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judgment and the earnest zeal of an unselfish patriotism. The great debate in the Senate of the United States between Mr. Webster and General Hayne in 1830 had gone far beyond the previous discussions which had been confined to the right of nullification. Although this debate was provoked by a resolution inquiring into the expediency of selling the public lands, it ended in a heated discussion of the sovereignty of a State, and the right of the State to resume that sovereignty under the provisions of a "contract" or a "compact." Never before in the history of the country was there so much excitement in political affairs. From Washington city this excitement was transferred to the several States, and more of it possibly reached South Carolina than was brought to any other of the Southern members of the sisterhood. Party lines were drawn with distinctness, and partisan feeling rose to a degree never before known in the history of the State. To use the language of Mr. Calhoun in his address to the people of South Carolina, made through the Pendleton Messenger, July, 1837: "The country is now more divided than in 1824, and then more than in 1816. The majority may have increased, but the opposite sides are beyond dispute more determined and excited than at any other period." Meetings were held in every district, parish and beat in the State, at which the doctrine of nullification was advocated and opposed with all the vehemence incident to such occasions among an excitable people who were appealed to by eloquent and earnest


The Legislature of 1831 authorized the Governor to call a convention of the people to take into consideration their relations to the Federal Union. It was to meet at Columbia in the month of November of the following year, and to it delegates were to be selected by the people of the several districts and parishes of the State. The Union party put


forth its strongest men and best endeavors to secure their election as the delegates to this convention, and were opposed by the representative men of the nullifiers. I can best portray the state of the public mind, and will, at the same time, preserve a valuable historical paper, for the use of which, I am indebted to the Hon. E. M. Seabrook, of Charleston, by inserting here a copy of the proceedings at a "Celebration of the Fifty-fifth Anniversary of American Independence by the Union State Rights party" at Charleston, July 4, 1831.

Celebration of the Fifty-fifth Anniversary of American Independence.

At a meeting of the "Union and State Rights Party," convened at Seyle's Hall, agreeably to notice, the Hon. Daniel E. Huger was called to the chair, and Robert B. Gilchrist, Esq., appointed secretary.

The objects of the meeting having been stated, the chairman, on motion, appointed Messrs. J. L. Petigru, S. H. Dickson, C. J. Steedman, A. S. Willington and Joseph Johnson a committee, who reported the following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

"The Union and State Rights Party, zealously attached to the principles of the Revolution, would celebrate the approaching anniversary of American Independence in the very spirit which animated the illustrious men who fought and bled for American liberty: therefore,

"Resolved, That a committee of arrangements, consisting of thirteen, be appointed by the chair, to adopt such measures as may be necessary to effect the purposes contemplated by this meeting.

"Resolved, That a committee of five, of which the chairman of this meeting shall be one, be appointed by the chair, to request the Hon. William Drayton to deliver an oration on the Fourth of July next.

"Resolved, That twenty-four stewards be appointed by the chair, to aid the committee of arrangements in ordering and conducting such entertainments as may be thought appropriate for the occasion.

"Resolved, That the committee of arrangements be specially instructed to invite the surviving patriots of the Revolution.

"Resolved, That the Hon. James R. Pringle be requested by the committee of arrangements to preside at the dinner."'

The following gentlemen were appointed a committee under the second resolution: Hon. D. E. Huger, B. F. Hunt, Thomas Bennett, Simon Magwood and J. H. Read.

It was then unanimously resolved, that the thanks of this meeting be returned to the chairman for his services on this occasion.

1 In the adoption of these resolutions, the party considered that they were only imitating the example which had been set them by their political opponents.

The following gentlemen were nominated by the chairman as the committee of arrangements and stewards:

Committee of Arrangements—John Stoney, George Warren Cross, Rene Godard, Dr. Francis Y. Porcher, John Strohecker, Dr. James Moultrie, Jr., Dennis Kane, James Adger, Dr. S. Henry Dickson, J. Harleston Read, William Kunhardt, Dr. John Wagner, Edwin P. Starr, C. G. Memminger.

Stewards-Robert Pringle, James H. Smith, L. G. Capers, Randell Hunt, William Patton, Abraham Moise, J. Harleston Rutledge, James Marsh, Jr., Charles Lowndes, John B. Legare, William Newton, E. S. Duryea, Augustus Follin, George Buist, Albert Elfe, Cornelius Burckmyer, Charles R. Carroll, Ogden Hammond, Thomas Corbett, Jr., J. B. Thompson, William C. Hichborn, Juls. Tavel, Daniel Horlbeck, John B. Robertson.


The day having arrived, the dawn of it was ushered in in the usual way, by the firing of cannon, ringing of bells, and the parade of the militia.

At 10 o'clock the party began to collect in the market, between Meeting street and the Bay-this being the place designated by the committee of arrangements for that purpose, in the morning papers. In a short time the vast multitude which had assembled so much exceeded expectation, that it became necessary to call in the assistance of two additional marshals to assist those who had been already selected, and Messrs. Edward M'Cready and Thomas Corbett, Jr., were accordingly added to Messrs. Henry Ravenel, Philip Porcher and Theodore Gaillard. The procession being organized, between 11 and 12 o'clock, moved onward to the First Presbyterian or Scotch Church, at the corner of Meeting and Tradd streets, (which was found too small to admit the numerous assemblage, the galleries having been reserved for the ladies,) where they opened in a double line extending at the same moment over a greater portion of the intermediate distance, and were received by a voluntary on the organ by the venerable and accomplished Professor of Music, Mr. Jacob Eckhard-the whole moving through the lines from the rear.


1. The Twenty-four Stewards, corresponding with the twenty-four States, bearing each a banner of blue silk, with the name of a State inscribed on it, and a suitable device.

2. The Standard of the United States, supported on the right and left by Col. Jacob Sass and Mr. Solomon Legare, two Revolutionary soldiers, both of whom were at the siege of Savannah.


3. Sixty Youths, who having hastily organized themselves, and requested to be admitted into the procession, were received by the marshals.

4. Seventy Ship-Masters and Seamen, with banners on which were inscribed the names of distinguished nautical commanders and naval victories.

5. Union and State Rights Party: The younger in front, the elder in the rear. This was composed of the industrious and independent of all classes, comprising the moral and political energies of the body politic. They were very numerous, exceeding 1,200 souls. They also carried banners on which were inscribed the names of the battles of the Revolution and the last war-Fort Moultrie and Bunker Hill being in front, and others, Northern and Southern, conjointly following in the rear. 6. Committee of Arrangement: Thirteen in number, conformably to the thirteen original States.

7. Foreign Consuls, with their badges and ensignias of office. 8. Distinguished Guests, invited from various parts of the State. 9. The Conscript Fathers of the Revolution: A patriotic band, who by their presence in goodly numbers, and the animation with which they joined in doing homage to the day, reminded us of the blood and treasure it had cost, and the duty imposed to transmit it unsullied to posterity.

10. The Clergy.

11. The Twenty-four Vice-Presidents: Each representing a State of our Federal Union.

12. Gen. Daniel Elliott Huger, Reader of Washington's Farewell Address, sustained by Dr. Wm. Read, first Vice-President of the Day, and Vice-President of the Cincinnati Society of South Carolina.

13. The Hon. James R. Pringle, Intendant of the City, and President of the Day; and the Hon. Wm. Drayton, Orator.

14. The Secretary of the Committee of Arrangements, with the beautiful blue silk standard of the party, inscribed in golden capitals with the words "Union and State Rights, July 4, 1831," and surmounted by a very splendid eagle.

Two Bands of Music, placed at proper distances along the line of the procession.

The whole formed a sublime and imposing spectacle, the moral grandeur of which it would be difficult to give an adequate idea of in words. It was the spontaneous movement of a vast multitude, assembled in the presence of their God, to sacrifice at the altars of their country, and to vow, before Him, their unalterable determination to defend her institutions and her laws against the attacks of all her enemies, whether they exist in her own bosom, or come against her from abroad.


Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Rodgers.



Sung by a Choir, accompanied by the Organ. (Air—“The Star-spangled Banner.")


We will gather, in pride, to the glorious rite,

In the faith of the free, from our sires that descended;

And who shall resist us, when thus we unite.

For the Union they won, and so nobly defended,
To hallow the hour,

When freed from the pow'r

Of Britain, our eagle first taught her to cow'r? We will gather in triumph, in gladness and mirth, And bless our free nation-free'st nation of earth.


With a people unmatched-with a freedom, that now,
Even now, while all Europe is wrapt in commotion,
And the brave bleed or conquer, refusing to bow,
Shines forth like a beacon across the broad ocean-
And with rapture they turn,

Where our altars yet burn,

Their chains are all broken, their tyrants they spurn,
And at the pure altar, and round the glad hearth,
They bless our free nation-free'st nation of earth.


Where else is the temple of freedom-oh, where-
If not in the broad land, our sires have given;
For destiny's self brought our forefathers here,
And here was the chain of the tyrant first riven.
And to conquer or die,

First appealing on high,

They dared, in his might, the fell monster defy; While Europe, astonished looked on at its birth, And bless'd our free nation-free'st nation of earth.


Forget not that time of commotion and toil,

And the glory that sprung from it, cherished forever,
Shall guard our freedom and shall hallow our soil,
And the foot of the tyrant shall trample them never:
For what folly would dare,

When our flag is in air,

And imbued with one spirit, we join in one prayerFor the altar that hears it-for our home-for our hearthGod save our free nation-free'st nation of earth.

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