolk. Hopes had been “there was no controlling mind in entertained for some time that this charge of the movements; there was capture would be accomplished; but uncertainty in regard to who was in as yet nothing of moment had been command ; each general fought as he done. A few days after the fall of considered best.”

| Yorktown, Gen. Wool took command The miserable condition of the roads of an expedition from Fortress Monroe, rendered pursuit by. cavalry of little landing at Willoughby's Point, about avail, and the commanding general eight miles from Norfolk, at daylight, found his hands full in the urging for on the 10th of May. The rebel troops ward the bringing up supplies of vari. abandoned the place, and by the teleous kinds, provisions, ammunition, for graph of that same night, the cheering age, etc. This had to be done princi- news was announced to the country pally by water. By degrees, though “Norfolk is ours.”

VOL. IV-21

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Very early the next morning (Sunday, river as far as was possible. Threr May 11th), a bright light was observed iron-clads and two steam gun boats from Fortress Monroe in the direction pushed their way cautiously up the of Craney Island, which was supposed James, and arrived, on the 14th of May, at first to be a signal of some descrip within about ten miles of Richmond.

tion from the Merrimac or Vir- Two miles further on, at Ward's or 1802. ginia* It was closely watched Drury's Bluff, resistance was made to from various quarters, and at half past their advance by a heavy battery and four o'clock an explosion took place, obstructions in the river. After a which made the earth and water tremble spirited but unsuccessful engagement, for miles round. In the midst of the our vessels gave up the contest. The flames which shot up in the distance, gun boats continued to hold possession the timbers and iron of the monster of the extended line of navigation besteamer could be seen flying through low, but the advantage gained was for the air. A naval reconnaissance being the present of less importance, while made, it was found that the rebels, in the York River, on the other side of order to secure the aid of Gen. Huger the peninsula, was made the exclusive with his troops (some 18,000), in the channel of communication with the ad. immediate vicinity of Richmond, had vancing Army of the Potomac. abandoned the powerful fortifications After the retreat from Yorktown, the at and near Craney Island, destroying rebels gradually withdrew within thu all they could by fire at the Gos- line of the Chickahominy, with the port navy yard, the shipping, steam evident purpose of making a most stren. boats, etc., and leaving behind large uous effort to repulse McClellan froin quantities of powder and other articles the vicinity of Richmond. The York of especial value to the secession cause. River and Richmond Railroad, running

The James River being now open, nearly due east and west, crossed the by the abandonment of the land batter Chickahominy near Bottom's Bridge, ies at the entrance, several United States about eleven miles distant from the vessels were sent to reconnoitre the capital of Virginia. It was on the left

or southerly bank of the river, and * We have before alluded to the destruction of the Merrimac (p. 136). We may also state here, that Tat-|

along the line of the railroad, which nall, the officer in command, was censured severely for separated here from the river at an his action in the matter. Pollard says that it was “un. necessary and wanton, and occasioned an amount of

acute angle, with the apex at the bridge, grief and rage in the confederacy such as had not yet that several of the most important batbeen exhibited in the war.” “The vessel was destroy- tles of the campaign were fought. ed in great haste by Commodore Tatnall, who, in the dead hour of the night, aroused from his slumbers, and On the 15th of May, McClellan had acquainted with the decision of the pilots (that they gathered the several divisions of his could not carry the vessel above the Jamestown Flats), | ordered the ship to be put ashore, landed his crew in army in the large plain at Cumberland, the vicinity of Craney Island, and blew to the four winds on the south bank of the Pamunkey, of heaven the only naval structure that guarded the

where a vast encampment was formed, water approach to Richmond '-"Second Year of the War," p. 27.

| covering some 20 square miles. White

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