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Sive enumeratio Plantarum in Territorio
Columbice sponte nascentium;
CATALOGUE OF THE PLANTS, SHRUBS, AND
TREES, WHICH GROW SPONTANEOUSLY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Thrs Catalogue contains only the specimens which I was able to collect in a few excursions through this district, and consequently is far from being complete. The collection, however, has acquired value, from being examined by the celebrated Botanist; Correa de Serra, to whose generous friendship on this, as on other more important occasions, I feel deeply indebted. The establishment of a Botanical Garden in the District of Columbia, besides the pleasure it would afford to those who cultivate this science, could not fail of being highly advan.
tageous to the medical, veterinary, economical, and manufacturing arts. Of this no one can doubt who has perused the works of Marshal', Barton, Michaux", and Castiglioni4, in which the properties and uses of the vegetable productions of the United States are particularly explained.
Arum. Indian Turnip. Virginicum. Vir
ginia. Tawho, or Tawhill of the Indians. The roots of the arum, when roasted or boiled, lose their acrid taste, and afford an agreeable nutriment. The Indians cover them with a layer of earth, on which a large fire is kept up until they are completely roasted. Hogs are very fond of this root.
Achillea. Yarrow, or Milfoil. Species injured, and not determined.
Arbustum Americanum, of which a French translation, by Lezermes, appeared at Paris, in 1788.
3 Collections for a Materia Medica, etc.
3 Histoire des Arbres Forestiers de L'Amerique Septentrionale, 3 vols. in 8vo. 1813, Paris.
4 Osservazioni sui Vegetabili piu utili degli Stati Uniti, in the second volume of the Author's Travels in the United States—Viaggio negli Stati Uniti dell' America Settentrionale, Milan, 1790.
Acer. Maple Tree. Rubrum, L. Scarlet
flowering, red, or swamp-maple. · In a swampy soil, this species rises to the height of forty or fifty feet. The sap contains a certain quantity of sugar, though much less than the sugar-maple tree (acer saccharinum). House furniture is made of the wood, which is often beautifully veined. The bark is employed to dye cloth of a blue colour. This tree, of a middle size and rapid growth, is propagated by slips, and also from the seed, though with more difficulty.
Actoea. Herb Christopher. Racemosa, L.
Rich weed, or black snake root. This plant is employed as a remedy in schirrous humours.
Alnus. Alder. Serrulata, Wild. Com
mon American alder.. This species grows to the height of eight or ten feet, and the largest is from two to three inches in diameter.
Andromeda Androineda. Paniculata. Pa
nicled. This species thrives best in a moist soil, where it rises to the height of five or six feet. The flowers are small, and of a white colour.
Mariana, L. Oval-leaved. This species, with slender hanging branches, is of a slow growth, and it is difficult to propagate it from the seeds.
Asclepias. Swallow Wort. Tuberosa, L.
Pleurisy root, or butterfly weed. --- Hybrida, M. variegated.-Debilis, M. slender. Flowers white. ----Incarnata, L. Fleshcoloured swallow wort. Kalm informs us that the Canadians eat the young shoots of the different species. The silky substance which adheres to the seeds, mixed with cotton or wool, is manufactured into cloth, which is found to be durable. Paper, of a good quality, is made of the substance itself, and it is also employed to stuff pillows. The fibrous part of the stalk serves as a substitute for hemp. Sugar may be extracted from the flowers. The root is a powerful sudorific, and is employed for this purpose by the Blacks, who consider it as a cure for all diseases.
Apocynum. Dog's Bane. Cannabinum. Indian hemp. Small yellowish green flowers.
Among some of the savage tribes the down was formerly employed as a substitute for hemp, and was manufactured into nets and bags by the first colonists of New Jersey.
Aster. · Star Wort. Marilandicus, Pluk.
Maryland. Solidagineus, M. Golden rod.
Arthemis. Chamomile. Arvensis. Wild
chamomile, or May weed.
Azalea. Upright Honeysuckle. Viscosa, L.
Viscous. Swamp pink of Massachusets. · Periclymenoides.
Flowers white, and sweet-scented. Bartsia. Bartsia. Coccinea, L. Virginia,
or scarlet. Yellow flowers, and scarlet-coloured floral leaves. Betula. Birch. Lenta, L. Black.-Lutea.
Yellow.- Rubra. Red. The wood of these different species is employed for various uses.
Bignonia. Trumpet Flower. Radicans, L.
Virginia jessamine. Buddleia. Buddleia. Globosa. Globous,
or round-headed. Brachistemum. Virginicum, L. Virginia
thyme. Small white flowers. Carex. Sedge. Folliculata, L. Follicu
lated. Cassia. Cassia. Chamæcrista, L. Dwarf
cassia, or sensitive pea. Large flowers, with two purple spots at the bottom. This plant is cultivated, by some of the farmers of Vir