An Essay on the Principle of Population, Or, A View of Its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness: With an Inquiry Into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal Or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions, 第 1 卷
J. Johnson, 1807
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according age of marriage agriculture appear average births to deaths births to marriages cafe calculations Captain Cook causes CHAP Charlevoix checks to population China consequence considerable considered Cook's crease cultivation degree effect emigration epidemic expofed faid fame famine favage fays foundling hospitals George Staunton greater number habits healthy increase of population infanticide inhabitants labour land Lettres Edif live to marry lower classes means of subsistence misery mortality Muret nations nature nearly neral Nootka Sound Norway number of births number of children number of marriages observed occasioned Pallas parishes perhaps period Petersburgh plague polygamy popu present prevail preventive check principal probably produce proportion of births proportion of marriages provinces pulation reason registers riages Robertson Russia Russian Empire scarcity Scotland Siberia society suppofe Sussmilch Sweden thofe thoufand tion Tobolsk torn towns tribes Vaud whole population women
第 111 頁 - Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.
第 2 頁 - Were the face of the earth, he says, vacant of other plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only, as for instance with fennel; and were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few ages be replenished from one nation only, as for instance...
第 11 頁 - In the next twenty-five years, it is impossible to suppose that the produce could be quadrupled. It would be contrary to all our knowledge of the properties of land.
第 8 頁 - When acre has been added to acre till all the fertile land is occupied, the yearly increase of food must depend upon the melioration of the land already in possession. This is a fund, which, from the nature of all soils, instead of increasing, must be gradually diminishing.
第 17 頁 - ... himself possessed? Does he even feel secure that should he have a large family his utmost exertions can save them from rags and squalid poverty and their consequent degradation in the community? And may he not be reduced to the grating necessity of forfeiting his independence and of being obliged to the sparing hand of Charity for support?
第 6 頁 - In the northern states of America, where the means of subsistence have been more ample, the manners of the people more pure, and the checks to early marriages fewer, than in any of the modern states of Europe, the population has been found to double itself, for above a century and a half successively, in less than twenty-five years.
第 10 頁 - These observations are, in a degree, applicable to all the parts of the earth where the soil is imperfectly cultivated. To exterminate the inhabitants of the greatest part of Asia and Africa is a thought that could not be admitted for a moment. To civilize and direct the industry of the various tribes of Tartars and Negroes would certainly be a work of considerable time, and of variable and uncertain success.
第 575 頁 - In some countries population seems to have been forced; that is, the people have been habituated by degrees to live almost upon the smallest possible quantity of food. There must have been periods in such countries when population increased permanently without an increase in the means of subsistence. China...
第 5 頁 - ... to ascertain what would be the natural increase of population if left to exert itself with perfect freedom; and what might be expected to be the rate of increase in the productions of the earth under the most favourable circumstances of human industry.
第 567 頁 - Of the other great scourge of mankind, famine, it may be observed that it is not in the nature of things that the increase of population should absolutely produce one. This increase though rapid is necessarily gradual; and as the human frame cannot be supported even for a very short time without food, it is evident that no more human beings can grow up than there is provision to maintain.