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it), but rather a theme in which the expressed ideas would normally have just such images as appeared in the corresponding hallucination.
Further evidence confirmative of the first interpretation was obtained by subconscious introspection-the next step in the investigation. The evidence of introspection was to the effect, as we shall see, that the subconscious process was primary and the hallucination secondary; and that the latter was due to the emergence into consciousness of images belonging to and first formed in the subconscious process.
Introspective Evidence from Self-Analysis by
The next step in this study obviously was, as stated in the beginning, to learn what light, if any, the subconscious process itself could throw upon the relation between the images (hallucination) and the writing consciousness; and for this purpose to obtain a self-analysis based on introspection by the subconscious process that wrote the script. Such an introspection would be similar in every way to the conscious method commonly employed in psychological laboratory investigations. It would make use of retrospective memories of the content of the subconsciousness. Its value as evidence would depend like all introspection on the accuracy and completeness of subconscious introspection.
The technique in the present investigation consisted in presenting a carefully worded questionnaire to be answered by automatic script and followed often by a rigid cross-examination of the replies, care being taken to suggest no leads or theories.
Accordingly after each of the first four observations the subject was submitted to such an examination. The content of the subconscious process, whether or not it contained images and thoughts and, if so, whether or not such images were in any way related to those of the hallucination, or to the subconscious thoughts (if there were any) producing the script, of course could not be known to the personal consciousness, nor were the answers known until after the interrogation was finished. The self-analysis, introspection and replies were, therefore, necessarily subconscious.
(Observation I: Harvard University.)
The replies of the script following Observation I1 (the scene at "Harvard University") are striking in that, without any suggestion of
1 As here arranged the observations are not in the sequence in which they were actually made. This observation was the third following the "Treasure Chest" (No. 3).
any theory whatever on my part, or indication of any mechanism by which the hallucination might be formed, the script clearly and explicitly described the origin of the pictures or images in the subconscious process and their later emergence into consciousness as the hallucination. The only possible suggestion was in the question whether or not the pictures were in the subconscious mind 'also' as well as in the personal consciousness, as surely might well be the case, whatever the mechanism. For subconsciously there is awareness for all that which is in the personal attention. The question only related to a possible memory of a possible past experienced fact, not to an opinion or general idea, or other thought. The affirmative answer can scarcely be questioned in view of the fact that subconscious images are not a novel phenomenon, as I have recorded them in at least three other cases; and, secondly, in this case they were repeatedly described to me long before I undertook this investigation, and were then as well as in these observations, recorded under all sorts of conditions and relations and their behaviour correspondingly described, etc. They occurred, so it was testified, spontaneously as well as experimentally. Furthermore these images had been already described in two preceding observations. Specifically, the statements of the script in this observation were as follows.
"The thought" arises subconsciously first, "then the pictures [images] are completely formed" and "all is visualized" subconsciously. “I visualize,” the script states, "subconsciously the scene I am writing about just as I do consciously." [The significance of this sentence is that the subject visualized subconsciously one scene while consciously during the experiment the content of her thought was of a different order (the scene of the room, the experimenter, etc.). Hence the eruption of the former was an hallucination.] The images "are in the subconscious mind while writing and then they are shifted into the conscious until they become visions." "When set, so to speak, they are reflected into the conscious mind." "It takes some time [a few seconds] for them to come into the conscious mind.”
(Observation II: The Spanish Fantasy.)
A source of confusion and error in drawing conclusions lies in the fact that sometimes the script is written by a subconscious system (e.g. Juliana) differentiated from that from which the images are derived. Speaking figuratively there may be two or more 'layers' or 'strata' of subconscious systems underlying one another. The system that does the writing may then derive its images and thoughts from a deeper and
more comprehensive underlying layer or system out of which the writing system has become crystallized as a differentiated system. In such a case the images emerge into this differentiated system from the deeper system and therefore the former does not know their origin but simply describes their content or the thoughts which they picture and which accompany them. Where all comes from it does not know. This is analogous to conscious imagery and thought. I have observed many examples of this kind of phenomenon. The consequence is that when the special script-producing system is interrogated the replies are inadequate and indefinite for lack of precise knowledge. Unless this is borne in mind confusion may result. This was the case in Observation No. II. Practically all the precise information that could be given was that the "visions" originated in "a deeper source of thought" and first appeared subconsciously to the writing system. Then, secondly, the writing of the ideas represented by the images caused the images to emerge into consciousness as hallucinations. But however this may have been the essential point is that the images first appeared subconsciously and then erupted into consciousness as the hallucination.
This observation was the first made and only a preliminary one to determine whether any positive results were likely to be obtained, and, if so, what was the best method of experimentation. Hence it was rather superficial. The chief points brought out by the subconscious analysis
"The 'pictures' seem to form from what has been written but the personal consciousness is not aware of it."
"The visions originate in the deeper source of thought and then the writing of them causes the visions to conjure up in the mind of the consciousness that is describing [orally] the visions"; i.e. the "personal consciousness."
"The deeper source of thought, which writes, has while writing the ideas contained in the pictures; so much so that that is where the mystery lies."
I am impelled here to insist again, as I have frequently done, that there is no the subconscious or the unconscious. In the structure of the mind there are greater and lesser systems of potential and dynamic processes which may be motivated by the urge of one or more 'dispositions.' These systems play and interplay with one another; and any one or more without entering the awareness of the personal attention may function 'subconsciously.' The concept of an unconscious, of which we read much nowadays, limited to primitive instinctive processes, is
based on inadequate knowledge of subconscious phenomena and is therefore scientifically amateurish. Such concepts belong to philosophy and are bound to go the way of all systems of philosophy after having served their usefulness, even as do scientific theories based on incomplete knowledge.
(Observation III: The Treasure Chest.)
The pictures (images) were first formed in the part of the mind that was answering the questionnaire; "the part that wrote the lines had the pictures and they became visible to the one sitting at your side [the subject]." The process was claimed to be as follows: The thoughts expressed in the versification came subconsciously on the way to keep her appointment. These thoughts were put into verse later, only, during the experiment and while writing, but the images were there before the composition was arranged and the "poetry came from the images1." "The thoughts were there first; then when they were grouped together to form the poetry the visions appeared [to the consciousness of the subject] during the process of the writing"; i.e. while writing the script the images erupted into consciousness as the hallucinations. "It took a few seconds for the images to become realistic to the conscious mind." The order was:
1. Subconscious thoughts.
2. Subconscious images.
3. Subconscious verse.
4. Emergence of the images as hallucinations.
As to why the visions had more details than were described in the script, it was explained that there were subconscious thoughts of all the details of the fountain, but "you cannot write all the details as a vision can be described." In other observations substantially the same explanation was given. Thus, in Observation VI it was stated that "there is a subconscious process that can create visions quicker than the process of writing." This is emphasized by the fact that some visions are "mostly a memory," as was stated to be the case in one of the hallucinations of that observation. Then again (Observation IV) some hallucinations are recurrences or repetitions of subconsciously visualized scenes which have
1 The whole process was quite complex, according to the explanation given. Although the thoughts and images of the verse were in the subconscious system that wrote the script of this observation (III), they did not originate there but in a 'deeper' and more comprehensive subconscious system which was answering the questionnaire. From this 'stratum' they invaded the system that was the author of the script and then the images erupted into consciousness as the hallucinations. This was the same order of affairs as occurred in the preceding observation (II). This same phenomenon, in kind, I had observed under other circumstances and in different forms.
been already constructed subconsciously in all their details and are later revived and flashed as a whole before the mind.
As to what suggested, i.e. motivated the thoughts of the verse, it was explained, "I am not self-centred but I do know I have a certain amount of talent, and I suppose it was because that thought or thoughts were uppermost in my mind."
(Observation IV: A Memory of Illness.)
In reply to the question, "What work was being done subconsciously during the hallucinations from which the drawings were made?" the script asserted:
"The subconscious mind of both Susie and Juliana was at work projecting into the conscious mind the visions of Juliana and the palace, and a great desire to have reproduced the vision in the deepest part of the mind [so that it could be drawn]. Yes, there were images that formed the people—all things were images." "The subconscious mind thought it all out, it creates the images; then constant thought pushes them into the conscious mind."
B. ARTIFICIALLY INDUCED VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS.
A series of observations were now carried out of a character converse to the preceding. Instead of producing primarily subconscious script with secondarily resulting correlated images (hallucinations), artificial hallucinations were experimentally produced and the script employed to describe what if any subconscious 'thoughts' occurred during the hallucinations. The method employed was that of fixing the attention by means of a crystal. No directions were given as to what would be seen in the crystal. That was left to chance.
Observation VI. This series of three hallucinations is particularly instructive in that it shows the subconscious connection between hallucinations which apparently, as in dreams, have no obvious continuity by themselves. In the thoughts subconsciously written the connection is clearly shown especially in A and B of Hallucination 2, which I have consequently grouped together as one. The vision of her mother in a distant city suddenly without time interval shifts to a scene in Boston. The script enables the meaning of the shift to be understood. Subconsciously as the script explains, she wishes she could go home and see her mother once more sitting in the chair as she had often seen her and then after she has fulfilled this filial wish and obligation return to Boston