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Africa,” as the only pathway to success, leaving the entire conduct of the war and were very severe upon the policy in the government's hands. Strong re. of defence alone.* Others thought solutions were passed to continue the that the government knew best what to contest without flinching; and the cotdo, and were fully competent to manage ton question, and how to deal with it, matters, and so they were in favor of excited long and sharp debate. Gen.

Huger and J. P. Benjamin were censur

ed for the defeat at Roanoke. Ap* The rebel General Jackson advocated an invasion of the North as the speediest and most effective way in

propriations were made for naval purwhich to gain southern independence. His plan was, poses; the conscription act was passed, before the North had time to recover from the disaster

April 16th, (see p. 117); England and at Manassas, to march into Pennsylvania, winter at Harrisburg, and in the spring of 1862 advance directly other powers were spoken of with disupon Philadelphia. He was very confident of success,

gust, because of their not recognizing and proposed his plan to the Richmond authorities, who gave it very curt treatment. Mr. Cooke says that the “ Confederacy," etc. On the 21st Jackson never approved the defensive policy, and that of April, the session closed, and the “invasion of the North was his possessing thought, and became the dream of his life.”—See Cooke's “ Life of rebel congress aujour

rebel congress adjourned to meet again Jackson," pp. 86–88.

in August

C Η Α Ρ Τ Ε R XIII.

1862.

NAVAL OPERATIONS: CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS.

Fort Pulaski - Preparations for bombarding it --Gen. Gilmore's order - Fire opened on the fort - Surrendered

the next day - Rified ordnance - Privateer Nashville slips out — Fort Macon – Assault determined on — Batteries erected - Surrender demanded - Fire opened - Fort taken - Gen. Reno's advance upon Camden, or South Mills - Blockade of the Mississippi - Importance of opening the river and taking New Orleans

-Ship Island occupied – Value of this spot - Gen. Phelps and his proclamation - Biloxi occupied — Other troops under Butler arrive, some 14,000 in all - Farragut in charge of naval part of the expedition Size and extent of his force - Rebel preparations - Forts Jackson and St. Philip — Strength of the forts — The mortar flotilla under Porter — Bombardment begun - Chain across the river broken — After six days steady firing, Farragut determines to run past the forts – Two divisions of six gunboats, one for each fort - Farragut's statements - Great panic in New Orleans - Farragut sails up the river and anchors opposite the city — Excitement and behavior of the authorities and people — Mayor Monroe's letter - United States flag hoisted on the mint — Pulled down by a man named Mumford - The man afterwards hung - Further operations against the forts – Butler and his troops – Both forts surrendered - Infamous conduct of rebel naval officer - Immense importance of the capture of New Orleans — Value to the cause of the Union — Severity of the blow to the rebels.

Fort PULASKI, of whose position we gorge ; is casemated on all sides, has have spoken, on a previous page (see walls seren and a half feet thick, and p. 125), is a very important fortification twenty-five feet high above

1862. at the mouth of the Savannah River. high water; and is surrounded It has five sides or faces, including the by a wet ditch forty-eight feet wide.

Ch. XIII.]

CAPTURE OF FORT PULASKI.

151

At the time of the siege the fort con. his general order, April 9th, with res. tained forty-eight guns, of which pect to the bombardment. Carefully twenty bore upon the batteries on estimating the strength of his batteries, Tybee.

and also the work they were to perform, Gen. Gilmore, who had superintend his directions were minute in relation ed the engineering operations thus far, to the time of firing, the charge of was now ordered to Big Tybee Island, powder, and the like. to complete the investment by stopping The next morning, April 10th, at the water communication from the sunrise, Hunter sent an officer, under south, and to commence operations for flag of truce, to demand the surrender of the bombardment of the fort. A bat- Fort Pulaski, in order to save needless tery on a bulk, in a creek forming the effusion of blood, etc. The rebel cominner boundary of Tybee Island, served mander answered briefly but spiritedly; the purpose of cutting off rebel inter"in reply, I can only say, that I am course from below. On the 21st of here to defend the fort, not to surrender February, ordnance and stores began it.” At eight o'clock the first shot was to arrive in Tybee Roads; and from fired, and in the course of an hour that time until the 9th of April, all the all the batteries were in operation. troops on Tybee Island, consisting of Steadily through the day, and partially several regiments of infantry and ar- through the night, the bombardment tillery, were constantly engaged in proceeded, our men, though inexperilanding and transporting ordnance, enced in the use of artillery, doing ex. ordnance stores, and battery materials, cellent service; the rebel firing was making fascines and roads, etc. With accurate and well sustained, without, immense labor, patiently gone through however, doing any injury to either our with by the men, eleven batteries, hav- men or the works. an armament of thirty-six large and Early on the 11th of April, the batvery heavy pieces in all, were placed on teries were again in full operation, aidthe northern side of the island, at ed materially by a detachment of sailors points from a mile to two and a half from the Wabash, then in the harbor. miles from the landing place; the bat. The rifled guns were particularly effecteries were also at distances from the tive, and penetrated deeply into the fort varying from 3,400 yards to 1,650, brick face of the wall. By noon, the the Parrott and James guns being at the fort was so severely injured, that Ben. shortest range.

| ham was preparing to take it by a Gen. Hunter, who, March 31st, suc- storming party, when a little before ceeded Gen. T. W. Sherman in command two P.M., a white flag was raised and of the department of the South, and the firing ceased. Gilmore received the also Gen. Benbam, commanding the surrender of the fort, and allowed northern district, were present and honorable terms to the officers and men superintending operations. Gilmore, found therein. Forty-seven guns, large who was in immediate charge, issued quantities of stores, ammunition, etc.,

mm

and 360 prisoners were taken; and only slip out, on the night of March 17th, one of our men was killed.*

and escaped to Georgetown, South The scientific skill displayed in pre. Carolina, and Fort Macon was not given paring and carrying through this attack up without an attempt to hold it. This brought prominently into notice the fortification was a regularly constructed value of the new rifled ordnance, in all work, hexagonal in form, mounting two

: a similar kind. The opinion tiers of guns—one in casemated bombwas freely expressed, by Hunter and proof, the other en barbetta. It is others, that" no works of stone or brick situated on the eastern extremity of can resist the impact of rifled artillery Bogue Island, in full command of the of heavy calibre.”

channel to Beaufort, distant a mile Great apprehensions were felt in and three quarters across the bay in a Savannah, that an immediate advance north-easterly direction. would be made upon the city ; but On the 19th of March, Gen. Parke, owing to the inadequacy of force, the in compliance with orders to that effect, Union commander was unable to do advanced with his brigade towards more than hold what had been acquired. Beaufort. The railway had been almost

The blockade, however, was thenceforth destroyed by the rebels, so that the effective, so far as Savannah was con passage of the troups was partly by cerned.

water and partiy by marching overland. About two weeks after the capture

The rebels retired within the fort on of Fort Pulaski, another marked suc the approach of Parke's brigade. Sur. cess was attained. On a previous page render was demanded, but refused; (see p. 120), we have recorded General | whereupon, siege material was brought Burnside's operations on the coast of from Newbern, and ferried across the

North Carolina, and the taking shallow water to a point some four or 1862.

of Newbern, in March, 1862. five miles west of Fort Macon, on the Beaufort, which was only forty miles island or spit of sand on which the distant by railroad, was next of impor.

fort was built. The marshy character tance to be secured. By the possession of the ground to be passed over in order of Newbern, Beaufort was effectually to reach the place where the batteries cut off from communication by land were to be erected, rendered the work with the interior, and it was even re toilsome as well as tedious; but it ported, soon after the taking of New. proceeded with as much rapidity as hern, that the rebels had burned the was practicable. Three batteries were privateer Nashville, and blown up Fort completed, within 1,200 and 1,400 yards Macon. The story was in advance of of the fort, and were furnished with the facts. The Nashville managed to heavy armament, especially three Par

rott guns, rifled, which kind of ordnance, * It was considered noteworthy, that the day on as we have already noted, proved effec. which Fort Pulaski was surrendered was the same on tive in the very highest degree. which, one year before, the rebels had opened fire upon Port Sumter, and thus inaugurated the great rebellion. | Burnside, on the 23d of April, arrived

Cı. XIII.]

FORT MACON CAPTURED.

153

from Newbern, bringing with him two the enemy the idea that the entire harges fitted up as floating batteries. Burnside expedition was marching upon In addition to these, the gun boat Ellis, Norfolk. The courage and endurance with a 100-pounder, and the vessels of shown by the troops, notwithstanding the blockading fleet, were to take part the intense heat and fatigue, were justly in operations against the fort. Another and highly praised by the commanding demand was made for its surrender, and general. Burnside, in his anxiety to save useless. The blockade of the mouths of the expenditure of force and prevent loss Mississippi (see p. 79), was kept up of life, met Col. White, the rebel com- with vigor and a fair measure of sucmander at the fort, and tried to induce cess, during the autumn and winter of him to yield; but he preferring to try 1861; but the government and the the fortune of war, the bombardment people were by no means content to was begun, very early on Friday morn- maintain a blockade simply. The path. ing, April 24th.

way up the Mississippi must be opened, In an hour or two, the proper range and that mighty river cleared of rebel for the guns was obtained, and the iron obstructions as speedily as possible.* missiles were hurled from the batteries We have narrated the operations which upon the doomed fort. Hour after resulted in capturing Island No. 10 hour this was kept up; and it became(see p. 143). We shall now ask the evident, ere long, that the contest could reader's attention to the energetic meas. not be maintained by the garrison in ures taken to reopen the Mississippi, the fort. Hence, about four o'clock in and by the capturing of New Orleans, the afternoon, a white flag was hoisted, to restore the authority of the Union in and Fort Macon passed again into the the most valuable city which had been hands of the government, from which seized upon by the rebels. it had been unlawfully wrested in the The first important step was the ocprevious year.

cupying of Ship Island. Lying interWhile Parke and his brigade were mediate between Santa Rosa Island engaged in the capture of Fort Macon, and the mouths of the Mississippi, near Reno was sent from Newbern to the the entrance to the interior water comupper waters of the Albemarle Sound, munication with New Orleans by Lake in the rear of Norfolk. Taking a con- | Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain, this siderable force with him, he left on the 17th of April, reached Elizabeth City * Mr. Parton relates an interesting anecdote connecton the 19th, and disembarking, proceed. ed with the fixing upon New Orleans as the place to be

captured above and before all others : “One day (about ed at once against South Mills, or Cam the 10th of January, 1862), toward the close of a long den. After a sharp contest near the

conference between Gen. Butler and the secretary of

war, Mr. Stanton suddenly asked: “Why can't New Or. town, a return to the boats was ordered

| leans be taken? The question thrilled Butler to the late in the evening, Reno having ac marrow, 'It can l'he replied.” Thenceforth, le gave complished the principal object he had leis days and his nights, till he was ordered to march

with the troops against New Orleans.-Parton's " Gen. in view, which was the conveying to | Butler in New Orleans," p. 191.

VOL. IV.-20

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was one of the most valuable stations of February, sailed from Hampton along the coast. It was sixty miles Roads to assume command of the land distant from New Orleans, and about forces intended to operate

1862. the same distance from the northern against New Orleans. At the most pass, at the mouth of the Missis close of March, he had 14,000 men at sippi. The value of this spot, as a de- the island, mostly new recruits. By fensive position, had been appreciated the middle of April, he succeeded in by the gorernment, and a light-house embarking 8,000 troops for the Mis had been erected, and a fort partly sissippi, which were to co-operate with completed, in 1859. The rebels des- the naval force which was there, and troyed these at the outbreak of the in- which was being pushed forward with surrection, in 1861; and although some zeal and energy. efforts were made by them to fortify the Captain D. G. Farragut reached Shin island, yet they abandoned it entirely Island, February 20th, having in charge in September.

the naval operations of the United Early in December, 1861, some 2,000 States in the Gulf of Mexico. Though troops of Butler's recent levies were somewhat advanced in years, Farragut

ed on Ship Island, under coinmand (since rear-admiral, was highly esteem. of Gen. J. W. Phelps. He was an ac. ed in the service, and the pary departtive and spirited officer, and, apparently, ment placed entire reliance upon his having nothing better to do just at the bravery and skill in carrying forward time, he signalized his arrival by issu- the important work with which be was iny a rather remarkable proclamation, entrusted. “There will be attached to addressed “to the loyal citizens of the your squadron," said Secretary Welles, South-west.” It was a straightforward (January 20th,) in his letter of instrucbusiness-like document, advocating, in tions, “a fleet of bomb vessels, and plain terms, “here and every where, armed steamers enough to manage them, and on all occasions, free labor and all under command of Commodore D. workingmen's rights." Its circulation, D. Porter, who will be directed to rehowever, was almost entirely confined port to you.” With this powerful floto the island, and it was admired rather | tilla, Farragut was directed to proceed for its zeal than for the discretion of its to New Orleans, and take it, and then author.

to aid in opening the river above. On the last day of the year 1861, Farragut proceeded to organize his Biloxi, a small town in Mississippi, about squadron at the earliest moment after ten miles from Ship Island, was visited his arrival in the Gulf. Difficulties and hy a part of the squadron and some of delays occurred, especially in getting the troops. It was found that most of the large ships over the bars at the the men here had enlisted in the rebel mouths of the Mississippi; so that it service, leaving the women, etc., at home. was not until the first week in April Other troops arrived at Ship Island in that the large steamers, Mississippi and January, 1862; and Butler, on the 25th Pensacola, were over the bar, and the

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