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121 ) hedging, etc.” In this publication it is observed, that the best nursery for these plants is a black loam, rich, deep, and rather moist, and twelve inches at least in depth. It is recommended to plant in rows, fourteen inches from each other, and to leave the distance of three inches between each plant. Twentyone yards square will thus contain ten thous sand plants.
The heavy rains and frosts of the American climate destroy ditches, and render what is called “plain hedging” a very useful art. This consists in planting and rearing, in a rich and well-prepared soil, a row of hard thorn, or other similar plants, to form a hedge through which domesticanimals cannot pass. The plants must be protected, during five or six years, by a temporary fence of rails, or wattled brush-wood. To furnish materials for this purpose, our author recommends, when wood is scarce, the culture of chesnut, pine, cedar, mulberry, and the common locust. A post and rail fence will protect successively two or three hedges.
· 138 pages 870.-A. and G. Way, printers, Washington,
To render the hedge impervious to cattle, rails, connected by means of hickory-bark, or other cheap ligature, are placed along the middle of the hedge in the fourth year of growth, when it is cut to the height of about three feet. In the course of two years, the rails are so completely embraced by the new shoots, that it cannot be divided, nor penetrated by a large-sized animal. ..
To prevent hogs from passing underneath, several methods are recommended. When the protecting fence decays, stakes of two feet in length are fixed in the ground between each of the plants, which, when they are two two years old, are cut with a saw an inch and a half from the surface. The thorny shoots are then so multiplied that no opening remains. Stone's are also recommended
for the same purpose, or flat rails with a · mound of earth.
Mr. Maine has not yet tried the cultivation of the holly and the red-cedar', which do not require a rich soil, and seem to be well
ftted for a hedge. Of the former there are ten species in the American territory.
The town of Alexandria, formerly named Belhaven, is pleasantly situated on the Virginia or west side of the river Potómac, at the distance of six miles in a southern direction from Washington city. The streets, like those of Philadelphia, run in straight lines, and intersect each other at right angles. The houses are of a neat construction. Those erected at the expense of the public, are an episcopal church, an academy, court-house, bank, and jail. Alexandria has carried on a considerable commerce with New Orleans, and also with the East and West Indies, and some European ports. The warehouses and wharfs are very commodious. Vessels of five hundred tons lie in the basons. Some have sailed from this port with twelve hundred hogsheads of tobacco on board.
The tonnage of Alexandria, in 1811, Was eieven hundred and fifty-nine, of which its
merchants are the sole proprietors. It has lately increased to about two thousand tons. The goods, wares, and merchandize, of the growth and produce of the United States, during three months, ending the 30th June, 1811, amounted to 833,720 dollars. Of flour there were 72,671 barrels; of corn, 83,752 barrels. The other articles were bread, rice, beans, oats, rye, meal, etc. In this same space of time, 35,610 pounds of flour, with a considerable quantity of corn, rye, and wheat, were exported to different ports of the United States, beyond the capes of Virginia. The whole quantity of flour exported, at the then average price of nine dollars and fifty cents per barrel, amounts to more than a million of dollars. During the three first months of the year 1811, the exports of Alexandria to foreign countries, consisting of goods, wares, and merchandizes, were estimated at 507,988 dollars, of which there were of flour 47,687 barrels, valued at nine dollars per barrel. The other articles were fish, staves, shingles, beef, pork, hams, lard, corn, rye, oats, beans, potatoes, bread, rice, tobacco, maize, candles, soap, gin, rum, etc.
It is said, that the bread formerly shipped
at this port for the use of the English fleet on the West India station, amounted to a hundred thousand dollars per annum.
The principal merchants of this place have failed in consequence of losses abroad, or unfortunate speculations. Those who carry on business at present employ their capitalsin a more cautious manner.
Manufactures are yet in their infancy. Two manufactures of cut nails have been lately established, and several of woollen and other cloths. House rent is cheap, for, except along the basons, it is not more than six per cent, and in some places not half that sum. A house occupied by Bland Lee, Esq. consisting of three stories, is rented at two hundred and fifty dollars; and the fee-simple of house and lot was offered for six thousand dollars. The house itself cost eight thousand.
Two newspapers are published in the town: the “ Alexandria Gazette," a federal paper, which appears daily, at six dollars per annum; and the “ Alexandria Herald,” which commenced in June, 1811, and is issued twice a week at four dollars per annum.